Greater Poland

A map of Greater Poland/Great Poland during Piast period from the Codex diplomaticus Maioris Poloniae, based on data from historical documents
A map of Polish dialects. The area where Greater Poland's dialect is spoken is marked in violet.
Poznań Town Hall
Palace of the Raczyński family in Rogalin, within the Rogalin Landscape Park
Gniezno cathedral
Kalisz Town Hall
Leszno town hall
Marian sanctuary in Licheń near Konin

Historical region of west-central Poland.

- Greater Poland

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Poznań

14th-century seal showing Poznań's coat of arms
Monument of Mieszko I and Boleslaus I the Brave, Golden Chapel at the Poznań Cathedral
Poznań Cathedral (center) and the smaller Church of Holy Virgin Mary to its right, standing on the site of the original ducal residence
Royal Castle after its total reconstruction
Poznań, c. undefined 1617, view from the north
Interior details in the Parish Church, or simply Fara, built in 1651–1701. One of the most stunning and best preserved examples of baroque architecture in Poland
Raczyński Library (1828) at Liberty Square in 2016
Old Market Square in 1934. The Odwach guardhouse and the 1893's New Town Hall, which was not rebuilt after World War II
The skyline of Poznań, as seen from the east bank of the Warta river
Malta lake, the Mound of Freedom and artificial ski slope Malta-ski
Administrative division into 42 osiedla auxiliary units since 2011
The pre-1990 city division into main districts dzielnica, which are still retained for some administrative purposes
Bałtyk office building
A view of Stary Browar, Poznań Financial Centre, and Andersia Tower from the Collegium Altum of the University of Economics
Historical Herbrand B3/H0 horse-drawn tram used in Poznań between 1880 and 1898
The Renaissance Town Hall from 1560 served as the seat of local government until 1939 and now houses a museum
Grand Theatre behind Adama Mickiewicza Park
St. Martin's croissant
Collegium Minus of the Adam Mickiewicz University
AMU's Faculty of Political Science and Journalism at the Campus Morasko
Faculty of Chemical Technologies – Poznań University of Technology
Academy of Music
Municipal Stadium
Hala Arena before planned modernization
Poznań Główny – main railway station
Greater Poland Railways train at the Poznań Główny
A2 motorway before the six-lane expansion done in 2019
Moderus Gamma tram, which is produced near Poznań, in city's eastern underground section
City Bike's station
Solaris bus; they are also produced near Poznań
Eurocopter EC135 Lifeguard 9 waiting for an emergency dispatch at the Ławica Airport
Freedom Square (Plac Wolności)
Imperial Castle, now the Zamek Culture Centre
Merchant houses, originally 16th century's herring stalls, at the Old Market Square
Bamberka fountain at the Old Market Square
Śródka's Tale Mural in 2015
Stary Browar, Kufel by Wojciech Kujawski (Guinness ratified largest beer mug in the world), and Art Stations Foundation gallery in the background
Poznań Goat mascot, Old Market Square
Rogalin's Raczyński Palace within Rogalin Landscape Park, some 8 mi south of Poznań. Rear view

Poznań is a city on the River Warta in west-central Poland, within the Greater Poland region.

Poland

Country in Central Europe.

Country in Central Europe.

