Great Britain in the Seven Years' War

Great Britain in the Seven Years WarAnnus Mirabilis of 1759Annus MirabilisSeven Years' WarBritain's victory in the Seven Years' WarBritain's involvement in the Seven Years WarBritain's victory in the warSeven Years Warvictory in the Seven Years' War1759
Great Britain was one of the major participants in the Seven Years' War which lasted between 1754 and 1763, although warfare in the European Theatre involving countries other than Britain and France only commenced in 1756 (hence the name "Seven Years' War").wikipedia
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Pitt–Newcastle ministry

Pitt–Newcastlegovernmenta government
After a period of political instability, the rise of a government headed by the Duke of Newcastle and William Pitt the elder provided Britain with firmer leadership, enabling it to consolidate and achieve its war aims.
The ministry was very successful leading Britain to many victories in the war, particularly in the so-called Annus Mirabilis of 1759, which put the country in an immensely strong position by 1761.

British America

English AmericaAmerican coloniesAmerica
It also directed the military strategy of its various colonies around the world including British America.
British America gained large amounts of new territory following the Treaty of Paris (1763) which ended the French and Indian War in America, and ended British involvement in the Seven Years' War in Europe.

Menorca

MinorcaMinorcanManûrqa
The war started poorly for Britain, which suffered many deaths from the plague and scurvy, and at the hands of France in North America during 1754–55; and in the loss of Menorca in 1756.
The 1763 Treaty of Paris enabled the British to return to the island after Britain's victory in the Seven Years' War.

Kingdom of Great Britain

Great BritainBritishBritain
Britain emerged from the war as the world's leading colonial power, having gained a number of new territories at the Treaty of Paris in 1763 and established itself as the world's pre-eminent naval power.
The Seven Years' War, which began in 1756, was the first war waged on a global scale and saw British involvement in Europe, India, North America, the Caribbean, the Philippines, and coastal Africa.

Seven Years' War

Seven Years’ WarSeven Years WarThe Seven Years' War
Great Britain was one of the major participants in the Seven Years' War which lasted between 1754 and 1763, although warfare in the European Theatre involving countries other than Britain and France only commenced in 1756 (hence the name "Seven Years' War").
All of Britain's campaigns against New France succeeded in 1759, part of what became known as an Annus Mirabilis.

Treaty of Paris (1763)

Treaty of Paris1763 Treaty of ParisTreaty of Paris of 1763
Britain emerged from the war as the world's leading colonial power, having gained a number of new territories at the Treaty of Paris in 1763 and established itself as the world's pre-eminent naval power.

Anglo-Prussian alliance (1756)

Anglo-Prussian AllianceTreaty of WestminsterTreaty of Westminster (1756)
The same year Britain's major ally Austria switched sides and aligned itself with France; and Britain was hastily forced to conclude a new alliance with Frederick the Great's Prussia.

Edward Braddock

General BraddockGeneral Edward BraddockBraddock
The government in Britain, realising that the existing forces of America were insufficient, drew up a plan to dispatch two battalions of Irish regular troops under General Edward Braddock and intended to massively increase the number of Provincial American forces.
* Great Britain in the Seven Years War

Battle of Quiberon Bay

Quiberon BayQuiberonQuiberon 1759
Following naval defeats at the Battle of Quiberon Bay and Battle of Lagos, and with news of the Allied victory at Minden, the French began to have second thoughts about their plan, and in late autumn cancelled it.
The battle signalled the rise of the Royal Navy in becoming the world's foremost naval power, and, for the British, was part of the Annus Mirabilis of 1759.

European balance of power

Great Powersbalance of power in EuropeEuropean power
Alarmed by the sudden switch in the European balance of power the British made a similar agreement with Prussia at the Westminster Convention.
Following Britain's success in the Seven Years' War during which it was allied with Prussia, many of the other powers began to see Great Britain as a greater threat than France.

James Wolfe

General WolfeWolfeGeneral James Wolfe
One of the figures who benefited most from the campaign was a young British brigadier, James Wolfe, who so impressed Pitt that he was promoted and given command of future expeditions in Canada.
Wolfe's part in the taking of Quebec in 1759 earned him lasting fame, and he became an icon of Britain's victory in the Seven Years' War and subsequent territorial expansion.

