Important early stages in the history of the Polish state and church took place on the island of Ostrów Tumski. Remnants of the original palatium–chapel complex of Poland's first Christian ruling couple have been found beneath the church in the foreground. The Poznań Cathedral is located on the right.
A map of Greater Poland/Great Poland during Piast period from the Codex diplomaticus Maioris Poloniae, based on data from historical documents
Expansion of the Polans territory under the Piast dynasty in the 10th century
A map of Polish dialects. The area where Greater Poland's dialect is spoken is marked in violet.
An image on the Gniezno Doors at the entrance to Gniezno Cathedral depicts Bolesław buying Adalbert's body back from the Prussians
Poznań Town Hall
Poland (992–1025); area within dark pink color represents the borders at the end of the rule of Mieszko I (992); dark red border comprises the area at the end of the reign of Bolesław I (1025)
Palace of the Raczyński family in Rogalin, within the Rogalin Landscape Park
Mieszko II shown allegorically with Duchess Matilda of Swabia
Gniezno cathedral
St. Andrew's Church in Kraków (built in the 11th century)
Kalisz Town Hall
St. Leonard's Crypt is all that remains of the second Romanesque Wawel Cathedral of Władysław Herman
Leszno town hall
Płock Cathedral is the burial place of Władysław I Herman and Bolesław III Wrymouth
Marian sanctuary in Licheń near Konin
Poland during the rule of Bolesław III Wrymouth
Collegiate church in Tum
Mongol invasion of Poland (late 1240–1241) culminated in the Battle of Legnica
Ostsiedlung or German settlement in the east, miniature from Sachsenspiegel
Thorn (Toruń), established by the Teutonic Knights became a member of the Hanseatic League
Henry IV of Wrocław in the Codex Manesse, about 1300
Archbishop Jakub Świnka
Gothic Cathedral of St. John the Baptist in Wrocław
A fragment of a sandstone sarcophagus depicting Władysław I the Elbow-high in Wawel Cathedral, Kraków
Sarcophagus of Casimir the Great at Wawel Cathedral
Poland at the end of the rule of Casimir III (1370) is shown within the dark red border; Silesia (yellow) was lost, while the kingdom had expanded to the east
Foundation of the Collegiate church in Wiślica by Casimir III the Great
Queen Jadwiga was the great-granddaughter of Władysław I the Elbow-high
St. Mary's Church in Kraków
Mongol invasion of Poland (late 1240–1241) culminated in the Battle of Legnica

Because Greater Poland was the settlement area of the Polans and the core of the early Polish state, the region was at times simply called "Poland" (Latin Polonia).

- Greater Poland

The tribe of the Polans (Polanie, lit. "people of the fields") in what is now Greater Poland gave rise to a tribal predecessor of the Polish state in the early part of the 10th century, with the Polans settling in the flatlands around the emerging strongholds of Giecz, Poznań, Gniezno and Ostrów Lednicki.

