Greek language

Idealised portrayal of the author Homer
Proto-Greek-speaking area according to linguist Vladimir I. Georgiev
Distribution of varieties of Greek in Anatolia, 1910. Demotic in yellow. Pontic in orange. Cappadocian Greek in green, with green dots indicating individual Cappadocian Greek villages.
The distribution of major modern Greek dialect areas
Geographic distribution of Greek language in the Russian Empire (1897 census)
Greek inscription in Cypriot syllabic script
Ancient epichoric variants of the Greek alphabet from Euboea, Ionia, Athens, and Corinth comparing to modern Greek

For the Greek language used during particular eras, see Proto-Greek language, Mycenaean Greek, Ancient Greek, Koine Greek, Medieval Greek, and Modern Greek.

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Anatolia

Large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent.

Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum, c. 20,000 years ago. Anatolia was connected to the European mainland until c. 5600 BCE, when the melting ice sheets caused the sea level in the Mediterranean to rise around 120 m,  triggering the formation of the Turkish Straits.   As a result, two former lakes (the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea) were connected to the Mediterranean Sea, which separated Anatolia from Europe.
Göbeklitepe were erected as far back as 9600 BC.
The Sphinx Gate at Hattusha
The Sebasteion of Aphrodisias of Caria
Fairy chimneys in Cappadocia.
Aphrodisias was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage Site List in 2017
Sanctuary of Commagene Kings on Mount Nemrut (1st century BCE)
Byzantine Anatolia and the Byzantine-Arab frontier zone in the mid-9th century
Salty shores of Lake Tuz.
Mediterranean climate is dominant in Turkish Riviera
Ankara (central Anatolia)
Antalya (southern Anatolia)
Van (eastern Anatolia)

The ancient Anatolian peoples spoke the now-extinct Anatolian languages of the Indo-European language family, which were largely replaced by the Greek language during classical antiquity as well as during the Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine periods.

Medieval Greek

Evolution of Greek dialects from the late Byzantine Empire through to the early 20th century. Demotic in yellow, Pontic in orange, Cappadocian in green. (Green dots indicate Cappadocian Greek speaking villages in 1910. )
Manuscript of the Anthology of Planudes (c. 1300)

Medieval Greek (also known as Middle Greek or Byzantine Greek) is the stage of the Greek language between the end of Classical antiquity in the 5th–6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453.

Modern Greek

The distribution of major modern Greek dialect areas.
Anatolian Greek dialects until 1923. Demotic in yellow. Pontic in orange. Cappadocian Greek in green, with green dots indicating individual Cappadocian Greek villages in 1910.
Areas in Southern Italy where the Griko and Calabrian dialects are spoken
Street sign in Rethymno in honor of Psara island: Psaron (in genitive) Street, historic island of the 1821 Revolution

Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά, Néa Elliniká, or Κοινή Νεοελληνική Γλώσσα, Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (Ελληνικά, Elliniká), refers collectively to the dialects of the Greek language spoken in the modern era, including the official standardized form of the languages sometimes referred to as Standard Modern Greek.

Latin script

Alphabetic writing system based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet used by the Etruscans.

De chalcographiae inventione (1541, Mainz) with the 23 letters. J, U and W are missing.
Jeton from Nuremberg, c. 1553
The distribution of the Latin script. The dark green areas show the countries where the Latin script is the sole main script. Light green shows countries where Latin co-exists with other scripts. Latin-script alphabets are sometimes extensively used in areas coloured grey due to the use of unofficial second languages, such as French in Algeria and English in Egypt, and to Latin transliteration of the official script, such as pinyin in China.
The letter with an acute diacritic

After the Roman conquest of Greece in the 1st century BC, Latin adopted the Greek letters and (or readopted, in the latter case) to write Greek loanwords, placing them at the end of the alphabet.

Mycenaean Greek

Inscription of Mycenaean Greek written in Linear B. Archaeological Museum of Mycenae.
Warrior wearing a boar's tusk helmet, from a Mycenaean chamber tomb in the Acropolis of Athens, 14th-13th century BC.

Mycenaean Greek is the most ancient attested form of the Greek language, on the Greek mainland and Crete in Mycenaean Greece (16th to 12th centuries BC), before the hypothesised Dorian invasion, often cited as the terminus ad quem for the introduction of the Greek language to Greece.

Lingua franca

Language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between groups of people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both of the speakers' native languages.

