Greek War of Independence

Greek RevolutionGreek independenceGreek Revolution of 1821War of IndependenceWar of Greek Independenceindependence1821 RevolutionGreek Independence Dayrevolutionary leaderrevolution
The Greek War of Independence, also known as the Greek Revolution (Ελληνική Επανάσταση, Elliniki Epanastasi, or also referred to by Greeks in the 19th century as the Αγώνας, Agonas, "Struggle"; Ottoman: يونان عصياني Yunan İsyanı, "Greek Uprising"), was a successful war of independence waged by Greek revolutionaries against the Ottoman Empire between 1821 and 1830.wikipedia
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Ottoman Greece

Ottoman ruleGreeceOttoman period
During this time, there were several revolt attempts by Greeks to gain independence from Ottoman control.
This period of Ottoman rule in Greece, lasting from the mid-15th century until the successful Greek War of Independence that broke out in 1821 and the proclamation of the First Hellenic Republic in 1822 (preceded by the creation of the autonomous Septinsular Republic in 1800), is known in Greek as Tourkokratia (Τουρκοκρατία, "Turkish rule"; "Turkocracy").

Greece

GreekHellenic RepublicGreeks
Even several decades before the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453, most of Greece had come under Ottoman rule.
Falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence.

Theodoros Kolokotronis

KolokotronisGeneral KolokotronisTheodoros Kolokotronis (Lieutenant General) (in office 28 March – 14 April 1832)
By October 1821, the Greeks under Theodoros Kolokotronis had captured Tripolitsa.
Κολοκοτρώνης; 3 April 1770 – 4 February 1843) was a Greek general and the pre-eminent leader of the Greek War of Independence (1821–1829) against the Ottoman Empire.

Battle of Navarino

Navarino1827 Battle of Navarinobattle
The battle began after a tense week-long standoff, ending in the destruction of the Ottoman–Egyptian fleet.
The Battle of Navarino was a naval battle fought on 20 October 1827, during the Greek War of Independence (1821–32), in Navarino Bay (modern Pylos), on the west coast of the Peloponnese peninsula, in the Ionian Sea.

Missolonghi

MessolonghiMessolongiMesolonghi
Ibrahim landed in the Peloponnese in February 1825 and had immediate success: by the end of 1825, most of the Peloponnese was under Egyptian control, and the city of Missolonghi fell in April 1826 after a year-long siege by the Turks.
Missolonghi is known as the site of a dramatic siege during the Greek War of Independence, and of the death of poet Lord Byron.

Third Siege of Missolonghi

siege of MissolonghiFall of Missolonghisiege of Messolonghi
Ibrahim landed in the Peloponnese in February 1825 and had immediate success: by the end of 1825, most of the Peloponnese was under Egyptian control, and the city of Missolonghi fell in April 1826 after a year-long siege by the Turks.
The Third Siege of Missolonghi (Τρίτη Πολιορκία του Μεσσολογίου, often erroneously referred to as the Second Siege) was fought in the Greek War of Independence, between the Ottoman Empire and the Greek rebels, from 15 April 1825 to 10 April 1826.

Morea expedition

French expeditionary forceExpédition de MoréeExpédition scientifique de Morée
By 1828 the Egyptian army withdrew under pressure of a French expeditionary force to which the Ottoman garrisons in the Peloponnese then surrendered, while the Greeks proceeded to the Ottoman-controlled part of central Greece.
The Morea expedition (Expédition de Morée) is the name given to the land intervention of the French Army in the Peloponnese between 1828 and 1833, at the time of the Greek War of Independence, in order to liberate the region from the Turkish-Egyptian occupation forces.

Aegean Sea

AegeanAegean coastAgean sea
Meanwhile, the makeshift Greek navy was achieving success against the Ottoman navy in the Aegean Sea and prevented Ottoman reinforcements from arriving by sea.
The Greek War of Independence allowed a Greek state on the coast of the Aegean from 1829 onwards.

Filiki Eteria

Filiki EtaireiaPhiliki EtaireiaPhilikí Etaireía
In 1814, a secret organization called the Filiki Eteria was founded with the aim of liberating Greece.
The Society initiated the Greek War of Independence in the spring of 1821.

War of independence

wars of independenceindependence warWar of Independence (disambiguation)
The Greek War of Independence, also known as the Greek Revolution (Ελληνική Επανάσταση, Elliniki Epanastasi, or also referred to by Greeks in the 19th century as the Αγώνας, Agonas, "Struggle"; Ottoman: يونان عصياني Yunan İsyanı, "Greek Uprising"), was a successful war of independence waged by Greek revolutionaries against the Ottoman Empire between 1821 and 1830.

Tripoli, Greece

TripoliTripolitsaTripolis
By October 1821, the Greeks under Theodoros Kolokotronis had captured Tripolitsa.
Before the Greek War of Independence, under the Ottoman name of "Tripoliçe", it was one of the Ottoman administrative centers in the Peloponnese (the Morea Eyalet, often called "pashalik of Tripolitsa") and had large Muslim and Jewish populations.

Hydra (island)

HydraHydra IslandHydriot
Following news that combined Ottoman–Egyptian fleets were going to attack the Greek island of Hydra, the allied fleet intercepted the Ottoman–Egyptian fleet at Navarino.
The monastery contains the tomb of Lazaros Kountouriotis, the richest sea captain on Hydra, who gave his entire fortune to support the Greek War of Independence.

