Great Leap Forward

The Great Leap ForwardcommunefamineBig Leap Forwardcentralization of the economyChinese purgescommunesdesperate economic conditionsGreat Leap Backwardsheady propaganda
The Great Leap Forward of the People's Republic of China (PRC) was an economic and social campaign by the Communist Party of China (CPC) from 1958 to 1962.wikipedia
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Mao Zedong

MaoMao Tse-tungChairman Mao
The campaign was led by Chairman Mao Zedong and aimed to rapidly transform the country from an agrarian economy into a socialist society through rapid industrialization and collectivization.
On the other hand, in 1957, Mao launched the Anti-Rightist Campaign, which persecuted at least 550,000 people, most of whom are intellectuals and dissidents, and in 1958 he launched the Great Leap Forward that aimed to rapidly transform China's economy from agrarian to industrial.

Great Chinese Famine

Great FaminefamineThe Great Chinese Famine
A significant result was a drastic decline in food output, which caused tens of millions of deaths in the Great Chinese Famine.
The policies of ruler Mao Zedong contributed to the famine.

Cultural Revolution

Chinese Cultural RevolutionGreat Proletarian Cultural RevolutionCulture Revolution
Moderates like President Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping rose to power in the Party, and Chairman Mao was marginalized within the party, leading him to initiate the Cultural Revolution in 1966 in order to re-consolidate his power.
The Revolution marked Mao's return to a position of power after a period of less radical leadership to recover from the failures of the Great Leap Forward, whose policies led to famine and approximately 30 million deaths only five years earlier.

Deng Xiaoping

DengDeng Xiao PingChairman Deng
Moderates like President Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping rose to power in the Party, and Chairman Mao was marginalized within the party, leading him to initiate the Cultural Revolution in 1966 in order to re-consolidate his power.
As the party's Secretary-general in the 1950s, Deng presided over the Anti-Rightist Campaign launched by Mao and became instrumental in China's economic reconstruction following the Great Leap Forward (1958-1960).

China

People's Republic of ChinaChineseCHN
The Great Leap Forward of the People's Republic of China (PRC) was an economic and social campaign by the Communist Party of China (CPC) from 1958 to 1962.
However, the Great Leap Forward, an idealistic massive reform project, resulted in an estimated 15 to 35 million deaths between 1958 and 1961, mostly from starvation.

Backyard furnace

backyard steel furnacesproduce steel
With no personal knowledge of metallurgy, Mao encouraged the establishment of small backyard steel furnaces in every commune and in each urban neighborhood.
In China, backyard furnaces were small blast furnaces used by the people of China during the Great Leap Forward (1958–62).

Hukou

Hukou systemhousehold registrationHukou permit
The old system of internal passports (the hukou) was introduced in 1956, preventing inter-county travel without appropriate authorization.
During the mass famine of the Great Leap Forward from 1958 to 1962, having an urban versus a rural hukou could mean the difference between life and death.

Collective farming

collectivizationcollective farmcollectivisation
The campaign was led by Chairman Mao Zedong and aimed to rapidly transform the country from an agrarian economy into a socialist society through rapid industrialization and collectivization. Mao advocated that a further round of collectivization modeled on the USSR's "Third Period" was necessary in the countryside where the existing collectives would be merged into huge People's Communes.
Similar to Stalin's ideals, Mao tried to rapidly convert the Chinese economy to a socialist society through industrialization and collectivization, in a period known as, "The Great Leap Forward."

Henan

Henan ProvinceHenan, ChinaHonan
An experimental commune was established at Chayashan in Henan in April 1958.
In 1958, Yashan in Suiping County, Henan, became the first people's commune of China, heralding the beginning of the "Great Leap Forward".

Four Pests Campaign

Great Sparrow CampaignFour Pestsmice, flies and mosquitoes
This problem was exacerbated by a devastating locust swarm, which was caused when their natural predators were killed as part of the Great Sparrow Campaign.
The Four Pests Campaign, was one of the first actions taken in the Great Leap Forward in China from 1958 to 1962.

Liu Shaoqi

Liu Shao-chiLiu Shao-ch'i
Moderates like President Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping rose to power in the Party, and Chairman Mao was marginalized within the party, leading him to initiate the Cultural Revolution in 1966 in order to re-consolidate his power.
Liu spoke very strongly in favour of the Great Leap Forward at the Eighth CPC National Congress in May 1958.