- History of Poland during the Piast dynasty

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Poznań

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14th-century seal showing Poznań's coat of arms
Monument of Mieszko I and Boleslaus I the Brave, Golden Chapel at the Poznań Cathedral
Poznań Cathedral (center) and the smaller Church of Holy Virgin Mary to its right, standing on the site of the original ducal residence
Royal Castle after its total reconstruction
Poznań, c. undefined 1617, view from the north
Interior details in the Parish Church, or simply Fara, built in 1651–1701. One of the most stunning and best preserved examples of baroque architecture in Poland
Raczyński Library (1828) at Liberty Square in 2016
Old Market Square in 1934. The Odwach guardhouse and the 1893's New Town Hall, which was not rebuilt after World War II
The skyline of Poznań, as seen from the east bank of the Warta river
Malta lake, the Mound of Freedom and artificial ski slope Malta-ski
Administrative division into 42 osiedla auxiliary units since 2011
The pre-1990 city division into main districts dzielnica, which are still retained for some administrative purposes
Bałtyk office building
A view of Stary Browar, Poznań Financial Centre, and Andersia Tower from the Collegium Altum of the University of Economics
Historical Herbrand B3/H0 horse-drawn tram used in Poznań between 1880 and 1898
The Renaissance Town Hall from 1560 served as the seat of local government until 1939 and now houses a museum
Grand Theatre behind Adama Mickiewicza Park
St. Martin's croissant
Collegium Minus of the Adam Mickiewicz University
AMU's Faculty of Political Science and Journalism at the Campus Morasko
Faculty of Chemical Technologies – Poznań University of Technology
Academy of Music
Municipal Stadium
Hala Arena before planned modernization
Poznań Główny – main railway station
Greater Poland Railways train at the Poznań Główny
A2 motorway before the six-lane expansion done in 2019
Moderus Gamma tram, which is produced near Poznań, in city's eastern underground section
City Bike's station
Solaris bus; they are also produced near Poznań
Eurocopter EC135 Lifeguard 9 waiting for an emergency dispatch at the Ławica Airport
Freedom Square (Plac Wolności)
Imperial Castle, now the Zamek Culture Centre
Merchant houses, originally 16th century's herring stalls, at the Old Market Square
Bamberka fountain at the Old Market Square
Śródka's Tale Mural in 2015
Stary Browar, Kufel by Wojciech Kujawski (Guinness ratified largest beer mug in the world), and Art Stations Foundation gallery in the background
Poznań Goat mascot, Old Market Square
Rogalin's Raczyński Palace within Rogalin Landscape Park, some 8 mi south of Poznań. Rear view

Poznań is a city on the River Warta in west-central Poland, within the Greater Poland region.

The city's full official name is Stołeczne Miasto Poznań (The Capital City of Poznań), in reference to its role as a centre of political power in the early Polish state under the Piast dynasty.

Lesser Poland

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Historical region situated in southern and south-eastern Poland.

Historical region situated in southern and south-eastern Poland.

Wawel Castle in Kraków
Old Town in Lublin
Mannerist architecture in Tarnów
The Lesser Poland Province of the Polish Crown in the widest sense – with Red Ruthenia, Podlachia, Podolia and Kiev
Palm Sunday in Lipnica Murowana.
The 1507 Lesser Poland and Red Ruthenia Map (Polonia Minor, Russia) by Martin Waldseemüller
Kazimierz Dolny on the right bank of the Vistula river.
Niepołomice
Pieniny National Park
Będzin Castle, which guarded the western border of Lesser Poland
Kozłówka Palace
Palatial residence in Kurozwęki
Pieskowa Skała
Members of the regional Folk Group of Wilamowice "Cepelia Fil Wilamowice"
Lachy Sądeckie are a group of ethnic Poles who live in southern Lesser Poland
Broad Gauge Metallurgy Line
Czarny Staw (Black Pond) in the High Tatras
Nowy Wiśnicz
Baranów Sandomierski
Vistula in Sandomierz
"Peasant war" by Jan Lewicki (1795–1871)
Galizien
In the 19th century, Kraków's Jagiellonian University was a major center of Polish science and culture
Gorals from Beskidy
Castle of Bobolice
Wieliczka Salt Mine, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Pope John Paul II was born in Wadowice, Lesser Poland, in 1920
Soldiers of Holy Cross Mountains Brigade in parade 1945
A fire engine made by FSC Star in Lesser Poland's Starachowice
Boundary between Lesser Poland and Upper Silesia (red line) on the territory of current Silesian Voivodeship
Kraków is the capital of Lesser Poland
Lublin, the second-largest city of Lesser Poland
Częstochowa, the third-largest city of Lesser Poland
Radom, the fourth-largest city of Lesser Poland
Sosnowiec, the fifth-largest city of Lesser Poland
Folklore group in Podhale costume, Bukowina Tatrzańska, Lesser Poland, 2016
Polish flat soda bread (known as Proziaki in podkarpacie)
KS Cracovia on Independence Day 2019
A map of Polish dialects. The area where Lesser Poland's dialect is spoken is marked in orange.

Unlike other historical parts of the country, such as Kujawy, Mazovia, Podlachia, Pomerania, or Greater Poland, Lesser Poland is mainly hilly, with Poland's highest peak, Rysy, located within the borders of the province.

