Great Lent

Great FastLentLentenSunday of the Prodigal SonMeatfare WeekFirst Saturday of the Great LentGreat Forty day FastGreat Lenten FastLenten fastProdigal Son
Great Lent, or the Great Fast, (Greek: Μεγάλη Τεσσαρακοστή or Μεγάλη Νηστεία, meaning "Great 40 Days," and "Great Fast," respectively) is the most important fasting season in the church year in the Eastern Orthodox Church (including Byzantine Rite and Western Rite Orthodoxy), Byzantine Rite Lutheran Churches and the Eastern Catholic Churches, which prepares Christians for the greatest feast of the church year, Pascha (Easter).wikipedia
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Easter

Easter SundayPaschaEaster Day
Great Lent, or the Great Fast, (Greek: Μεγάλη Τεσσαρακοστή or Μεγάλη Νηστεία, meaning "Great 40 Days," and "Great Fast," respectively) is the most important fasting season in the church year in the Eastern Orthodox Church (including Byzantine Rite and Western Rite Orthodoxy), Byzantine Rite Lutheran Churches and the Eastern Catholic Churches, which prepares Christians for the greatest feast of the church year, Pascha (Easter). Great Lent officially begins on Clean Monday, seven weeks before Pascha (Ash Wednesday is not observed in Eastern Christianity) and runs for 40 contiguous days, concluding with the Presanctified Liturgy on Friday of the Sixth Week.
It is the culmination of the Passion of Jesus, preceded by Lent (or Great Lent), a 40-day period of fasting, prayer, and penance.

Clean Monday

Ash MondayCeremony of ForgivenessClean Week
Great Lent officially begins on Clean Monday, seven weeks before Pascha (Ash Wednesday is not observed in Eastern Christianity) and runs for 40 contiguous days, concluding with the Presanctified Liturgy on Friday of the Sixth Week.
Clean Monday, also known as Pure Monday, Ash Monday, Monday of Lent or Green Monday, is the first day of Great Lent throughout Eastern Christianity and is a moveable feast, falling on the 7th Monday before Pascha.

Byzantine Rite

ByzantineGreek RiteRite of Constantinople
Great Lent, or the Great Fast, (Greek: Μεγάλη Τεσσαρακοστή or Μεγάλη Νηστεία, meaning "Great 40 Days," and "Great Fast," respectively) is the most important fasting season in the church year in the Eastern Orthodox Church (including Byzantine Rite and Western Rite Orthodoxy), Byzantine Rite Lutheran Churches and the Eastern Catholic Churches, which prepares Christians for the greatest feast of the church year, Pascha (Easter).
The entire psalter is read each week, and twice weekly during Great Lent.

Lazarus Saturday

Lazareva SubotafeastRaising of Lazarus
The next day is called Lazarus Saturday, the day before Palm Sunday.
Lazarus Saturday and Palm Sunday together hold a unique position in the church year, as days of joy and triumph interposed between the penitence of Great Lent and the mourning of Holy Week.

Liturgical year

liturgical calendarchurch yearliturgical season
Great Lent, or the Great Fast, (Greek: Μεγάλη Τεσσαρακοστή or Μεγάλη Νηστεία, meaning "Great 40 Days," and "Great Fast," respectively) is the most important fasting season in the church year in the Eastern Orthodox Church (including Byzantine Rite and Western Rite Orthodoxy), Byzantine Rite Lutheran Churches and the Eastern Catholic Churches, which prepares Christians for the greatest feast of the church year, Pascha (Easter).
The season begins 50 days before Easter on Peturta Sunday and comprises whole period of Great Lent and culminates on Resurrection Sunday.

Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts

Divine Liturgy of the Presanctified GiftsPresanctified LiturgyPre-Sanctified Liturgies
Since it is considered especially important to receive the Holy Mysteries (Holy Communion) during this season, the Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts—also called the Liturgy of St. Gregory the Dialogist— may be celebrated on weekdays.
The Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts is a Byzantine Rite liturgical service which is performed on the weekdays of Great Lent wherein communion is received from Gifts (the Body and Blood of Christ) that are sanctified (consecrated) in advance, hence its name; this Divine Liturgy has no anaphora (eucharistic prayer).

