Greater Somalia

Pan-Somalismpan-SomalistannexlandsPan-Somali MovementSomali irredentismSomali nationalistSomali territoriesunited Somalia
Greater Somalia (Soomaaliweyn, الصومال الكبير) comprises the regions in or near the Horn of Africa in which ethnic Somalis live and have historically inhabited.wikipedia
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Somalia

SomaliFederal Republic of SomaliaSOM
At the present day, it encompasses Northern De facto Somaliland, southern Somalia, eastern Djibouti, the Somali region and Dire Dawa in Ethiopia, and the Lamu, Garissa, Wajir and Mandera Counties (all except Lamu formed part of the former North Eastern Province, which was abolished in 2013) in Kenya.
In July 1977, the Ogaden War broke out after Barre's government used a plea for national unity to justify an aggressive incorporation of the predominantly Somali-inhabited Ogaden region of Ethiopia into a Pan-Somali Greater Somalia, along with the rich agricultural lands of south-eastern Ethiopia, infrastructure, and strategically important areas as far north as Djibouti.

Horn of Africa

HornSomali peninsulanortheastern Africa
Greater Somalia (Soomaaliweyn, الصومال الكبير) comprises the regions in or near the Horn of Africa in which ethnic Somalis live and have historically inhabited.
In July 1977, the Ogaden War broke out after the government of President of Somalia Siad Barre sought to incorporate the predominantly Somali-inhabited Ogaden region into a Pan-Somali Greater Somalia.

Shifta War

insurgentsshifta menace
The pursuit of this goal has led to conflict: Somalia engaged after World War II in the Ogaden War with Ethiopia over the Ogaden region, and supported Somali insurgents against Kenya.
The Shifta War (1963–1967) was a secessionist conflict in which ethnic Somalis in the Northern Frontier District (NFD) of Kenya (a region that is and has historically been almost exclusively inhabited by ethnic Somalis ) attempted to secede from Kenya join with their fellow Somalis in a Greater Somalia.

Somalis

SomaliSomali peopleSomali clan
Greater Somalia (Soomaaliweyn, الصومال الكبير) comprises the regions in or near the Horn of Africa in which ethnic Somalis live and have historically inhabited.
The five-pointed Star of Unity in the flag's center represents the Somali ethnic group inhabiting the five territories in Greater Somalia.

Italian Somaliland

Italian SomaliaSomaliaSomaliland
The territory historically encompassed British Somaliland, Italian Somaliland, French Somaliland, the Ogaden in the Ethiopian Empire and the Northern Frontier District in the Colony and Protectorate of Kenya.
Then Prime Minister of Italy Benito Mussolini regarded Greater Somalia (La Grande Somalia) as the crown jewel in Italy's colonial empire on the continent.

Somali Region

SomaliSomali Regional State eastern Ethiopia
At the present day, it encompasses Northern De facto Somaliland, southern Somalia, eastern Djibouti, the Somali region and Dire Dawa in Ethiopia, and the Lamu, Garissa, Wajir and Mandera Counties (all except Lamu formed part of the former North Eastern Province, which was abolished in 2013) in Kenya.
The population is predominantly Somali, and there have been attempts to incorporate the area into a Greater Somalia.

Ogaden

Ogaden regionOgaden DesertOgadenia
The territory historically encompassed British Somaliland, Italian Somaliland, French Somaliland, the Ogaden in the Ethiopian Empire and the Northern Frontier District in the Colony and Protectorate of Kenya.
Following their conquest of Italian East Africa, the British sought to let the Ogaden be unified with British Somaliland and the former Italian Somaliland, to realize Greater Somalia which was supported by many Ogaden Somalis.

Mahmoud Harbi

Harbi Farah MahamoudMahamoud HarbiMahamoud Harbi Farah
However, the majority of those who voted "no" were Somalis who were strongly in favor of joining a united Somalia as had been proposed by Mahmoud Harbi.
A pan-Somalist, he was the Vice President of the Government Council of French Somaliland from 1957 to December 1958, during Djibouti's pre-independence period.

Somali Republic

SomaliaRepublic of Somalia1960 independence
The first armed conflict following the independence and unification of the former British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland territories, known collectively as the Somali Republic, began in 1963 in an ethnic Oromo and Somali district, Elekere, then part of Bale province, instigated by the Oromo founder of the United Liberation Forces of Oromia, Waqo Gutu.
The southern opposition party, the Greater Somalia League (GSL), pro-Arab and militantly pan-Somalist, attracted the support of the SNL and the USP against the SYL, which had adopted a moderate stand before independence.

Siad Barre

Mohamed Siad BarreMuhammad Siad BarreBarre
In 1981, Siad Barre visited Nairobi, and asserted that Somalia was suspending its claim on the North Eastern Province (NFD).
The Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party became Somalia's vanguard party in 1976, and Barre started the Ogaden War against Ethiopia on a platform of Somali nationalism and pan-Somalism.

Ogaden War

Ethio-Somali WarOgaden campaign1977–1978 conflict with Ethiopia
The pursuit of this goal has led to conflict: Somalia engaged after World War II in the Ogaden War with Ethiopia over the Ogaden region, and supported Somali insurgents against Kenya.
The weakness of the Barre administration led it to effectively abandon the dream of a unified Greater Somalia.