In 1138, following the Testament of Bolesław III Krzywousty, the country was divided between his sons (see also Fragmentation of Poland).

Poland subdivided into five provinces among the sons of Bolesław

Testament of Bolesław III Wrymouth

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Poland subdivided into five provinces among the sons of Bolesław
Fragmentation of Poland between the sons of Bolesław III in 1138:
Seniorate Province of Władysław II.
Silesian Province of Władysław II.
Masovian Province of Bolesław IV.
Greater Poland Province of Mieszko III.
Sandomierz Province of Henry. 
Łęczyca Province of Salomea of Berg.
Pomeranian vassals under the rule of Władysław II.

The last will and testament of the Piast duke Bolesław III Wrymouth of Poland, established rules for governance of the Polish kingdom by his four surviving sons after his death.

the Seniorate Province (or Duchy of Kraków), composed of western Lesser Poland, the eastern parts of Greater Poland, western Kuyavia and the lands of Sieradz, assigned to Bolesław's eldest son and future High Duke Władysław II, as well as the lands of Łęczyca which were held by Bolesław's widow Salomea of Berg for life and to revert to the Seniorate Province upon her death;

Kingdom of Poland between 1304 and 1333, including the Duchy of Grater Poland.

Duchy of Greater Poland

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Kingdom of Poland between 1304 and 1333, including the Duchy of Grater Poland.
Fragmentation of Poland in 1138:
Map of the 13th-century Duchy of Greater Poland. Territories lost in the 13th century marked in yellow (Lubusz Land) and green (northwestern Greater Poland)
Ducal seal of Władysław Odonic, 1231
The rebuilt Royal Castle, Poznań in Poznań

The Duchy of Greater Poland was a district principality in Greater Poland that was a fiefdom of the Kingdom of Poland.

It was formed in 1138 from the territories of the Kingdom of Poland, following its fragmentation started by the testament of Bolesław III Wrymouth.

West Slavs of the 9th–10th centuries

Polans (western)

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West Slavs of the 9th–10th centuries
A fragment of the Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum (1073) by Adam of Bremen containing the name Polans – trans Oddaram sunt Polanos.

The Western Polans (also known as Polanes, Polanians; Polanie, derived from Old Slavic pole, "field" or "plain", from Proto-Indo-European *pleh₂- "flatland") were a West Slavic and Lechitic tribe, inhabiting the Warta River basin of the contemporary Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century.

The union led by the Piast dynasty developed into the Duchy of Poland, whose name derives from that of the Polans.

Kalisz

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City in central Poland, and the second-largest city in the Greater Poland Voivodeship, with 99,106 residents .

City in central Poland, and the second-largest city in the Greater Poland Voivodeship, with 99,106 residents .

Mediaeval seal of the city of Kalisz
Polish King Sigismund II Augustus confirms the old privileges of Kalisz, 1552
Kalisz Tribunal and Courthouse
Rynek (Market Square)
Execution of a Polish priest by the Germans in 1939
Deportation of the Jews of Kalisz
Memorial at the site of a massacre of 150 Poles in Winiary
Market Square at dusk
Wojciech Bogusławski Theatre in Kalisz
Old Town with the Collegiate Basillica of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary on the left
Saint Nicholas Cathedral in the Old Town
Arena Kalisz, the city's main indoor hall, home venue of the MKS Kalisz men's handball team and Calisia Kalisz women's volleyball team
Adam Asnyk, positivist poet
Avraham Gombiner, rabbi and scholar
Theodor Meron, judge
Stanisław Wojciechowski, president of Poland (1922-1926)

Situated on the Prosna river in the southeastern part of Greater Poland, the city forms a conurbation with the nearby towns of Ostrów Wielkopolski and Nowe Skalmierzyce.

One of the richest towns of Greater Poland, during the feudal fragmentation of Poland it formed a separate duchy ruled by a local branch of the Piast dynasty.

Crown of the Kingdom of Poland

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Common name for the historic Late Middle Ages territorial possessions of the King of Poland, including the Kingdom of Poland proper.

