Greek language

GreekAncient GreekModern GreekGreek-languageGreek:Gr.Greek-speakingGrGreek wordlanguage
For the Greek language used during particular eras; see Proto-Greek, Mycenaean Greek, Ancient Greek, Koine Greek, Medieval Greek and Modern Greek.wikipedia
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Modern Greek

GreekModernModern Greek language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká) is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. What came to be known as the Greek language question was a polarization between two competing varieties of Modern Greek: Dimotiki, the vernacular form of Modern Greek proper, and Katharevousa, meaning 'purified', a compromise between Dimotiki and Ancient Greek, which was developed in the early 19th century and was used for literary and official purposes in the newly formed Greek state. In its modern form, Greek is the official language in two countries, Greece and Cyprus, a recognised minority language in seven other countries, and is one of the 24 official languages of the European Union.
Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική Γλώσσα) refers collectively to the dialects of the Greek language spoken in the modern era, and includes Standard Modern Greek.

Greek alphabet

GreekGreek lettersGreek letter
Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late ninth or early eighth century BC.

Linear B

𐃏ambiguous writing systemLinear B script
Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously.
Linear B is a syllabic script that was used for writing Mycenaean Greek, the earliest attested form of Greek.

Greece

GreekHellenic RepublicGreeks
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká) is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
These civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, and the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek.

Latin script

LatinLatin alphabetRoman script
The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.
After the Roman conquest of Greece in the 1st century BC, Latin adopted the Greek letters and (or readopted, in the latter case) to write Greek loanwords, placing them at the end of the alphabet.

Indo-European languages

Indo-EuropeanIndo-European languageIndo-European language family
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká) is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
In 1583, English Jesuit missionary and Konkani scholar Thomas Stephens wrote a letter from Goa to his brother (not published until the 20th century) in which he noted similarities between Indian languages and Greek and Latin.

Medieval Greek

Byzantine GreekGreekByzantine
It would eventually become the official parlance of the Byzantine Empire and develop into Medieval Greek.
Medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek, is the stage of the Greek language between the end of Classical antiquity in the 5th–6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453.

Black Sea

BlackEuxinePontus Euxinus
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká) is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. Historically, there were traditional Greek-speaking settlements and regions in the neighbouring countries of Albania, Bulgaria, and Turkey, as well as in several countries in the Black Sea area, such as Ukraine, Russia, Romania, Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan, and around the Mediterranean Sea, Southern Italy, Syria, Israel, Egypt, Lebanon, Libya and ancient coastal towns along the Levant.
* Greek: Éfxeinos Póntos (Eύξεινος Πόντος); the literal Mavri Thalassa is less common

International scientific vocabulary

ISVGreekcapno-
Greek roots are often used to coin new words for other languages; Greek and Latin are the predominant sources of international scientific vocabulary.
According to Webster's Third, "some ISV words (like haploid) have been created by taking a word with a rather general and simple meaning from one of the languages of antiquity, usually Latin and Greek, and conferring upon it a very specific and complicated meaning for the purposes of modern scientific discourse."

Greek diaspora

diasporaGreek communitiesGreek
The language is spoken by at least 13.2 million people today in Greece, Cyprus, Italy, Albania, and Turkey and by the Greek diaspora.
Greeks spread across the Roman Empire, and in the eastern territories the Greek language (rather than Latin) became the lingua franca.

Ancient Greek

GreekClassical GreekGr.
What came to be known as the Greek language question was a polarization between two competing varieties of Modern Greek: Dimotiki, the vernacular form of Modern Greek proper, and Katharevousa, meaning 'purified', a compromise between Dimotiki and Ancient Greek, which was developed in the early 19th century and was used for literary and official purposes in the newly formed Greek state.
The ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

Mycenaean Greece

MycenaeanMycenaean civilizationMycenaean period
It represents the first advanced and distinctively Greek civilization in mainland Greece with its palatial states, urban organization, works of art, and writing system.

Languages of the European Union

EU languagesofficial languages of the European UnionLanguages of the EU
In its modern form, Greek is the official language in two countries, Greece and Cyprus, a recognised minority language in seven other countries, and is one of the 24 official languages of the European Union.
Dutch, English, French, German, Greek, and Swedish are all official languages at the national level in multiple countries (see table above).

Greeks

GreekHellenesGreek people
Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.