Fasting

fastfastsfasted
Great Lent, or the Great Fast, (Greek: Μεγάλη Τεσσαρακοστή or Μεγάλη Νηστεία, meaning "Great 40 Days," and "Great Fast," respectively) is the most important fasting season in the church year in the Eastern Orthodox Church (including Byzantine Rite and Western Rite Orthodoxy), Byzantine Rite Lutheran Churches and the Eastern Catholic Churches, which prepares Christians for the greatest feast of the church year, Pascha (Easter). Observance of Great Lent is characterized by fasting and abstinence from certain foods, intensified private and public prayer, self-examination, confession, personal improvement, repentance and restitution for sins committed, and almsgiving.

Pentecostarion

PentekostarionPaschal seasonFlowery Triodon
The Triodion is used until the lights are extinguished before midnight at the Paschal Vigil, at which time it is replaced by the Pentecostarion, which begins by replacing the normal services entirely (during Bright Week) and gradually diminishes until the normal services resume following the Afterfeast of Pentecost.
So, just as Great Lent, with its liturgical book, the Triodion, was the final period of preparation for the catechumens before their baptism, so the time of the Pentecostarion is the time of initiation into the Sacred Mysteries of the Christian religion for the "Newly Illumined" (i.e., the newly baptized).

Byzantine Rite Lutheranism

Byzantine Rite Lutheran ChurchesByzantine Lutheran ChurchesByzantine Rite Lutheran Church
Great Lent, or the Great Fast, (Greek: Μεγάλη Τεσσαρακοστή or Μεγάλη Νηστεία, meaning "Great 40 Days," and "Great Fast," respectively) is the most important fasting season in the church year in the Eastern Orthodox Church (including Byzantine Rite and Western Rite Orthodoxy), Byzantine Rite Lutheran Churches and the Eastern Catholic Churches, which prepares Christians for the greatest feast of the church year, Pascha (Easter).
Eastern Lutherans use the Julian calendar for the kalendar and thus observe feast days and liturgical seasons, such as Great Lent, in a fashion similar to Orthodox customs.

Divine Liturgy

liturgyDivine Liturgiesliturgical
On the weekdays of Great Lent, the full Divine Liturgy is not celebrated, because the joy of the Eucharist (literally "Thanksgiving") is contrary to the attitude of repentance which predominates on these days.

Lent

LentenLenten seasonOculi
In many ways Great Lent is similar to Lent in Western Christianity.
In the Byzantine Rite, i.e., the Eastern Orthodox Great Lent (Greek: Μεγάλη Τεσσαρακοστή or Μεγάλη Νηστεία, meaning "Great 40 Days" and "Great Fast" respectively) is the most important fasting season in the church year.

Eastern Orthodox Church

Eastern OrthodoxOrthodoxOrthodox Church
Great Lent, or the Great Fast, (Greek: Μεγάλη Τεσσαρακοστή or Μεγάλη Νηστεία, meaning "Great 40 Days," and "Great Fast," respectively) is the most important fasting season in the church year in the Eastern Orthodox Church (including Byzantine Rite and Western Rite Orthodoxy), Byzantine Rite Lutheran Churches and the Eastern Catholic Churches, which prepares Christians for the greatest feast of the church year, Pascha (Easter).
The annual Paschal cycle is established relative to the varying date of Pascha each year and affects the times for such observances as Pascha itself, Great Lent, Holy Week, and the feasts of Ascension and Pentecost.

Prayer of Saint Ephrem

Prayer of St. Ephraim
The one prayer that typifies the Lenten services is the Prayer of Saint Ephrem, which is said at each service on weekdays, accompanied by full prostrations.
"The Prayer of Saint Ephrem" (Greek: Εὐχὴ τοῦ Ὁσίου Ἐφραίμ, Euchē tou Hosiou Ephraim), is a prayer attributed to Saint Ephrem the Syrian and used during the Great Lent by the Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic Churches.

Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar

Eastern Orthodox Church calendarliturgical calendarOrthodox calendar
Since the season of Great Lent is moveable, beginning on different dates from year to year, accommodation must be made for various feast days on the fixed calendar (Menaion) which occur during the season.
All dates having to do with Pascha (Easter) - the beginning of Great Lent, Ascension, Pentecost, etc. - are moveable feasts, and thus are not on this calendar (see Paschal cycle).