Common name for the historic Late Middle Ages territorial possessions of the King of Poland, including the Kingdom of Poland proper.

Crown of the Kingdom of Poland within Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1635.
Banner of the Kingdom of Poland until the 15th century
Banner of Poland and Lithuania in the Chronicle of the Council of Constance (1416)
First page of the original Constitution
Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, 1635
Voivodeships of the Commonwealth of the Two Nations
Map showing voivodeships of the Commonwealth of the Two Nations
The Crown and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania 1386–1434
The Spiš (Zips) region. Light blue and green areas show the pawned territories, red line shows current borders, yellow former border between then Hungary and Poland and the black borders between counties
High-level administrative map of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and its fiefdoms in 1619 (superimposed on the modern map of Central and Eastern Europe).
The possessions of the Polish Crown
Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
Duchy of Prussia (semi-independent Polish fiefdom).
Duchy of Courland and Semigallia, Lithuanian fief.
Duchy of Livonia.

After the Union of Lublin (1569) Crown lands were divided into two provinces: Lesser Poland (Polish: Małopolska) and Greater Poland (Polish: Wielkopolska).

Despite being disfavored by the brief union of Angevin Poland and Hungary (the latter was still the country's overlord), Bogdan's successor Lațcu, the Moldavian ruler also likely allied himself with the Poles.

Pomerania

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Historical region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in Central Europe, split between Poland and Germany.

Historical region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in Central Europe, split between Poland and Germany.

Polish-defined Western Pomerania/German-defined Pomerania
17th-century map of the Duchy of Pomerania
Location of the Pomeranian Voivodeship within the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
The Prussian Province of Pomerania within Prussia and the German Empire circa 1871.
Kashubians in regional dress
A map of Polish dialects. The Pomorze region contains the Kashubian language and a mix of Polish dialects from other parts of the country.
National Museum in Szczecin (Pałac Sejmu Stanów Pomorskich, Landeshaus)
Typical Pomeranian beach (West Pomeranian Voivodeship)
Wdzydze Lake (Pomeranian Voivodeship)
Wolin National Park (West Pomeranian Voivodeship)
Słowiński National Park (Pomeranian Voivodeship)
Usedom/Uznam (Western Pomerania)
Cape Arkona (Western Pomerania)
Szczecin
Stralsund
Gdańsk
Stralsund, one of several Hanseatic cities built in typical Brick Gothic style.
Ruins of Augustinians' cloister in Jasienica, Police.
Cathedral Basilica of the Assumption in Pelplin, one of the largest churches in Poland
Teutonic Knights' castle in Gniew, Pomerelia.

The West Pomeranian Voivodeship (Zachodniopomorskie) in Poland, stretching from the Oder–Neisse line to the Wieprza river, encompassing most of historical Pomerania in the narrow sense (as well as small parts of historic Greater Poland and Lubusz Land).

Starting in the 10th century, early Polish rulers subdued the region, successfully integrating the eastern part with Poland, while the western part fell under the suzerainty of Denmark and the Holy Roman Empire in the late 12th century.

Karol Marconi, Statute of Wiślica being granted by Casimir the Great

Statutes of Casimir the Great

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Statutes of Casimir the Great or Piotrków-Wiślica Statutes (Statuty wiślicko-piotrkowskie) - a collection of laws issued by Casimir III the Great, the king of Poland, in the years 1346-1362 during congresses in Piotrków and Wiślica.

Statutes of Casimir the Great or Piotrków-Wiślica Statutes (Statuty wiślicko-piotrkowskie) - a collection of laws issued by Casimir III the Great, the king of Poland, in the years 1346-1362 during congresses in Piotrków and Wiślica.

Karol Marconi, Statute of Wiślica being granted by Casimir the Great

In the middle of the 12th century, following the ill-thought testament of Bolesław III Krzywousty, his sons begun the process of fragmentation of Poland.

The Piotrków statute regulated the law in Greater Poland (Wielkopolska), and the Wiślica statute in Lesser Poland (Małopolska).