Koine Greek

GreekKoineNew Testament Greek
Greek is also the language in which many of the foundational texts in science, especially astronomy, mathematics and logic and Western philosophy, such as the Platonic dialogues and the works of Aristotle, are composed; the New Testament of the Christian Bible was written in Koiné Greek.
Koine Greek, also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the common supra-regional form of Greek spoken and written during the Hellenistic period, the Roman Empire, and the early Byzantine Empire, or late antiquity.

Western world

WesternWestthe West
The Greek language holds an important place in the history of the Western world and Christianity; the canon of ancient Greek literature includes works in the Western canon such as the epic poems Iliad and Odyssey.
The Eastern Mediterranean was home to the highly urbanized cultures that had Greek as their common language (owing to the older empire of Alexander the Great and of the Hellenistic successors.), whereas the West was much more rural in its character and more readily adopted Latin as its common language.

Cypriot syllabary

CypriotCypriot syllabic scriptCypriot script
Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously.
Most texts using the script are in the Arcadocypriot dialect of Greek, but also one bilingual (Greek and Eteocypriot) inscription was found in Amathus.

Attic Greek

AtticAttic dialectClassical Attic
The variant of the alphabet in use today is essentially the late Ionic variant, introduced for writing classical Attic in 403 BC.
Greek is the primary member of the Hellenic branch of the Indo-European language family.

Culture of ancient Rome

Roman cultureancient Roman cultureRoman
Together with the Latin texts and traditions of the Roman world, the study of the Greek texts and society of antiquity constitutes the discipline of Classics.
By the age of twelve, they would be learning Latin, Greek, grammar and literature, followed by training for public speaking.

Homeric Greek

HomericHomeric dialectEpic Greek
According to one estimation, "Homeric Greek is probably closer to demotic than 12-century Middle English is to modern spoken English," (Greek has seen fewer changes in 2700 years than English has in 900 years).
Homeric Greek is the form of the Greek language that was used by Homer in the Iliad and Odyssey and in the Homeric Hymns.

Lingua franca

trade languagecommon languagelingua francas
During antiquity, Greek was a widely spoken lingua franca in the Mediterranean world, West Asia and many places beyond.
At that time, Italian-speakers dominated seaborne commerce in the port cities of the Ottoman Empire and a simplified version of Italian, including many loan words from Greek, Old French, Portuguese, Occitan, and Spanish as well as Arabic and Turkish came to be widely used as the "lingua franca" (in the generic sense) of the region.

Anatolian languages

AnatolianAnatolian languageAnatolian branch
Among the Indo-European languages, its date of earliest written attestation is matched only by the now-extinct Anatolian languages.
Greek ὄρνῑς, Lithuanian erẽlis, Old Norse ǫrn, PIE *h₃éron-) and Lycian 𐊜𐊒𐊄𐊀 χuga (cf.

Demotic Greek

DemoticDimotikiDhimotiki
What came to be known as the Greek language question was a polarization between two competing varieties of Modern Greek: Dimotiki, the vernacular form of Modern Greek proper, and Katharevousa, meaning 'purified', a compromise between Dimotiki and Ancient Greek, which was developed in the early 19th century and was used for literary and official purposes in the newly formed Greek state. According to one estimation, "Homeric Greek is probably closer to demotic than 12-century Middle English is to modern spoken English," (Greek has seen fewer changes in 2700 years than English has in 900 years).
Demotic Greek (δημοτική γλώσσα, dimotikí glóssa, "language of the people") or dimotiki (δημοτική, dimotikí), is the modern vernacular form of the Greek language.

Balkans

Balkan PeninsulaBalkanWestern Balkans
Greek has been spoken in the Balkan peninsula since around the 3rd millennium BC, or possibly earlier.
It has been a juncture between the Latin and Greek bodies of the Roman Empire, the destination of a massive influx of pagan Bulgars and Slavs, an area where Orthodox and Catholic Christianity met, as well as the meeting point between Islam and Christianity.

Turkey

TurkishRepublic of TurkeyTUR
Historically, there were traditional Greek-speaking settlements and regions in the neighbouring countries of Albania, Bulgaria, and Turkey, as well as in several countries in the Black Sea area, such as Ukraine, Russia, Romania, Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan, and around the Mediterranean Sea, Southern Italy, Syria, Israel, Egypt, Lebanon, Libya and ancient coastal towns along the Levant.
The slow transition from a predominantly Christian and Greek-speaking Anatolia to a predominantly Muslim and Turkish-speaking one was underway.