Great Hanshin earthquake

Kobe earthquake1995 Kobe earthquakeGreat Hanshin-Awaji earthquake1995 Great Hanshin earthquake1995 earthquakeGreat Hanshin–Awaji earthquakeHanshin earthquake1995 Hanshin earthquake1995 Kobe1995 Kobe quake
The Great Hanshin earthquake, or Kobe earthquake, occurred on January 17, 1995 at 05:46:53 JST (January 16 at 20:46:53 UTC) in the southern part of Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan, including the region known as Hanshin.wikipedia
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Hyōgo Prefecture

HyōgoHyogoHyogo Prefecture
The Great Hanshin earthquake, or Kobe earthquake, occurred on January 17, 1995 at 05:46:53 JST (January 16 at 20:46:53 UTC) in the southern part of Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan, including the region known as Hanshin.
Southern Hyōgo Prefecture was severely devastated by the 6.9 Mw Great Hanshin earthquake of 1995, which destroyed major parts of Kobe and Awaji, as well as Takarazuka and neighboring Osaka Prefecture, killing nearly 6,500 people.

Kobe

Kobe, JapanKōbeKobe, Hyogo
The focus of the earthquake was located 17 km beneath its epicenter, on the northern end of Awaji Island, 20 km away from the center of the city of Kobe. An on-the spot investigation by JMA concluded that tremors by this earthquake were at seismic intensity of Level 7 in particular areas in northern Awaji Island (now Awaji City) and in the cities of Kobe, Ashiya, Nishinomiya and Takarazuka.
While the 1995 Great Hanshin earthquake diminished much of Kobe's prominence as a port city, it remains Japan's fourth-busiest container port.

Nojima Fault

It spread toward the southwest along the Nojima Fault on Awaji and toward the northeast along the Suma and Suwayama faults, which run through the center of Kobe.
Nojima Fault is a fault that is responsible for the Great Hanshin earthquake.

Takarazuka, Hyōgo

TakarazukaTakarazuka, HyogoTakarazuka City
An on-the spot investigation by JMA concluded that tremors by this earthquake were at seismic intensity of Level 7 in particular areas in northern Awaji Island (now Awaji City) and in the cities of Kobe, Ashiya, Nishinomiya and Takarazuka.

Ashiya, Hyōgo

AshiyaAshiya, HyogoAshiya, Japan
An on-the spot investigation by JMA concluded that tremors by this earthquake were at seismic intensity of Level 7 in particular areas in northern Awaji Island (now Awaji City) and in the cities of Kobe, Ashiya, Nishinomiya and Takarazuka.
Kitamura was mayor when Ashiya suffered major damage during the Kobe earthquake on January 17, 1995.

Nishinomiya

Nishinomiya, HyōgoNishinomiya, HyogoNishinomiya, Japan
An on-the spot investigation by JMA concluded that tremors by this earthquake were at seismic intensity of Level 7 in particular areas in northern Awaji Island (now Awaji City) and in the cities of Kobe, Ashiya, Nishinomiya and Takarazuka.

Awaji Island

AwajiAwajishimaAwaji Island, Japan.
The focus of the earthquake was located 17 km beneath its epicenter, on the northern end of Awaji Island, 20 km away from the center of the city of Kobe.
The Nojima Fault, responsible for the 1995 Great Hanshin earthquake, cuts across the island.

Japan Meteorological Agency seismic intensity scale

ShindoJMA scaleseismic intensity
It measured 6.9 on the moment magnitude scale and had a maximum intensity of 7 on the JMA Seismic Intensity Scale.
Following the Great Hanshin Earthquake of 1995, the first quake to generate shaking of the scale's strongest intensity (7), intensities 5 and 6 were each redefined into two new levels, reconfiguring the scale into one of 10 increments: 0–4, lower/upper 5 (5弱/5強, "weak/strong" 5), lower/upper 6 (6弱/6強 "weak/strong" 6), and 7.

Awaji, Hyōgo

AwajiAwaji, HyogoAwaji City
An on-the spot investigation by JMA concluded that tremors by this earthquake were at seismic intensity of Level 7 in particular areas in northern Awaji Island (now Awaji City) and in the cities of Kobe, Ashiya, Nishinomiya and Takarazuka.
Notable local places to visit are Awaji Yumebutai (Kiseki No Hoshi Greenhouse), Nojima Fault (the focus of the Great Hanshin earthquake), Akashi Kaikyo National Government Park, Honpuku-ji Temple and Awaji World Park Onokoro.

Hanshin

Hanshin region
The Great Hanshin earthquake, or Kobe earthquake, occurred on January 17, 1995 at 05:46:53 JST (January 16 at 20:46:53 UTC) in the southern part of Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan, including the region known as Hanshin.