A reconstruction of a Bronze Age, Lusatian culture settlement in Biskupin, 8th century BC
Poland under the rule of Mieszko I, whose acceptance of Christianity under the auspices of the Latin Church and the Baptism of Poland marked the beginning of statehood in 966.
Casimir III the Great is the only Polish king to receive the title of Great. He built extensively during his reign, and reformed the Polish army along with the country's legal code, 1333–70.
The Battle of Grunwald was fought against the German Order of Teutonic Knights, and resulted in a decisive victory for the Kingdom of Poland, 15 July 1410.
Wawel Castle in Kraków, seat of Polish kings from 1038 until the capital was moved to Warsaw in 1596.
King John III Sobieski defeated the Ottoman Turks at the Battle of Vienna on 12 September 1683.
Stanisław II Augustus, the last King of Poland, reigned from 1764 until his abdication on 25 November 1795.
The partitions of Poland, carried out by the Kingdom of Prussia (blue), the Russian Empire (brown), and the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy (green) in 1772, 1793 and 1795.
Chief of State Marshal Józef Piłsudski was a hero of the Polish independence campaign and the nation's premiere statesman from 1918 until his death on 12 May 1935.
Polish Army 7TP tanks on military manoeuvres shortly before the invasion of Poland in 1939
Pilots of the 303 Polish Fighter Squadron during the Battle of Britain, October 1940
Map of the Holocaust in German-occupied Poland with deportation routes and massacre sites. Major ghettos are marked with yellow stars. Nazi extermination camps are marked with white skulls in black squares. The border in 1941 between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union is marked in red.
At High Noon, 4 June 1989 — political poster featuring Gary Cooper to encourage votes for the Solidarity party in the 1989 elections
Flowers in front of the Presidential Palace following the death of Poland's top government officials in a plane crash on 10 April 2010
Topographic map of Poland
Morskie Oko alpine lake in the Tatra Mountains. Poland has one of the highest densities of lakes in the world.
The wisent, one of Poland's national animals, is commonly found at the ancient and UNESCO-protected Białowieża Forest.
The Sejm is the lower house of the parliament of Poland.
The Constitution of 3 May adopted in 1791 was the first modern constitution in Europe.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, located in Warsaw
Polish Air Force F-16s, a single-engine multirole fighter aircraft
A Mercedes-Benz Sprinter patrol van belonging to the Polish State Police Service (Policja)
The Old City of Zamość is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
PKP Intercity Pendolino at the Wrocław railway station
Physicist and chemist Maria Skłodowska-Curie was the first person to win two Nobel Prizes.
Nicolaus Copernicus, the 16th century Polish astronomer who formulated the heliocentric model of the solar system.
Population of Poland from 1900 to 2010 in millions of inhabitants
Dolina Jadwigi — a bilingual Polish-Kashubian road sign with the village name
John Paul II, born Karol Wojtyła, held the papacy between 1978-2005 and was the first Pole to become a Roman Catholic Pope.
Jagiellonian University in Kraków
The Polish White Eagle is Poland's enduring national and cultural symbol
All Saints' Day on 1 November is one of the most important public holidays in Poland.
Lady with an Ermine (1490) by Leonardo da Vinci. It symbolises Poland's cultural heritage and identity.
Selection of hearty traditional comfort food from Poland, including bigos, gołąbki, żurek, pierogi, placki ziemniaczane, and rye bread.
Traditional polonaise dresses, 1780–1785.
Andrzej Wajda, the recipient of an Honorary Oscar, the Palme d'Or, as well as Honorary Golden Lion and Golden Bear Awards.
Headquarters of the publicly funded national television network TVP in Warsaw
The Stadion Narodowy in Warsaw, home of the national football team, and one of the host stadiums of Euro 2012.

The name is derived from the Polans, a West Slavic tribe who inhabited the Warta River basin of present-day Greater Poland region (6th–8th century CE).

Lesser Poland

Historical region situated in southern and south-eastern Poland.

Historical region situated in southern and south-eastern Poland.

Wawel Castle in Kraków
Old Town in Lublin
Mannerist architecture in Tarnów
The Lesser Poland Province of the Polish Crown in the widest sense – with Red Ruthenia, Podlachia, Podolia and Kiev
Palm Sunday in Lipnica Murowana.
The 1507 Lesser Poland and Red Ruthenia Map (Polonia Minor, Russia) by Martin Waldseemüller
Kazimierz Dolny on the right bank of the Vistula river.
Niepołomice
Pieniny National Park
Będzin Castle, which guarded the western border of Lesser Poland
Kozłówka Palace
Palatial residence in Kurozwęki
Pieskowa Skała
Members of the regional Folk Group of Wilamowice "Cepelia Fil Wilamowice"
Lachy Sądeckie are a group of ethnic Poles who live in southern Lesser Poland
Broad Gauge Metallurgy Line
Czarny Staw (Black Pond) in the High Tatras
Nowy Wiśnicz
Baranów Sandomierski
Vistula in Sandomierz
"Peasant war" by Jan Lewicki (1795–1871)
Galizien
In the 19th century, Kraków's Jagiellonian University was a major center of Polish science and culture
Gorals from Beskidy
Castle of Bobolice
Wieliczka Salt Mine, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Pope John Paul II was born in Wadowice, Lesser Poland, in 1920
Soldiers of Holy Cross Mountains Brigade in parade 1945
A fire engine made by FSC Star in Lesser Poland's Starachowice
Boundary between Lesser Poland and Upper Silesia (red line) on the territory of current Silesian Voivodeship
Kraków is the capital of Lesser Poland
Lublin, the second-largest city of Lesser Poland
Częstochowa, the third-largest city of Lesser Poland
Radom, the fourth-largest city of Lesser Poland
Sosnowiec, the fifth-largest city of Lesser Poland
Folklore group in Podhale costume, Bukowina Tatrzańska, Lesser Poland, 2016
Polish flat soda bread (known as Proziaki in podkarpacie)
KS Cracovia on Independence Day 2019
A map of Polish dialects. The area where Lesser Poland's dialect is spoken is marked in orange.