Adamantios Korais

Adamantios KoraesKoraisAdamadios Korais
Educated and influential members of the large Greek diaspora, such as Adamantios Korais and Anthimos Gazis, tried to transmit these ideas back to the Greeks, with the double aim of raising their educational level and simultaneously strengthening their national identity.
His activities paved the way for the Greek War of Independence and the emergence of a purified form of the Greek language, known as Katharevousa.

Rigas Feraios

Rigas VelestinlisRiga FeraiouRigas Fereos
The most influential of the Greek writers and intellectuals was Rigas Feraios.
Rigas Feraios (Ρήγας Φεραίος, or Rhegas Pheraeos, ) or Velestinlis (Βελεστινλής, or Velestinles, )) ; 1757 – 24 June 1798) was a Greek writer, political thinker and revolutionary, active in the Modern Greek Enlightenment, remembered as a Greek national hero, a victim of the Balkan uprising against the Ottoman Empire and a pioneer of the Greek War of Independence.

Yannis Makriyannis

Ioannis MakrygiannisMakriyannisIoannis Makriyannis
To the revolutionary leader and writer Yannis Makriyannis, klephts and armatoloi—being the only available major military force on the side of the Greeks—played such a crucial role in the Greek revolution that he referred to them as the "yeast of liberty".
Starting from humble origins, he joined the Greek struggle for independence, achieving the rank of general and leading his men to notable victories.

Pylos

NavarinoNavarino BayPylians
Following news that combined Ottoman–Egyptian fleets were going to attack the Greek island of Hydra, the allied fleet intercepted the Ottoman–Egyptian fleet at Navarino.
The area remained under Ottoman control, with the exception of a brief period of renewed Venetian rule in 1685–1715 and a Russian occupation in 1770–71, until the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence in 1821.

Ottoman Empire

OttomanOttomansTurks
The Greek War of Independence, also known as the Greek Revolution (Ελληνική Επανάσταση, Elliniki Epanastasi, or also referred to by Greeks in the 19th century as the Αγώνας, Agonas, "Struggle"; Ottoman: يونان عصياني Yunan İsyanı, "Greek Uprising"), was a successful war of independence waged by Greek revolutionaries against the Ottoman Empire between 1821 and 1830.
In 1821, the Greeks declared war on the Sultan.

Philhellenism

philhellenephilhellenesphilhellenic
The Greek cause began to draw support not only from the large Greek merchant diaspora in both Western Europe and Russia, but also from Western European Philhellenes.
It contributed to the sentiments that led Europeans such as Lord Byron or Charles Nicolas Fabvier to advocate for Greek independence from the Ottoman Empire.

Phanariots

PhanariotePhanariotesPhanariot
From the early 18th century and onwards, members of prominent Greek families in Constantinople, known as Phanariotes (after the Phanar district of the city) gained considerable control over Ottoman foreign policy and eventually over the bureaucracy as a whole.
With the church dignitaries, local notables from the provinces and the large Greek merchant class, Phanariots represented the better-educated members of Greek society during Ottoman rule until the 1821 start of the Greek War of Independence.

Greek Independence Day

Independence DayanniversaryGreek Independence Day: A National Day of Celebration of Greek and American Democracy, 2018
The Greek Revolution is celebrated by the modern Greek state as a national day on 25 March.
It commemorates the start of the Greek War of Independence against the Ottoman Empire, and the formation of an independent Greek state which coincides with the Greek Orthodox Feast of the Annunciation.

Macedonia (Greece)

MacedoniaGreek MacedoniaMacedonian
The Peloponnesian revolt was quickly followed by revolts in Crete, Macedonia, and Central Greece, which would soon be suppressed.
There were several uprisings in Macedonia during Ottoman rule, including an uprising after the Battle of Lepanto that ended in massacres of the Greek population, the uprising in Naousa of the armatolos Zisis Karademos in 1705, a rebellion in the area of Grevena by a Klepht called Ziakas (1730–1810) and the Greek Declaration of Independence in Macedonia by Emmanuel Pappas in 1821, during the Greek War of Independence.

Modern Greek Enlightenment

Greek EnlightenmentDiafotismoscorresponding
This was achieved through the dissemination of books, pamphlets and other writings in Greek, in a process that has been described as the modern Greek Enlightenment .
It was not by chance that on the eve of the Greek War of Independence the most important centres of Greek learning, schools-cum-universities, were situated in Ioannina, Chios, Smyrna (Izmir) and Ayvalik, all major centres of Greek commerce.

Lord Byron

ByronGeorge Gordon ByronGeorge Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron
Some wealthy Americans and Western European aristocrats, such as the renowned poet Lord Byron and later the physician Samuel Howe, took up arms to join the Greek revolutionaries.
George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron (22 January 1788 – 19 April 1824), known simply as Lord Byron, was an English poet, peer, and politician who became a revolutionary in the Greek War of Independence, and is considered one of the historical leading figures of the Romantic movement of his era.

Ioannis Kapodistrias

John CapodistriaKapodistriasIoannis Capodistrias
In early 1820, Ioannis Kapodistrias, an official from the Ionian Islands who had become the joint foreign minister of Tsar Alexander I, was approached by the Society in order to be named leader but declined the offer; the Filikoi (members of Filiki Eteria) then turned to Alexander Ypsilantis, a Phanariote serving in the Russian army as general and adjutant to Alexander, who accepted.
He is considered the founder of the modern Greek state, and the architect of Greek independence.

Thomas Gordon (British Army officer)

Thomas GordonGeneral Gordon
The Scottish philhellene Thomas Gordon took part in the revolutionary struggle and later wrote the first histories of the Greek revolution in English.
He is remembered for his role in the Greek War of Independence in the 1820s and 1830s and his History of the war published in 1833.