Great Sioux Nation

The Sioux people were united in a confederacy of seven members, called the Seven Fires Council (the map still misnames the Yankton-Yanktonai grouping as Nakota)

Traditional political structure of the Sioux in North America.

- Great Sioux Nation

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Sioux language

Siouan language spoken by over 30,000 Sioux in the United States and Canada, making it the fifth most spoken indigenous language in the United States or Canada, behind Navajo, Cree, Inuit languages, and Ojibwe.

Page from Dictionary of the Sioux Language, 1866

Since 2019, "the language of the Great Sioux Nation, comprisedof [sic] three dialects, Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota" is the official indigenous language of South Dakota.

Standing Rock Indian Reservation

Inhabited by ethnic "Hunkpapa and Sihasapa bands of Lakota Oyate and the Ihunktuwona and Pabaksa bands of the Dakota Oyate," as well as the Hunkpatina Dakota .

Standing Rock Administrative Service building, Fort Yates
Lakota man locks himself to construction equipment to stop progress of the Dakota Access Pipeline near the Standing Rock Reservation in North Dakota, Summer 2016

Together with the Hunkpapa and Sihasapa bands, the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe is part of what was known as the Great Sioux Nation.

Great Sioux Reservation

The Great Sioux Reservation initially set aside land west of the Missouri River in South Dakota and Nebraska for the use of the Lakota Sioux, who had dominated this territory.

Map showing the Great Sioux Reservation and current reservations

This area was established by the United States as a reservation for the Teton Sioux, also known as the Lakota: the seven western bands of the "Seven Council Fires" (the Great Sioux Nation).


The Sioux or Oceti Sakowin (Dakota: Očhéthi Šakówiŋ /otʃʰeːtʰi ʃakoːwĩ/) are groups of Native American tribes and First Nations peoples in North America.

Chief Black Tail Deer and his family at the 1904 World's Fair
Thiyóšpaye at Pine Ridge, South Dakota, c. 1890
Ledger artwork by Lakota artist Black Hawk representing a Heyókȟa, (dreamer of a Wakíŋyaŋ, thunder being), c.1880
Chief Red Cloud and other Lakota leaders, c. 1865-1880
Funeral scaffold of a Sioux chief (Karl Bodmer)
Summerhouse of Wahpeton bands, by Karl Bodmer painted 1832 in Minnesota
Yankton Pipestone Quarries as seen by George Catlin in 1836
Map showing the boundaries of the 1851 Treaty of Traverse des Sioux land cession area (Royce Area 289)
Little Crow, Leader of the Mdewakanton during the 1862 Dakota War, c. 1863
Drawing of the mass hanging of Dakota in Mankato, Minnesota
Illustration of Indians hunting the bison by Karl Bodmer
The Lands of the 1851 Ft. Laramie Treaty
Map showing the major battles of Red Cloud's War, along with major treaty boundaries. During Red Cloud's War, the Sioux defeated the US Army on the same plains on which they previously defeated the Crow
Sioux Indian police lined up on horseback in front of Pine Ridge Agency buildings, Dakota Territory, August 9, 1882
Great Sioux Reservation, 1888; established by Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868)
Mass grave for the dead Lakota after massacre of Wounded Knee.
Map showing the Great Sioux Reservation and current reservations in North and South Dakota
Children with their chickens, Standing Rock Agency (1947)
Solen Basketball team, Standing Rock Agency (1947)
Wounded Knee AIM veterans (2013)
Demonstration in support of Standing Rock to stop DAPL occurred all over the world throughout 2016 and in March 2017 in Washington, DC
Chief Bone Necklace, an Oglala Lakota from the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation (1899)
Santee Dakota, Yankton-Yanktonai and Lakota historic distribution (the map still misnames the Yankton-Yanktonai grouping as Nakota)
Portrait of Stella Yellow Shirt and her baby (Dakota, 1899)
Sioux cradleboard
Family members of U.S. Army Master Sgt. Woodrow Wilson Keeble attending his Medal of Honor ceremony
Location of Sioux tribes prior to 1770 (dark green) and their current reservations (orange) in the US
Chiefs Red Cloud and American Horse (1891)
Running Antelope, a Hunkpapa Lakota Chief, depicted on the US 1899 $5 silver certificate.
Woodrow Keeble, Medal of Honor recipient.

