Greater Middle East

Variations on definitions of the Middle East and North Africa region

Political term, introduced in March 2004 in a paper by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace as part of the U.S. administration's preparatory work for the Group of Eight summit of June 2004, denoting a vaguely defined region called the "Arab world" together with Afghanistan, Iran, Israel, Turkey, and several other countries.

- Greater Middle East

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[[File:MENA or WANA according to various definitions.svg|thumb|How often countries/territories are included in MENA/WANA definitions:

The MENA region as defined by the World Bank (2003)
The MENA region as defined by UNAIDS, which includes Sudan and Somalia, but excludes Israel, Palestine and Malta
The MENA region as defined by the IMF (2003), which includes Afghanistan, Mauritania, Pakistan, Palestine, Sudan and Somalia, but excludes Israel and Malta
Western Asia and Northern Africa according to the UN geoscheme
The WANA region according to ICARDA (2011)

Some terms have a wider definition than MENA, such as MENASA, MENAP or Greater Middle East, which extends to South Asia to include the countries of Afghanistan and Pakistan.

Condoleezza Rice

American diplomat and political scientist who is the current director of the Hoover Institution at Stanford University.

Official portrait, February 2005
Condoleezza Rice during a 2005 interview on ITV in London
Rice, Secretary of State Colin Powell, and Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld listen to President George W. Bush speak about the Middle East on June 24, 2002
President Bush addresses the media at the Pentagon on September 17, 2001
Cheney, Rice and Rumsfeld participate in a video conference with President Bush and Iraqi PM Maliki in 2006
Rice signs official papers after receiving the oath of office during her ceremonial swearing in at the Department of State. Watching are, from left, Laura Bush, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg, President George W. Bush.
Condoleezza Rice visits Governor General of Canada Michaëlle Jean in Ottawa, Ontario.
Rice with Saudi Arabian Foreign Minister Saud al-Faisal in 2006
Condoleezza Rice speaks with Vladimir Putin during her April 2005 trip to Russia.
Rice with President Donald Trump, March 31, 2017
Rice meets with Afghan Foreign Minister Rangin Dadfar Spanta to discuss anti-terrorism efforts, 2006
Rice chats with a member of the Saudi Royal Family after welcoming the new king Salman of Saudi Arabia, January 27, 2015
President Bush signing bill for Rosa Parks statue at Statuary Hall, Washington, D.C.
Rice greets U.S. military personnel at the American Embassy in Baghdad, Iraq, on May 15, 2005.
Rice makes an appearance at Boston College, where she is greeted by Father William Leahy.
Rice's approval ratings from January 2005 to September 2006
Rice and Australian Foreign Minister Alexander Downer participate in a news conference at the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library in Simi Valley, California, 2007.
Yo-Yo Ma and Rice after performing together at the 2001 National Medal of Arts and National Humanities Medal Awards, April 22, 2002

Following her confirmation as secretary of state, Rice pioneered the policy of Transformational Diplomacy directed toward expanding the number of responsible democratic governments in the world and especially in the Greater Middle East.

Middle East

Geopolitical term that commonly refers to the region spanning Arabia (including the Arabian Peninsula and Bahrain), Asia Minor (Asian part of Turkey except Hatay Province), East Thrace (European part of Turkey), Egypt, Iran, the Levant (including Ash-Shām and Cyprus), Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq), and the Socotra Archipelago (a part of Yemen).

Map of the Middle East between Africa, Europe, Central Asia, and Southern Asia.
Middle East map of Köppen climate classification.
Western Wall and Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem
Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem
The Kaaba, located in Mecca, Saudi Arabia
Islam is the largest religion in the Middle East. Here, Muslim men are prostrating during prayer in a mosque.
Oil and gas pipelines in the Middle-East
Abu Dhabi – United Arab Emirates
Amman – Jordan
Ankara – Turkey
Baghdad, Iraq
Beirut – Lebanon
Cairo – Egypt
Damascus – Syria
Doha – Qatar
Dubai – United Arab Emirates
Istanbul – Turkey
Jerusalem – Israel
Kuwait City – Kuwait
Manama – Bahrain
Mecca – Saudi Arabia
Muscat – Oman
Nicosia – Cyprus
Ramallah – Palestine
Sana'a – Yemen
Tehran – Iran
Tel Aviv – Israel

Other concepts of the region exist including the broader the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), which includes states of the Maghreb and Sudan, or the "Greater Middle East" which additionally also includes parts of East Africa, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and sometimes the South Caucasus and Central Asia.