Fort Duquesne

DuquesneFort Du QuesneFort Duquense
In 1754 the Province of Virginia sent the Virginia Regiment led by George Washington to the area to assist in the construction of a British fort at present-day Pittsburgh, but the larger French force had driven away a smaller British advance party and built Fort Duquesne.

Anglo-Austrian Alliance

alliance with Austriaalliance with Britainan alliance
Newcastle fervently believed that peace in Europe was possible so long as the "Old System" and the alliance with Austria prevailed and devoted much of his efforts to the continuance of this.

Virginia Regiment

Virginia Provincial Regiment
In 1754 the Province of Virginia sent the Virginia Regiment led by George Washington to the area to assist in the construction of a British fort at present-day Pittsburgh, but the larger French force had driven away a smaller British advance party and built Fort Duquesne.
* Great Britain in the Seven Years War

Louisiana (New France)

LouisianaFrench LouisianaLa Louisiane
While a modest French presence remained in Illinois and Louisiana the fighting served to end any significant French military threats in North America for good.
As a result of its defeat in the Seven Years' War, France was forced to cede the east part of the territory in 1763 to the victorious British, and the west part to Spain as compensation for Spain losing Florida.

Heart of Oak

Hearts of Oak
Several of the triumphs assumed an iconic place in the mindset of the British public, reinforced by representations in art and music, such as the popular song Heart of Oak and the later painting The Death of General Wolfe.
The "wonderful year" referenced in the first verse was the Annus Mirabilis of 1759, during which British forces were victorious in several significant battles: the Battle of Minden on 1 August 1759; the Battle of Lagos on 19 August 1759; the Battle of the Plains of Abraham (outside Quebec City) on 13 September 1759; and the Battle of Quiberon Bay on 20 November 1759.

Siege of Louisbourg (1758)

Siege of LouisbourgLouisbourgLouisburg
The following year, in part because of having expelled many Acadians, the Siege of Louisbourg (1758) succeeded, clearing the way for an advance on Quebec.

Siege of Fort St Philip (1756)

Siege of Fort St PhilipFall of Minorcacaptured Minorca
However, once he arrived in the Mediterranean Byng found a sizable French fleet and a 15,000-strong army besieging the fortress.
* Great Britain in the Seven Years' War

Battle of the Plains of Abraham

Siege of QuebecBattle of QuebecQuebec
The following day the Battle of the Plains of Abraham took place.
The decisive success of the British forces and the subsequent capture of Quebec was part of what became known as the "Annus Mirabilis" in Great Britain.

Expulsion of the Acadians

Great UpheavalGreat ExpulsionAcadian Expulsion
After the battle the British began the Great Expulsion called the Bay of Fundy Campaign (1755) by the British, with the intent of preventing Acadian support of the French supply lines to Louisbourg.

Battle of Ticonderoga (1759)

Battle of TiconderogaFort CarillonTiconderoga
The British were further cheered by the news that Amherst had taken Fort Carillon (after which it was renamed Fort Ticonderoga, as it is known today) and a second expedition had captured Fort Niagara.
The capture of the fort, which had previously repulsed a large British army a year earlier, contributed to what the British called the "Annus Mirabilis" of 1759.

Battle of Wilhelmsthal

WilhelmsthalWilhelmstahlWilhelmstal
The Anglo-German army again turned back a French advance on Hanover at Wilhelmsthal, the army helped repulse a Franco-Spanish invasion of Portugal, captured Martinique from France, and captured Havana and Manila from Spain.

George II of Great Britain

George IIKing George IIKing George II of Great Britain
Some supporters of George II were strong advocates of support for Prussia, as they saw it would be impossible to defend his realm of Hanover if they were to be defeated.
In the annus mirabilis of 1759 British forces captured Quebec and Guadeloupe.

John Burgoyne

BurgoyneGeneral BurgoyneGeneral John Burgoyne
A British-Portuguese counter-attack led by John Burgoyne captured the Spanish town Valencia de Alcántara.
He first saw action during the Seven Years' War when he participated in several battles, most notably during the Portugal Campaign of 1762.

John Byng

Admiral ByngAdmiral John ByngByng
A relief expedition was dispatched under Admiral John Byng to save it.
* Great Britain in the Seven Years' War