Great Trek

voortrekkervoortrekkersBoer Trekmigrated further norththe Great TrektrektrekkedtrekkerstrekkingVoortrekker leaders
[[File:Great Trek map full.png|thumbnail|300px|A map charting the routes of the largest trekking parties during the first wave of the Great Trek (1835-1840) along with key battles and events.wikipedia
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Natalia Republic

NataliaNatalRepublic of Natalia
The Great Trek led directly to the founding of several autonomous Boer republics, namely the South African Republic (also known simply as the Transvaal), the Orange Free State, and the Natalia Republic.
The Natalia Republic was a short-lived Boer republic on the coast of Southern Africa, established in 1839 by Voortrekkers shortly after the Battle of Blood River.

Boer Republics

Boer RepublicrepublicBoer
The Great Trek led directly to the founding of several autonomous Boer republics, namely the South African Republic (also known simply as the Transvaal), the Orange Free State, and the Natalia Republic.
The Boer Republics (sometimes also referred to as Boer states) were independent, self-governed republics in the last half of the nineteenth century, created by the Dutch-speaking inhabitants of the Cape Colony and their descendants, variously named Trekboers, Boers and Voortrekkers in mainly the middle, northern and north eastern and eastern parts of what is now the country of South Africa.

Orange Free State

Free StateOrange Free State RepublicRepublic of the Orange Free State
The Great Trek led directly to the founding of several autonomous Boer republics, namely the South African Republic (also known simply as the Transvaal), the Orange Free State, and the Natalia Republic.
In the northern part of the territory a Voortrekker Republic was established at Winburg in 1837.

Northern Ndebele people

NdebeleMatabeleNdebele people
It was also responsible for the displacement of the Northern Ndebele people, and was one of several decisive factors influencing the decline and collapse of the Zulu Empire.
The Great trek in 1838 saw Mzilikazi defeated by the Voortrekkers at Vegkop after which he was exiled into present-day Zimbabwe where the Ndebele overwhelmed the local Rozvi, eventually carving out a home now called Matabeleland and encompassing the west and southwest region of the country.

Cape Dutch

Cape-DutchDutch communitiesearly Cape settlers
Cleavages were likelier to occur along social and economic lines; broadly speaking, the Cape colonists were delineated into Boers, poor farmers who settled directly on the frontier, and the more affluent, predominantly urbanised Cape Dutch.
The terms have been evoked to describe an affluent, apolitical section of the Cape Colony's Afrikaner population which did not participate in the Great Trek or the subsequent founding of the Boer republics.

Cape Colony

Cape of Good HopeCapeGovernor of the Cape of Good Hope
The Great Trek (Die Groot Trek; De Grote Trek) was an eastward migration of Dutch-speaking settlers who travelled by wagon trains from the Cape Colony into the interior of modern South Africa from 1836 onwards, seeking to live beyond the Cape's British colonial administration.
This was known as the Great Trek, and the migrating Boers settled inland, forming the "Boer republics" of Transvaal and the Orange Free State.

Boer

Boerstrekboerswhite farmers
Cleavages were likelier to occur along social and economic lines; broadly speaking, the Cape colonists were delineated into Boers, poor farmers who settled directly on the frontier, and the more affluent, predominantly urbanised Cape Dutch. The Great Trek resulted from the culmination of tensions between rural descendants of the Cape's original European settlers, known collectively as Boers, and the British Empire.
The underlying fact which made the trek possible is that the Dutch-descended colonists in the eastern and northeastern parts of the colony were not cultivators of the soil, but of purely pastoral and nomadic habits, ever ready to seek new pastures for their flocks and herds, and possessing no special affection for any particular locality.

Piet Uys

Petrus Lafras UysUys
Petrus Lafras Uys was chosen as trek leader.
Petrus Lafras Uys (more commonly known as Piet Uys) (1797–1838) was a Voortrekker leader during the Great Trek.

Graaff-Reinet

Graaff ReinetGraaff-RenietRepublic of Graaff-Reinet
In early August 1834, Jan Gerritze set off with some travellers headed for Grahamstown 220 km away, a three-week journey from Graaff-Reinet.
In Graaff Reinet, an independent "Colonie" government in South Africa was first proclaimed, and the town furnished large numbers of the Voortrekkers in 1835–1842.

British Empire

BritishEmpireBritain
The Great Trek resulted from the culmination of tensions between rural descendants of the Cape's original European settlers, known collectively as Boers, and the British Empire.
British immigration began to rise after 1820, and pushed thousands of Boers, resentful of British rule, northwards to found their own—mostly short-lived—independent republics, during the Great Trek of the late 1830s and early 1840s.

Durban

Durban, South AfricaPort NatalDurban, KwaZulu-Natal
In June 1834 at Graaff-Reinet, Jan Gerritze Bantjes heard about the exploratory trek to Port Natal and, encouraged by his father Bernard Louis Bantjes, sent word to Uys of his interest in partaking in this great adventure.
The Voortrekkers established the Republic of Natalia in 1839, with its capital at Pietermaritzburg.

