Great French Wine Blight

phylloxera epidemicdevastatingPhylloxerawine blight Phylloxera'' blight1850s grape blightbattlecrisisdevastated vineyardsdevastation of France's vineyards
The Great French Wine Blight was a severe blight of the mid-19th century that destroyed many of the vineyards in France and laid waste the wine industry.wikipedia
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Vineyard

vineyardswine estatevineries
The Great French Wine Blight was a severe blight of the mid-19th century that destroyed many of the vineyards in France and laid waste the wine industry.
However, in the late 19th century, the entire species was nearly destroyed by the plant louse phylloxera accidentally introduced to Europe from North America.

Aphid

aphidsAphidoideaplant lice
It was caused by an aphid (the actual genus of the aphid is still debated, although it is largely considered to have been a species of Daktulosphaira vitifoliae, commonly known as grape phylloxera) that originated in North America and was carried across the Atlantic in the late 1850s.
Phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae) are insects which caused the Great French Wine Blight that devastated European viticulture in the 19th century.

Leo Laliman

Eventually, following Jules-Émile Planchon's discovery of the Phylloxera as the cause of the blight, and Charles Valentine Riley's confirmation of Planchon's theory, Leo Laliman and Gaston Bazille, two French wine growers, proposed that the European vines be grafted to the resistant American rootstock that were not susceptible to the Phylloxera.
The blight, termed the Great French Wine Blight, was a severe blight of the mid-19th century that resulted in the destruction of over 4 million vineyards and 40% of all the grape vines in France, and that subsequently laid waste to the wine industry there.

Assyrtiko

There is only one European grape vine known to be resistant to the Phylloxera, the Assyrtiko vine, which grows on the volcanic Greek island of Santorini; however there is speculation that the actual source of this resistance may arise from the volcanic ash in which the vines grow, and not from the vine itself.
As the only European grape vine known to be resistant to wine blight, there is speculation that the actual source of this resistance may arise from the volcanic ash in which the vines grow, and not from the vine itself.

Phylloxera

Phylloxera vastatrixgrape phylloxeraphylloxera plague
It was caused by an aphid (the actual genus of the aphid is still debated, although it is largely considered to have been a species of Daktulosphaira vitifoliae, commonly known as grape phylloxera) that originated in North America and was carried across the Atlantic in the late 1850s.
In the late 19th century the phylloxera epidemic destroyed most of the vineyards for wine grapes in Europe, most notably in France.

Santorini

TheraThiraSantorini Island
There is only one European grape vine known to be resistant to the Phylloxera, the Assyrtiko vine, which grows on the volcanic Greek island of Santorini; however there is speculation that the actual source of this resistance may arise from the volcanic ash in which the vines grow, and not from the vine itself.
The vines are extremely old and resistant to phylloxera (attributed by local winemakers to the well-drained volcanic soil and its chemistry), so the vines needed no replacement during the great phylloxera epidemic of the late 19th century.

Blight

leaf blightbacterial blightBacterial blights
The Great French Wine Blight was a severe blight of the mid-19th century that destroyed many of the vineyards in France and laid waste the wine industry.

Languedoc

southern FranceBas-LanguedocLanguedoc, France
While the Phylloxera was thought to have arrived around 1858, it was first recorded in France in 1863, near the former province of Languedoc. The first known documented instance of an attack by the Phylloxera in France was in the village of Pujaut in the department of Gard of the former province of Languedoc, in 1863.

Jules Émile Planchon

Planch.PlanchonPlanch
Eventually, following Jules-Émile Planchon's discovery of the Phylloxera as the cause of the blight, and Charles Valentine Riley's confirmation of Planchon's theory, Leo Laliman and Gaston Bazille, two French wine growers, proposed that the European vines be grafted to the resistant American rootstock that were not susceptible to the Phylloxera. Jules-Emile Planchon, a French biologist, who identified the Phylloxera in the 1860s, maintained that this transfer of American vines and plants into Europe greatly increased between roughly 1858 and 1862, and this is how the Phylloxera was accidentally introduced to Europe around 1860, although the aphid did not enter France until around 1863.

Charles Valentine Riley

RileyC. V. RileyCharles V. Riley
Eventually, following Jules-Émile Planchon's discovery of the Phylloxera as the cause of the blight, and Charles Valentine Riley's confirmation of Planchon's theory, Leo Laliman and Gaston Bazille, two French wine growers, proposed that the European vines be grafted to the resistant American rootstock that were not susceptible to the Phylloxera.

Grafting

graftedsciongraft
Eventually, following Jules-Émile Planchon's discovery of the Phylloxera as the cause of the blight, and Charles Valentine Riley's confirmation of Planchon's theory, Leo Laliman and Gaston Bazille, two French wine growers, proposed that the European vines be grafted to the resistant American rootstock that were not susceptible to the Phylloxera.

Absinthe

absinthGreen Fairyabsynthe
The blight also allowed Absinthe to gain even more popularity as consumers switched over due to rising wine prices and low availability.

Vitis vinifera

viniferagrapeV. vinifera
The aphid that was the central source of the damage in France was first noted following the growing of the European vine Vitis vinifera by French colonists in Florida, in the 16th century.

Proboscis

proboscesproboscidesTrunk
The proboscis of the grape phylloxera has both a venom canal from which it injects its deadly venom and a feeding tube through which it takes in vine sap and nutrients.

Sap

plant saptree sapxylem sap
The proboscis of the grape phylloxera has both a venom canal from which it injects its deadly venom and a feeding tube through which it takes in vine sap and nutrients.

Toxin

toxinstoxicbiotoxin
As the toxin from the venom corrodes the root structure of a vine, the sap pressure falls and, as a result, the Phylloxera quickly withdraws its feeding tube and searches for another source of food.

Root

adventitious rootsrootsroot system
As the toxin from the venom corrodes the root structure of a vine, the sap pressure falls and, as a result, the Phylloxera quickly withdraws its feeding tube and searches for another source of food.

Biologist

biologistsScientistbiological scientist
Jules-Emile Planchon, a French biologist, who identified the Phylloxera in the 1860s, maintained that this transfer of American vines and plants into Europe greatly increased between roughly 1858 and 1862, and this is how the Phylloxera was accidentally introduced to Europe around 1860, although the aphid did not enter France until around 1863.

Pujaut

The first known documented instance of an attack by the Phylloxera in France was in the village of Pujaut in the department of Gard of the former province of Languedoc, in 1863.

Gard

30Gard departmentPays Gardois
The first known documented instance of an attack by the Phylloxera in France was in the village of Pujaut in the department of Gard of the former province of Languedoc, in 1863.

Algiers

Algiers, AlgeriaAlgerAlgerine
There was also a noticeable trend of migration to, among other places, Algiers and America.

Raisin

raisinssultanasgolden raisin
The production of cheap raisins and sugar wines caused problems for the domestic industry that threatened to persist even after the blight itself.

Franc

francsBelgian francs
The damage to the French economy is estimated to have been slightly over 10 billion Francs.