Unlike other historical parts of the country, such as Kujawy, Mazovia, Podlachia, Pomerania, or Greater Poland, Lesser Poland is mainly hilly, with Poland's highest peak, Rysy, located within the borders of the province.

Gniezno

City in central-western Poland, about 50 km east of Poznań, with 68,943 inhabitants making it the sixth-largest city in the Greater Poland Voivodeship.

City in central-western Poland, about 50 km east of Poznań, with 68,943 inhabitants making it the sixth-largest city in the Greater Poland Voivodeship.

Medieval seal of Gniezno
King Władysław IV Vasa confirms the old privileges of Gniezno, 1635
19th-century painting of Gniezno
Memorial at the site of a German execution of 24 Poles in November 1939 in the Dalki district
Gniezno during the visit of Pope John Paul II in 1979
View of Cathedral Basilica of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary and St. Adalbert. On the right side - church under the invocation of St. John the Baptist
Panorama of Gniezno. 19th century
Gniezno Old Town
Aleksander Fredro Theatre in Gniezno
Regional court
Gniezno Doors in the Cathedral
Coffin of Adalbert of Prague in the Cathedral
Market Square (Rynek)
Holy Trinity church
Franciscan church
Gothic Saint John the Baptist church in winter
Saint Lawrence church
Monument of King Bolesław I the Brave with the Cathedral in the background
Museum of the Polish State Origins
Museum of Archdiocese in Gniezno
Episcopal palace of Primates of Poland
Saint George's Church

The emperor and the Polish duke celebrated the foundation of the Polish ecclesiastical province (archbishopric) in Gniezno, along with newly established bishoprics in Kołobrzeg for Pomerania; Wrocław for Silesia; Kraków for Lesser Poland in addition to the bishopric in Poznań for western Greater Poland, which was established in 968.

Province of Posen

Province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1848 to 1920.

Province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1848 to 1920.

Posen (red) within Prussia (white) and the German Empire (white, beige and red)
1919 German army permit to enter the Polish territory of Posen, just ceded to Poland.
Posen (red) within Prussia (white) and the German Empire (white, beige and red)
Province of Posen, 1905, Polish-speaking areas according to Prussian census shown in yellow
Regierungsbezirke Posen (pink) and Bromberg (green) and Kreise subdivisions
Language situation in the province of Posen according to the Prussian census of 1910.

The 29000 km2 area roughly corresponded to the historic region of Greater Poland.

Grand Duchy of Posen

Part of the Kingdom of Prussia, created from territories annexed by Prussia after the Partitions of Poland, and formally established following the Napoleonic Wars in 1815.

Part of the Kingdom of Prussia, created from territories annexed by Prussia after the Partitions of Poland, and formally established following the Napoleonic Wars in 1815.

The Grand Duchy of Posen (red) in 1848.
The Prussian Province of Posen. Yellow colour: Polish-speaking areas according to German authorities, as of 1905
The Grand Duchy of Posen (red) in 1848.
Grand Duchy of Posen (light blue) after its creation, in 1815

Originally part of the Kingdom of Poland, this area largely coincided with Greater Poland.

Important early stages in the history of the Polish state and church took place on the island of Ostrów Tumski. Remnants of the original palatium–chapel complex of Poland's first Christian ruling couple have been found beneath the church in the foreground. The Poznań Cathedral is located on the right.

History of Poland during the Piast dynasty

First major stage of the history of the Polish state.

First major stage of the history of the Polish state.