Koine Greek
The Hispanophone and influential areas
Status of Arabic language map
Areas where Russian is the majority language (medium blue) or a minority language (light blue)
Areas (red) where Hindustani (Delhlavi or Kauravi) is the native language, and the much wider area of the Indo-Aryan language group (gray), where it is lengua franca
Countries where Malay is spoken
Geographic extent of Swahili. Dark green: native range. Medium green: official use. Light green: bilingual use but not official.
Areas with significant numbers of people whose first language is Persian (including dialects)
Rough territorial extent of Hand Talk (in purple) within the US and Canada

During that period, a simplified version of mainly Italian in the eastern and Spanish in the western Mediterranean that incorporated many loan words from Greek, the Slavic languages, Arabic, and Turkish came to be widely used as the "lingua franca" of the region, although some scholars claim that the Mediterranean Lingua Franca was just poorly used Italian.

Ancient Greek

Beginning of Homer's Odyssey
Ancient Greek language
Ostracon bearing the name of Cimon, Stoa of Attalos

Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: Mycenaean Greek, Dark Ages , the Archaic period , and the Classical period.

Black Sea

Marginal mediterranean sea of the Atlantic Ocean lying between Europe and Asia, east of the Balkans, south of the East European Plain, west of the Caucasus, and north of Anatolia.

The location of the Black Sea
The estuary of the Veleka in the Black Sea. Longshore drift has deposited sediment along the shoreline which has led to the formation of a spit. Sinemorets, Bulgaria
Black Sea coast of western Georgia, with the skyline of Batumi on the horizon
Swallow's Nest in Crimea
Coastline of Samsun in Turkey
A sanatorium in Sochi, Russia
Coast of the Black Sea at Ordu
Kapchik Cape in Crimea
The Black Sea near Constanța, Romania
Ice on the Gulf of Odessa
The bay of Sudak, Crimea
The Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge in Istanbul, Turkey, crosses the Bosporus strait near its entrance to the Black Sea. Connecting Europe and Asia, it is one of the tallest suspension bridges in the world.
This SeaWiFS view reveals the colorful interplay of currents on the sea's surface.
Black Sea coast in Ordu, Turkey
The port of Poti, Georgia
Phytoplankton blooms and plumes of sediment form the bright blue swirls that ring the Black Sea in this 2004 image.
The Bosporus, taken from the International Space Station
Map of the Dardanelles
A 16th-century map of the Black Sea by Diogo Homem
Greek colonies (8th–3rd century BCE) of the Black Sea (Euxine, or "hospitable" sea)
Ivan Aivazovsky. Black Sea Fleet in the Bay of Theodosia, just before the Crimean War
Yalta, Crimea
Amasra, Turkey, is located on a small island in the Black Sea.
Black Sea beach in Zatoka, Ukraine
Soviet frigate Bezzavetny (right) bumping the USS Yorktown during the 1988 Black Sea bumping incident
Ukrainian Navy artillery boat U170 in the Bay of Sevastopol
Jellyfish
Actinia
Actinia
Goby
Stingray
Goat fish
Hermit crab, Diogenes pugilator
Blue sponge
Spiny dogfish
Seahorse
Black Sea common dolphins with a kite-surfer off Sochi

The principal Greek name Póntos Áxeinos is generally accepted to be a rendering of the Iranian word *axšaina- ("dark colored").

Attic Greek

Idealised portrayal of the author Homer

Attic Greek is the Greek dialect of the ancient region of Attica, including the polis of Athens.

Greek alphabet

Dipylon inscription, one of the oldest known samples of the use of the Greek alphabet, c. 740 BC
Early Greek alphabet on pottery in the National Archaeological Museum of Athens
Distribution of "green", "red" and "blue" alphabet types, after Kirchhoff.
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A 16th-century edition of the New Testament (Gospel of John), printed in a renaissance typeface by Claude Garamond
Theocritus Idyll 1, lines 12–14, in script with abbreviations and ligatures from a caption in an illustrated edition of Theocritus. Lodewijk Caspar Valckenaer: Carmina bucolica, Leiden 1779.
The earliest Etruscan abecedarium, from Marsiliana d'Albegna, still almost identical with contemporaneous archaic Greek alphabets
A page from the Codex Argenteus, a 6th-century Bible manuscript in Gothic
18th-century title page of a book printed in Karamanli Turkish

The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BCE.