Hanshin Expressway

Hanshin Expressway Kita-Kobe RouteHanshin Expressway Kobe RouteHanshin Expressway Public Corporation
The damage to highways and subways was the most graphic image of the earthquake, and images of the collapsed elevated Hanshin Expressway made front pages of newspapers worldwide.
Portions of the Hanshin Expressway (around 400m east of Fukae Station) collapsed during the Kobe earthquake on January 17, 1995.

Meishin Expressway

MeishinE1 Meishin Expressway
The Meishin Expressway was only lightly damaged, but was closed during the day until February 17, 1995 so that emergency vehicles could easily access the hardest-hit areas to the west.
During the Great Hanshin earthquake of January 17, 1995, the Meishin Expressway was lightly damaged but could only be used by emergency vehicles for weeks after the earthquake.

Grandfather clause

grandfatheredgrandfatheringgrandfather clauses
However, the steel-reinforcement specifications in the 1960s regulations had already been discovered to be inadequate and revised several times, the latest revision being in 1981, which proved effective but only applied to new structures.

Soil liquefaction

liquefactionliquefyliquefied
Artificial islands, such as the modern Rokkō Island and especially Port Island in Kobe, suffered severe subsidence due to liquefaction of the soil; water breaking through the surface and flooding those islands was initially believed to have seeped in from the sea, but in fact rose from the liquefied remains of once-solid soils used to construct the islands.
It was a major factor in the destruction in San Francisco's Marina District during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, and in Port of Kobe during the 1995 Great Hanshin earthquake.

List of earthquakes in 1995

The Great Hanshin earthquake, or Kobe earthquake, occurred on Tuesday, January 17, 1995 at 05:46 JST (January 16 at 20:46 UTC) in the southern part of Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan.

2004 Chūetsu earthquake

Chūetsu earthquake2004 Chuetsu EarthquakeEarthquakes
The national government changed its disaster response policies in the wake of the earthquake, and its response to the 2004 Chūetsu earthquake was significantly faster and more effective.
For comparison, the Great Hanshin earthquake, which devastated much of Kobe, measured 7 on the shindo scale, with a magnitude of 7.3.

Kansai International Airport

Kansai AirportOsaka-KansaiOsaka
However, the newly completed artificial island supporting Kansai International Airport was not significantly affected, due to being further away from the epicenter and because it was built to the latest standards.
On 17 January 1995, Japan was struck by the Kobe earthquake, the epicenter of which was about away from KIX and killed 6,434 people on Japan's main island of Honshū.

Nick Leeson

Leeson, N.Nicholas Leeson
This financial damage was the immediate cause for the collapse of Barings Bank due to the actions of Nick Leeson, who had speculated vast amounts of money on Japanese and Singaporean derivatives.
However, the Kobe earthquake hit early in the morning on 17 January, sending Asian markets, and Leeson's trading positions, into a tailspin.

Kobe Luminarie

Kobe Lights architectureLuminarie
The Kobe Luminarie is an event held for approximately two weeks every December.
Kobe Luminarie is a light festival held in Kobe, Japan, every December since 1995 to commemorate the Great Hanshin earthquake of that year.

Natural disasters in Japan

natural disasters
Some other major disasters in Japan were more recent, such as the January 1995 Great Hanshin earthquake and the March 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, which triggered the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.

Akashi Kaikyō Bridge

Akashi-Kaikyo BridgeAkashi Kaikyo BridgeAkashi-Kaikyō Bridge
The Akashi Kaikyō Bridge, under construction near the earthquake's epicenter, was not damaged but was reportedly lengthened by a full meter due to horizontal displacement along the activated tectonic fault.
The two towers were originally 1990 m apart, but the Great Hanshin earthquake on January 17, 1995, moved the towers so much (only the towers had been erected at the time) that the span had to be increased by 1 m.

Yakuza

BoryokudanOyabunJapanese mafia
Even the Yamaguchi-gumi yakuza syndicate was involved in distributing food and supplies to needy victims.
For example, immediately after the Kobe earthquake, the Yamaguchi-gumi, whose headquarters are in Kobe, mobilized itself to provide disaster relief services (including the use of a helicopter), and this was widely reported by the media as a contrast to the much slower response by the Japanese government.

Kobe Municipal Subway

KobeKobe Subway
The Kobe Municipal Subway resumed operation the day after the earthquake with limited service between and stations (along with the Hokushin Kyuko Electric Railway between and ); service resumed across the entire line on February 16, 1995, with full service resuming a month later after repairs were completed.
On January 17, 1995, the Seishin-Yamate Line was damaged in the Great Hanshin earthquake.