Important early stages in the history of the Polish state and church took place on the island of Ostrów Tumski. Remnants of the original palatium–chapel complex of Poland's first Christian ruling couple have been found beneath the church in the foreground. The Poznań Cathedral is located on the right.
Expansion of the Polans territory under the Piast dynasty in the 10th century
An image on the Gniezno Doors at the entrance to Gniezno Cathedral depicts Bolesław buying Adalbert's body back from the Prussians
Poland (992–1025); area within dark pink color represents the borders at the end of the rule of Mieszko I (992); dark red border comprises the area at the end of the reign of Bolesław I (1025)
Mieszko II shown allegorically with Duchess Matilda of Swabia
St. Andrew's Church in Kraków (built in the 11th century)
St. Leonard's Crypt is all that remains of the second Romanesque Wawel Cathedral of Władysław Herman
Płock Cathedral is the burial place of Władysław I Herman and Bolesław III Wrymouth
Poland during the rule of Bolesław III Wrymouth
Collegiate church in Tum
Mongol invasion of Poland (late 1240–1241) culminated in the Battle of Legnica
Ostsiedlung or German settlement in the east, miniature from Sachsenspiegel
Thorn (Toruń), established by the Teutonic Knights became a member of the Hanseatic League
Henry IV of Wrocław in the Codex Manesse, about 1300
Archbishop Jakub Świnka
Gothic Cathedral of St. John the Baptist in Wrocław
A fragment of a sandstone sarcophagus depicting Władysław I the Elbow-high in Wawel Cathedral, Kraków
Sarcophagus of Casimir the Great at Wawel Cathedral
Poland at the end of the rule of Casimir III (1370) is shown within the dark red border; Silesia (yellow) was lost, while the kingdom had expanded to the east
Foundation of the Collegiate church in Wiślica by Casimir III the Great
Queen Jadwiga was the great-granddaughter of Władysław I the Elbow-high
St. Mary's Church in Kraków

The tribe of the Polans (Polanie, lit. "people of the fields") in what is now Greater Poland gave rise to a tribal predecessor of the Polish state in the early part of the 10th century, with the Polans settling in the flatlands around the emerging strongholds of Giecz, Poznań, Gniezno and Ostrów Lednicki.

Duchy of Warsaw

Polish client state of the French Empire established by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1807, during the Napoleonic Wars.

Polish client state of the French Empire established by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1807, during the Napoleonic Wars.

The Duchy of Warsaw in 1812
Prince Józef Poniatowski, Commander in Chief of the Army of the Duchy of Warsaw, by Josef Grassi
The Duchy of Warsaw in 1812
Polish uhlans from the Army of the Duchy of Warsaw, 1807–1815. Painting by January Suchodolski
Map of the Duchy of Warsaw, 1807–1809
Map of the Duchy of Warsaw, 1809–1815
Napoleon conferring the Constitution in 1807

The Kulmerland and Gdansk (Danzig) became part of the Province of West Prussia; the remaining territories (i.e., Greater Poland/Poznań), which covered an area of approximately 29000 km2, were reconstituted into the Grand Duchy of Posen.

Allegory of the first partition of Poland, showing Catherine the Great of Russia (left), Joseph II of Austria and Frederick the Great of Prussia (right) quarrelling over their territorial seizures

Partitions of Poland

The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.

The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.

Allegory of the first partition of Poland, showing Catherine the Great of Russia (left), Joseph II of Austria and Frederick the Great of Prussia (right) quarrelling over their territorial seizures
Włodzimierz Tetmajer, Allegory of Dead Poland, St. Nicholas Cathedral, Kalisz
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth after the First Partition, as a protectorate of the Russian Empire (1773–89)
Rejtan at Sejm 1773, oil on canvas by Jan Matejko, 1866, 282 x, Royal Castle in Warsaw
The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after the Second Partition (1793)
1793 Russian campaign medal
"A map of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania including Samogitia and Curland divided according to their dismemberments with the Kingdom of Prussia" from 1799
The partition of Poland according to the German–Soviet Pact; division of Polish territories in the years 1939–1941

Frederick II of Prussia was elated with his success; Prussia took most of Royal Prussia (without Danzig) that stood between its possessions in the Kingdom of Prussia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg, as well as Ermland (Warmia), northern areas of Greater Poland along the Noteć River (the Netze District), and parts of Kuyavia (but not the city of Toruń).

South Prussia 1795–1806

South Prussia

Province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1793 to 1807.

Province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1793 to 1807.

South Prussia 1795–1806
Map South Prussia (Südpreussen) and the Departments of Posen, Kalisch, and Warschau, 1801-1807

the Poznań, Kalisz and Gniezno Voivodeships of Greater Poland;