Louis Tregardt

The first two parties of Voortrekkers left in September 1835, led by Louis Tregardt and Hans van Rensburg.
Louis Johannes Tregardt (from Swedish: trädgård, garden), also spelled Trichardt (10 August 1783 – 25 October 1838) was a farmer from the Cape Colony's eastern frontier, who became an early voortrekker leader, called the "voorste mense".

Zulu Kingdom

ZululandZuluZulus
It was also responsible for the displacement of the Northern Ndebele people, and was one of several decisive factors influencing the decline and collapse of the Zulu Empire.
In October 1837, the Voortrekker leader Piet Retief visited Dingane at his royal kraal to negotiate a land deal for the voortrekkers.

Griqualand East

The kommissietrek approached Port Natal from East Griqualand and Ixopo, crossing the upper regions of the Mtamvuna and Umkomazi rivers.
Though for a long time overshadowed in history by the story of the Voortrekkers, the trek of the Griquas has been described as "one of the great epics of the 19th century."

Hendrik Potgieter

Andries PotgieterAndries Hendrik PotgieterPotgieter
A party led by Hendrik Potgieter trekked out of the Tarka area in either late 1835 or early 1836, and in September 1836 a party led by Gerrit Maritz began their trek from Graaff-Reinet.
Andries Hendrik Potgieter, known as Hendrik Potgieter (19 December 1792 – 16 December 1852) was a Voortrekker leader and the last known Champion of the Potgieter family.

Sarel Cilliers

Charl (Sarel) Arnoldus Cilliers (7 September 1801 – 4 October 1871) was a Voortrekker leader and a preacher.

Piet Retief

Retief
In October 1837 Retief met with Zulu King Dingane to negotiate a treaty for land to settle in what is now Kwa-Zulu Natal.
Pieter Mauritz Retief (12 November 1780 – 6 February 1838) was a Voortrekker leader.

Lang Hans van Rensburg

Hans van RensburgJohannes (Hans) van RensburgJan van Rensburg
The first two parties of Voortrekkers left in September 1835, led by Louis Tregardt and Hans van Rensburg.
Johannes Jacobus (Lang Hans) Janse van Rensburg (12 August 1779 – July 1836) was a leader of one of the early Voortrekker groups.

Dingane kaSenzangakhona

DinganeDingaanKing Dingane kaSenzangakhona
In October 1837 Retief met with Zulu King Dingane to negotiate a treaty for land to settle in what is now Kwa-Zulu Natal. Moving through the Eastern Cape, they were welcomed by the Xhosa who were in dispute with the neighbouring Zulu King Dingane kaSenzangakhona, and they passed unharmed into Natal.
These had been noted in historical accounts by Piet Retief, leader of the Voortrekkers, and the British missionaries Champion and Owen.

Trekboer

trekboerstrekking
Others, especially trekboers, a class of Boers who pursued semi-nomadic pastoral activities, were frustrated by the apparent unwillingness or inability of the British government to extend the borders of the Cape Colony eastward and provide them with access to more prime pasture and economic opportunities.
Because of further British encroachments, constant border wars with the Xhosa to the east, and growing land shortages, numerous Boer settlers of the eastern Cape became Voortrekkers.

Gerrit Maritz

Gerhardus Marthinus MaritzGert Maritz
A party led by Hendrik Potgieter trekked out of the Tarka area in either late 1835 or early 1836, and in September 1836 a party led by Gerrit Maritz began their trek from Graaff-Reinet.
Gerhardus Marthinus (Gert or Gerrit) Maritz (1 March 1797 – 23 September 1838), b1c8d2, was a Voortrekker pioneer and leader, wagon builder.

Slachter's Nek Rebellion

Slachters NekSlagter's Nek rebellionSlagters Nek
In 1815, the controversial arrest of a white farmer for allegedly assaulting one of his servants resulted in the abortive Slachter's Nek Rebellion.
Nicolaas Balthazar Prinsloo. (He tookpart in the Great Trek and was murdered with the van Rensburg trek party at Djindispruit, Limpopo River, Mozambique at the end of July 1836.)

Battle of Blood River

Blood River
A few days later on the 16 December 1838, a force of 468 trekkers, 3 Britons, and 60 black allies fought against 10,000 to 12,000 Zulu impis at the Battle of Blood River.
The Battle of Blood River (Slag van Bloedrivier; iMpi yaseNcome) is the name given for the battle fought between 470 Voortrekkers ("Pioneers"), led by Andries Pretorius, and an estimated "10,000 to 15,000" Zulu on the bank of the Ncome River on 16 December 1838, in what is today KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

Weenen massacre

laagersattackedBlaauwkranz monument
After killing Retief's delegation, a Zulu army of 7,000 impis were sent out and immediately attacked Voortrekker encampments in the Drakensberg foothills at what later was called Blaauwkrans and Weenen, leading to the Weenen massacre in which 282 Voortrekkers, of whom 185 children were killed.
The Weenen Massacre (Bloukransmoorde) was the massacre of Voortrekkers by the Zulu on 17 February 1838.

Soutpansberg

Makato MountainsSoutpansberg MountainsSoutpansberg Range
Those of Tregardt's party that settled around Soutpansberg moved on to settle Delagoa Bay, with most of the party perishing, including Tregardt, from fever.
De Buys was followed by voortrekker Louis Tregardt who sojourned at the salt pan from May to August 1836.