Clash of Civilizations

Thesis that people's cultural and religious identities will be the primary source of conflict in the post–Cold War world.

The clash of civilizations according to Huntington (1996) 
The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order
Huntington at the 2004 World Economic Forum
Mohammad Khatami, reformist president of Iran (in office 1997–2005), introduced the theory of Dialogue Among Civilizations as a response to Huntington's theory.

The Muslim world of the Greater Middle East (excluding Armenia, Cyprus, Ethiopia, Georgia, Israel, Malta and South Sudan), northern West Africa, Albania, Pakistan, Bangladesh, parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brunei, Comoros, Indonesia, Malaysia, Maldives and southern Philippines.

Cultural area

In anthropology and geography, a cultural region, cultural sphere, cultural area or culture area refers to a geography with one relatively homogeneous human activity or complex of activities (culture).

Clark Wissler's map of native American cultural areas within the territory of the United States (1948)
Cultural areas of the world as defined by Whitten and Hunter
Cultural areas of Africa as defined by Melville J. Herskovits
China and areas with strong Chinese-culture influence
The Celtic nations, homelands of the Celtic languages, can be classed as a cultural region
The Nine Nations of North America

Greater Middle East

Ra's al Ghul

Supervillain appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics, commonly as an adversary of the crime-fighting vigilante Batman.

Raʼs al Ghul in Batman and Robin  #23.3 (September 2013). Art by Jorge Lucas
Cover of Batman #232 (June 1971), the first appearance of Ra's al Ghul. Art by Neal Adams.
Matthew Nable as Ra's al Ghul in Arrow.
Alexander Siddig as Ra's al Ghul in Gotham.
Liam Neeson as Ra's al Ghul / Henri Ducard in Batman Begins (2005).

Ra's al Ghul's adoptive use of Arabic monikers and the language itself is a result of al Ghul's settlement and cultured history both in erudition and regional pursuit of Lazarus Pit/longevity sources most commonly unearthed throughout the Greater Middle East (e.g. The Well of Sins in the Arabian Peninsula, Red Hood and the Outlaws #22 (2013) by James Tynion IV and Julius Gopez) to East Asia (Peaches of Immortality, Year One: Batman/Ra's al Ghul #1).

Arundo donax

Tall perennial cane.

Arundo donax
Phyllostachys aurea (golden bamboo) and Arundo donax
Arundo donax
Arundo donax

Arundo donax grows in damp soils, either fresh or moderately saline, and is native to the Greater Middle East.

Definition of terrorism

No universal agreement on the legal definition of terrorism, although there exists a consensus academic definition created by scholars.

A 30 January 1795 use of the word 'terrorism' in The Times, an early appearance in English. The excerpt reads: "There exists more than one system to overthrow our liberty. Fanaticism has raised every passion; Royalism has not yet given up its hopes, and Terrorism feels bolder than ever."
The Baghdad bus station was the scene of a triple car bombing in August 2005 that killed 43 people.

The term has been depicted as carrying racist, xenophobic and ethnocentric connotations when used as an ethnic slur aimed at Arabs or Middle Easterners, or at someone of Arab or Greater Middle Eastern descent or when used by white supremacists.

Regional power

Term used for a state that has power within a geographical region.

Leaders of most regional powers during the 2015 G-20 Summit

Traditionally, Northern Africa, or the Maghreb, has often been grouped with the Arab world or the Greater Middle East due to its close connection to Western Asia in both demographics and culture.

Suliman S. Olayan

Among Saudi Arabia's wealthiest businessmen.

Beginning in the late 1980s, the Group embarked on a series of new activities in Saudi Arabia, focusing on light manufacturing and franchising, reaching beyond the Kingdom to other Persian Gulf countries and the greater Middle East.