Confession (religion)

confessionconfessionsconfess
Observance of Great Lent is characterized by fasting and abstinence from certain foods, intensified private and public prayer, self-examination, confession, personal improvement, repentance and restitution for sins committed, and almsgiving.
Some Patriarchates advise confession before each reception of Holy Communion, others advise confessing during each of the four fasting periods (Great Lent, Nativity Fast, Apostles' Fast and Dormition Fast), and there are many additional variants.

Typica

Because the divine liturgy is not celebrated on weekdays, the Typica occupies its place in the canonical hours, whether or not a liturgy is celebrated at vespers.
This may be either because the Typicon does not permit the celebration of the Liturgy (as occurs, for example, on weekdays during Great Lent), the Typica may be served instead of Liturgy, or no priest is present or the priest for any reason does not serve the Liturgy.

Canon (hymnography)

CanoncanonsCanticles
(Matins, Second Canon, Ode 8, Monday of Cheesefare Week).
The canon dates from the 7th century and was either devised or introduced into the Greek language by St. Andrew of Crete, whose penitential Great Canon is still used on certain occasions during Great Lent.

Akathist

Akathist to the TheotokosAkathist HymnAkathistos
While in the Russian tradition Great Compline is used on Friday night (though some parts are read rather than sung and some Lenten material is replaced by non-Lenten hymns), in the Greek practice, ordinary Compline is used together with, on the first four weeks, a quarter of the Akathist to the Theotokos.
As such it became part of the service of the Salutations to the Theotokos (used in the Byzantine tradition during Great Lent).

Pentecost

Pentecost SundayWhitsundayDay of Pentecost
The Triodion is used until the lights are extinguished before midnight at the Paschal Vigil, at which time it is replaced by the Pentecostarion, which begins by replacing the normal services entirely (during Bright Week) and gradually diminishes until the normal services resume following the Afterfeast of Pentecost.
All of the remaining days of the ecclesiastical year, until the preparation for the next Great Lent, are named for the day after Pentecost on which they occur (for example, the 13th Tuesday After Pentecost).

Psalter

psaltersPsalteriumPsalms
This replacement begins gradually, initially affecting only the Epistle and Gospel readings, and gradually increases until Holy Week when it entirely replaces all other liturgical material (during the Triduum even the Psalter is eliminated, and all texts are taken exclusively from the Triodion).
The reading of the kathismata are so arranged that the entire psalter is read through in the course of a week (during Great Lent it is read through twice in a week).

Parable of the Prodigal Son

Prodigal SonThe Prodigal SonReturn of the Prodigal Son
The theme of this week is the Parable of the Prodigal Son.
In the Eastern Orthodox Church it is read on the Sunday of the Prodigal Son.

Prostration

prostrateprostratedprostrating
The making of prostrations during the services increases as well.
During Great Lent, and Holy Week, prostrations are especially encouraged in all the Eastern Churches (see Prayer of St. Ephraim).

Bright Week

Bright TuesdayBright WednesdayEaster Week
The Triodion is used until the lights are extinguished before midnight at the Paschal Vigil, at which time it is replaced by the Pentecostarion, which begins by replacing the normal services entirely (during Bright Week) and gradually diminishes until the normal services resume following the Afterfeast of Pentecost.
Normally, the entire Psalter is read during the course of a week (and twice a week during Great Lent), but during Bright Week no psalms at all are read.

Koliva

kolyvaKoljivoKollyva
Then the priest blesses kolyva (boiled wheat with honey and raisins) which is distributed to the faithful in commemoration of the following miracle worked by St. Theodore on the First Saturday of Great Lent.
It may also be used on the first Friday of Great Lent, at Slavas, or at mnemosyna in the Christmas meal.

Pope Gregory I

Gregory the GreatPope Gregory the GreatGregory I
Since it is considered especially important to receive the Holy Mysteries (Holy Communion) during this season, the Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts—also called the Liturgy of St. Gregory the Dialogist— may be celebrated on weekdays.
In the Eastern Orthodox Church and Eastern Catholic Churches, Gregory is credited as the primary influence in constructing the more penitential Divine Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts, a fully separate form of the Divine Liturgy in the Byzantine Rite adapted to the needs of the season of Great Lent.