The term "Sioux" is an exonym created from a French transcription of the Ojibwe term "Nadouessioux", and can refer to any ethnic group within the Great Sioux Nation or to any of the nation's many language dialects.


Union of sovereign groups or states united for purposes of common action.

Proclamation of Canadian Confederation
Map of the Five Nations (from the Darlington Collection)

One of the most well-known is the Haudenosaunee (or Iroquois), but there were many others during different eras and locations across North America, such as the Wabanaki Confederacy, Western Confederacy, Powhatan, Seven Nations of Canada, Pontiac's Confederacy, Illinois Confederation, Tecumseh's Confederacy, Great Sioux Nation, Blackfoot Confederacy, Iron Confederacy and Council of Three Fires.

Midwestern United States

One of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau .

Divisions of the Midwest by the U.S. Census Bureau into East North Central and West North Central, separated largely by the Mississippi River.
Scotts Bluff National Monument in western Nebraska
The Driftless Area as viewed from Wildcat Mountain State Park in Vernon County, Wisconsin
Flint Hills grasslands of Kansas
Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota
Prairie in Effigy Mounds National Monument, Iowa
Monks Mound, located at the Cahokia Mounds near Collinsville, Illinois, is the largest Pre-Columbian earthwork in America north of Mesoamerica and a World Heritage Site
Winnebago family (1852)
Young Oglala Lakota girl in front of tipi with puppy beside her, probably on or near Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota
Cumulus clouds hover above a yellowish prairie at Badlands National Park, South Dakota, native lands to the Sioux.
c. 1681 map of Marquette and Jolliet's 1673 expedition
Beaver hunting grounds, the basis of the fur trade
The state cessions that eventually allowed for the creation of the territories north and southwest of the River Ohio
Northwest Territory 1787
Louisiana Purchase 1803
Ohio River near Rome, Ohio
Lake Michigan is shared by four Midwestern states: Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, and Wisconsin.
The Upper Mississippi River near Harpers Ferry, Iowa
An animation depicting when United States territories and states forbade or allowed slavery, 1789–1861
1855 Free-State poster
A map of various Underground Railroad routes
Minneapolis, Minnesota is on the Mississippi River
Omaha, Nebraska, is on the Missouri River
Cincinnati, Ohio is on the Ohio River
Distribution of Americans claiming German Ancestry by county in 2018
German population density in the United States, 1870 census
A pastoral farm scene near Traverse City, Michigan, with a classic American red barn
Central Iowa cornfield in June
Standing wheat in Kansas, part of America's Breadbasket
Soybean fields at Applethorpe Farm, north of Hallsville in Ross County, Ohio
The Chicago Board of Trade Building a National Historic Landmark
The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in Cleveland
Mount Rushmore is located in the Black Hills of South Dakota.
The Milwaukee Art Museum is located on Lake Michigan.
The first local meeting of the new Republican Party took place here in Ripon, Wisconsin on March 20, 1854.
Midwestern Governors by party
Midwestern U.S. Senators by party for the 117th Congress
Midwestern U.S. Representatives by party for the 117th Congress

The area of the Great Sioux Nation spread throughout the South and Midwest, up into the areas of Minnesota and stretching out west into the Rocky Mountains.

South Dakota

U.S. state in the North Central region of the United States.

Deadwood, like many other Black Hills towns, was founded after the discovery of gold.
A harvest in South Dakota, 1898
A South Dakota farm during the Dust Bowl, 1936. Normal tilling practices turn South Dakota's fragile soil into a fine, loose powder that blows away, and sometimes covered vehicles, equipment, and buildings with dust during the Dust Bowl.
Terrain and primary geographic features of South Dakota
Badlands National Park
The Black Hills, a low mountain range, is located in Southwestern South Dakota.
Much of western South Dakota is covered by buttes.
Köppen climate types in South Dakota
Mount Rushmore in the Black Hills
South Dakota population density map
Indian reservations in South Dakota
East Side Lutheran Church, Sioux Falls
A B-1B Lancer lifts off from Ellsworth Air Force Base, one of South Dakota's largest employers
Ethanol plant in Turner County
Beaver Creek Bridge in Wind Cave National Park
The South Dakota State Capitol in Pierre
Congressional delegation in 2015: (from left) Senator Mike Rounds, Senator John Thune, and Representative Kristi Noem.
Nicholas Black Elk with his family, circa 1910
Sioux Falls, with a population of around 180,000, is the largest city in South Dakota.
The Coughlin Campanile, a landmark on the campus of South Dakota State University in Brookings
A tunnel along the George S. Mickelson Trail in the Black Hills

Since 2019, "the language of the Great Sioux Nation, comprisedof [sic] three dialects, Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota" is the official indigenous language.