Somali nationalism

Pan-Somalismnationalismnationalist
Pan-Somalism refers to the vision of reunifying these areas to form a single Somali nation.
In July 1977, the Ogaden War against Ethiopia broke out after Barre's government sought to incorporate the predominantly Somali-inhabited Ogaden region into a Pan-Somali Greater Somalia.

Somali Civil War (2006–2009)

War in Somaliasecond phaseEthiopian invasion
These aims were sidelined after the decisive defeat of the ICU in the Battle of Baidoa and the subsequent actions of the war in Somalia by the allied forces of the Somali Transitional Federal Government (TFG), the autonomous governing zones of Puntland, Southwestern Somalia, Jubaland, and Galmudug and their military backer, Ethiopia.
Somali disgruntlement with this decision has led to repeated attempts to invade Ethiopia with the hopes of taking control of the Ogaden to create a Greater Somalia.

North Eastern Province (Kenya)

North Eastern ProvinceNorthern Frontier DistrictNorth Eastern
At the present day, it encompasses Northern De facto Somaliland, southern Somalia, eastern Djibouti, the Somali region and Dire Dawa in Ethiopia, and the Lamu, Garissa, Wajir and Mandera Counties (all except Lamu formed part of the former North Eastern Province, which was abolished in 2013) in Kenya. The territory historically encompassed British Somaliland, Italian Somaliland, French Somaliland, the Ogaden in the Ethiopian Empire and the Northern Frontier District in the Colony and Protectorate of Kenya.

Islamic Courts Union

Union of Islamic CourtsIslamic Court UnionICU
In late 2006, Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys, head of the Islamic Courts Union (ICU) that then controlled much of southern Somalia, declared, "We will leave no stone unturned to integrate our Somali brothers in Kenya and Ethiopia and restore their freedom to live with their ancestors in Somalia."
In reference to the Ogaden and the North Eastern Province, land traditionally inhabited by ethnic Somalis but now within the borders of Kenya and Ethiopia, the late leader of the ICU, Sheik Hassan Dahir Aweys, said that the ICU would do its best to incorporate said territories into a Greater Somalia:

Irredentism

irredentistirredentistsirredenta
The Kenyan Northern Frontier District also saw conflict during the Shifta War (1963–1967) when a secessionist conflict in which ethnic Somalis in the Lamu, Garissa, Wajir and Mandera counties (all except Lamu formed part of the former North Eastern Province, abolished in 2013), attempted to join with their fellow Somalis in a "Greater Somalia".

British Somaliland

SomalilandSomaliland ProtectorateBritish Somaliland Protectorate
The territory historically encompassed British Somaliland, Italian Somaliland, French Somaliland, the Ogaden in the Ethiopian Empire and the Northern Frontier District in the Colony and Protectorate of Kenya.

French Somaliland

French Somali CoastFrench SomaliaFrench
The territory historically encompassed British Somaliland, Italian Somaliland, French Somaliland, the Ogaden in the Ethiopian Empire and the Northern Frontier District in the Colony and Protectorate of Kenya.

Ethiopian Empire

EthiopiaAbyssiniaEthiopian
The territory historically encompassed British Somaliland, Italian Somaliland, French Somaliland, the Ogaden in the Ethiopian Empire and the Northern Frontier District in the Colony and Protectorate of Kenya.

Kenya Colony

KenyaBritish KenyaColony of Kenya
The territory historically encompassed British Somaliland, Italian Somaliland, French Somaliland, the Ogaden in the Ethiopian Empire and the Northern Frontier District in the Colony and Protectorate of Kenya.

Somaliland

RegionRepublic of SomalilandDistrict
At the present day, it encompasses Northern De facto Somaliland, southern Somalia, eastern Djibouti, the Somali region and Dire Dawa in Ethiopia, and the Lamu, Garissa, Wajir and Mandera Counties (all except Lamu formed part of the former North Eastern Province, which was abolished in 2013) in Kenya.

Djibouti

Republic of DjiboutiDjiboutianDjibuti
At the present day, it encompasses Northern De facto Somaliland, southern Somalia, eastern Djibouti, the Somali region and Dire Dawa in Ethiopia, and the Lamu, Garissa, Wajir and Mandera Counties (all except Lamu formed part of the former North Eastern Province, which was abolished in 2013) in Kenya.

Dire Dawa

DiredawaDire DauaDire-Dawa
At the present day, it encompasses Northern De facto Somaliland, southern Somalia, eastern Djibouti, the Somali region and Dire Dawa in Ethiopia, and the Lamu, Garissa, Wajir and Mandera Counties (all except Lamu formed part of the former North Eastern Province, which was abolished in 2013) in Kenya.

Ethiopia

EthiopianAbyssiniaFederal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
At the present day, it encompasses Northern De facto Somaliland, southern Somalia, eastern Djibouti, the Somali region and Dire Dawa in Ethiopia, and the Lamu, Garissa, Wajir and Mandera Counties (all except Lamu formed part of the former North Eastern Province, which was abolished in 2013) in Kenya. These aims were sidelined after the decisive defeat of the ICU in the Battle of Baidoa and the subsequent actions of the war in Somalia by the allied forces of the Somali Transitional Federal Government (TFG), the autonomous governing zones of Puntland, Southwestern Somalia, Jubaland, and Galmudug and their military backer, Ethiopia.