People's commune

people's communescommunescommune
Mao advocated that a further round of collectivization modeled on the USSR's "Third Period" was necessary in the countryside where the existing collectives would be merged into huge People's Communes.
The people's commune was established during the Great Leap Forward, when Mao Zedong had the goal of surpassing the United Kingdom and the United States in terms of steel production over a short period of time.

Peng Dehuai

Marshal Peng Dehuai
Although many of the more moderate leaders had reservations about the new policy, the only senior leader to speak out openly was Marshal Peng Dehuai.
Peng resisted Mao's attempts to develop a personality cult throughout the 1950s; and, when Mao's economic policies associated with the Great Leap Forward caused a nationwide famine, Peng became critical of Mao's leadership.

Lushan Conference

Lushan Plenum8th Plenary Sessionclash at Lushan
The initial impact of the Great Leap Forward was discussed at the Lushan Conference in July/August 1959.
The major topic of discussion was the Great Leap Forward.

Khmer Rouge

CambodiaCambodiancommunist
Fuyang, a region in Anhui with a population of 8 million in 1958, had a death rate that rivaled Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge; more than 2.4 million people perished there over three years.
Large numbers of deaths resulted from the regime's social engineering policies and the "Maha Lout Ploh", copying the "Great Leap Forward" of China which caused the Great Chinese Famine.

Yang Jisheng (journalist)

Yang JishengYang Jisheng (historian)
Yang Jisheng, a long-time communist party member and a reporter for the official Chinese news agency Xinhua, puts the blame squarely on Maoist policies and the political system of totalitarianism, such as diverting agricultural workers to steel production instead of growing crops, and exporting grain at the same time.
Yang Jisheng (born November 1940 ) is a Chinese journalist and author of Tombstone (墓碑; Mubei), a comprehensive account of the Great Chinese Famine during the Great Leap Forward.

Hundred Flowers Campaign

Hundred FlowersHundred Flowers Movement100 Flowers Movement
In 1957 Mao responded to the tensions in the Party by promoting free speech and criticism under the Hundred Flowers Campaign.

Zhou Enlai

Chou En-laiZhou En-laiZhou En Lai
Moderates within the Party, including Zhou Enlai, argued for a reversal of collectivization on the grounds that claiming the bulk of the harvest for the state had made the people's food-security dependent upon the constant, efficient, and transparent functioning of the government.
In 1958, Mao Zedong began the Great Leap Forward, aimed at increasing China's production levels in industry and agriculture with unrealistic targets.

Lysenkoism

LysenkoistLysenko affairideas
Many of these were based on the ideas of now discredited Soviet agronomist Trofim Lysenko and his followers.
Lysenkoism dominated Chinese science from 1949 until 1956, particularly during the Great Leap Forward, when, during a genetics symposium opponents of Lysenkoism were permitted to freely criticize it and argue for Mendelian genetics.

Jung Chang

ChangChang, Jung
Chang and Halliday argue that "Mao had actually allowed for many more deaths. Although slaughter was not his purpose with the Leap, he was more than ready for myriad deaths to result, and had hinted to his top echelon that they should not be too shocked if they happened."
The failures of the Great Leap Forward had led her parents to oppose Mao Zedong's policies.

8th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China

8th Central Committee8th CPC Central Committee8th
The agricultural policies of the Great Leap Forward and the associated famine continued until January 1961, when, at the Ninth Plenum of the 8th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, the restoration of agricultural production through a reversal of the Great Leap policies was started.

Lin Biao

Lin Biao incidentLin PiaoLin Bao Incident
Peng was replaced by Lin Biao, who began a systematic purge of Peng's supporters from the military.
After the 1959 Lushan Conference, at which Peng criticized Mao's disastrous Great Leap Forward, Peng was arrested and removed from all government positions.

Zeng Xisheng

Mao was shown an example of a backyard furnace in Hefei, Anhui, in September 1958 by provincial first secretary Zeng Xisheng.
Zeng fervently supported the policies of the Great Leap Forward, but his political fortunes were short-lived.

Mass killings under communist regimes

Communist mass killingsGenocide of Baltic peoplemass executions
Benjamin Valentino claims that the Great Leap Forward was a cause of the Great Chinese Famine and the worst effects of the famine were steered towards the regime's enemies.

Democide

democidalDeath by Governmentmass executions
Democide historian R.J. Rummel had originally classified the famine deaths as unintentional.
Some examples of democide cited by Rummel include the Great Purges carried out by Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union, the deaths from the colonial policy in the Congo Free State, and Mao Zedong's Great Leap Forward, which resulted in a famine that killed millions of people.