North Dakota

U.S. state in the Upper Midwest, named after the indigenous Dakota Sioux.

Fort Union Trading Post National Historic Site
North Dakota State Capitol, featuring an Art Deco tower
View of western North Dakota
Köppen climate types of North Dakota
North Dakota population density
Vang Evangelical Lutheran Church in Manfred
Sunflowers in Traill County, North Dakota
North Dakota Mill and Elevator postcard, ca. 1922
Oil well in western North Dakota
Paul Kane witnessed and participated in the annual bison hunt of the Métis in June 1846 on the prairies in Dakota.
Norwegian settlers in front of their sod house in North Dakota in 1898
Interstate 94 in North Dakota, near Gladstone
Building in Bismarck that houses a variety of state agencies: Workforce Safety & Insurance; Retirement & Investment; Parks & Recreation; PERS; Child Support; Commerce; and OBM Risk Management.
Administrative building for the Standing Rock Indian Reservation
Treemap of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election.

The primary historic tribal nations in or around North Dakota, are the Lakota and the Dakota ("The Great Sioux Nation" or "Oceti Sakowin", meaning the seven council fires), the Blackfoot, the Cheyenne, the Chippewa (known as Ojibwe in Canada), and the Mandan.

Jill Stein

American physician, activist, and former political candidate.

Jill Stein in March 2016
Stein at a protest against coal-powered energy production
Jill Stein announcing her candidacy for governor in February 2010
Jill Stein speaking at Occupy Wall Street, September 27, 2011
Stein with Jon Wiener, The Nation writer and host of the political podcast Start Making Sense in 2016
Jill Stein's presidential campaign logo, 2016

Stein supports the Great Sioux Nation's opposition to the Dakota Access Pipeline, and in September 2016 joined protesters in North Dakota.


Act of cutting or tearing a part of the human scalp, with hair attached, from the head, and generally occurred in warfare with the scalp being a trophy.

Karl Bodmer's 1844 aquatint Scalp Dance of the Minitarres depicts Siouan Hidatsa people in a scalp dance.
Illustration of a scalp dance from the 1919 edition of 1884 children's book Indian History for Young Folks by Francis S. Drake.
1732 illustration by Alexandre de Batz of Choctaw people of the Mississippi in war paint, bearing scalps.
Knife and Sheath, probably Sioux, early 19th century, Brooklyn Museum
1847 illustration of Hannah Duston scalping the sleeping Abenaki family, including six children, who had kidnapped her and murdered her infant after the Raid on Haverhill (1697).
American propaganda poster circa the War of 1812, illustrating and poeticizing a British officer giving a Native man a reward for an American soldier's scalp.
Scalped corpse of buffalo hunter Ralph Morrison found after an 1868 encounter with Cheyennes, near Fort Dodge, Kansas
Skull of a 20- to 30-year-old decapitated woman of the 3rd century AD. Cutting marks above the right eye hole show the head has been scalped.
Sauvage matachez en Guerrier (1732), by Alexandre de Batz
Josiah P. Wilbarger being scalped by Comanche Indians, 1833
Lithograph depiction of scalping, circa 1850s
Modocs scalping and torturing prisoners, published in May 1873
The remains of dead Crow Indians killed and scalped by Piegan Blackfeet c. 1874
Survivor Robert McGee was scalped as a child in 1864 by Sioux —photo c. 1890.
1864 photo of Californian Seth Kinman displaying an Indian scalp (front left). He collected "Indian artifacts" including scalps.
Native American Big Mouth Spring with decorated scalp lock on right shoulder. 1910 photograph by Edward S. Curtis
Modern roadside historical marker in Boscawen, New Hampshire about the 1697 scalping incident involving Hannah Duston
Indian Warrior with Scalp (1789), by Barlow

However, author and historian Mark van de Logt wrote, "Although military historians tend to reserve the concept of 'total war, in which civilians are targeted, "for conflicts between modern industrial nations," the term "closely approaches the state of affairs between the Pawnees, the Sioux, and the Cheyennes.