Greek mathematics

Greek mathematicianancient Greek mathematiciansGreekmathematicianGreek mathematiciansmathematicsAncient Greekancient Greek mathematicsancient GreeksHellenistic mathematician
Greek mathematics refers to mathematics texts written during and ideas stemming from the Classical and Hellinistic periods, extant from the 7th century BC to the 4th century AD, around the shores of the Eastern Mediterranean.wikipedia
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Mathematics

mathematicalmathmathematician
Greek mathematics refers to mathematics texts written during and ideas stemming from the Classical and Hellinistic periods, extant from the 7th century BC to the 4th century AD, around the shores of the Eastern Mediterranean.
Rigorous arguments first appeared in Greek mathematics, most notably in Euclid's Elements.

Greece

GreekHellenic RepublicGreeks
The earliest advanced civilizations in Greece and in Europe were the Minoan and later Mycenaean civilizations, both of which flourished during the 2nd millennium BC.
Greece is considered the cradle of Western civilisation, being the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, Western literature, historiography, political science, major scientific and mathematical principles, Western drama and notably the Olympic Games.

Thales of Miletus

ThalesThalisThales Avionics
Historians traditionally place the beginning of Greek mathematics proper to the age of Thales of Miletus (ca.
undefined 624/623 – c. 548/545 BC) was a Greek mathematician, astronomer and pre-Socratic philosopher from Miletus in Ionia, Asia Minor.

Euclid's Elements

ElementsEuclid's ''ElementsEuclid
It has been customarily said that the Pythagoreans discovered most of the material in the first two books of Euclid's Elements.
The Elements ( Stoicheia) is a mathematical treatise consisting of 13 books attributed to the ancient Greek mathematician Euclid in Alexandria, Ptolemaic Egypt c. 300 BC.

Euclid

Euclid of AlexandriaEuklidGreek Mathematician
It has been customarily said that the Pythagoreans discovered most of the material in the first two books of Euclid's Elements.
Euclid ( – Eukleídēs, ; fl. 300 BC), sometimes called Euclid of Alexandria to distinguish him from Euclid of Megara, was a Greek mathematician, often referred to as the "founder of geometry" or the "father of geometry".

Geometry

geometricgeometricalgeometries
Thales is supposed to have used geometry to solve problems such as calculating the height of pyramids based on the length of shadows, and the distance of ships from the shore.
Geometry began to see elements of formal mathematical science emerging in Greek mathematics as early as the 6th century BC.

Hellenistic period

HellenisticHellenistic eraHellenistic Age
Greek mathematics refers to mathematics texts written during and ideas stemming from the Classical and Hellinistic periods, extant from the 7th century BC to the 4th century AD, around the shores of the Eastern Mediterranean.
During the Hellenistic period Greek cultural influence and power reached the peak of its geographical expansion, being dominant in the Mediterranean World and most of West and Central Asia, even in parts of the Indian subcontinent, experiencing prosperity and progress in the arts, exploration, literature, theatre, architecture, music, mathematics, philosophy, and science.

Irrational number

irrationalirrational numbersirrationality
They are credited with numerous mathematical advances, such as the discovery of irrational numbers.
Greek mathematicians termed this ratio of incommensurable magnitudes alogos, or inexpressible.

Archimedes

Archimedes of SyracuseArchimedeanArchimedes Heat Ray
Archimedes was able to use infinitesimals in a way that is similar to modern integral calculus.
287) was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer.

Babylonia

BabyloniansBabylonianBabylonian Empire
Though no direct evidence is available, it is generally thought that the neighboring Babylonian and Egyptian civilizations had an influence on the younger Greek tradition.
Neo-Babylonian astronomy can thus be considered the direct predecessor of much of ancient Greek mathematics and astronomy, which in turn is the historical predecessor of the European (Western) scientific revolution.

Pi

ππ\pi
This technique is known as the method of exhaustion, and he employed it to approximate the value of π (Pi).
Around 250 BC the Greek mathematician Archimedes created an algorithm for calculating it.

Mathematical analysis

analysisclassical analysisanalytic
Greek mathematics also contributed importantly to ideas on number theory, mathematical analysis, applied mathematics, and, at times, approached close to integral calculus.
Later, Greek mathematicians such as Eudoxus and Archimedes made more explicit, but informal, use of the concepts of limits and convergence when they used the method of exhaustion to compute the area and volume of regions and solids.

Infinitesimal

infinitesimalsinfinitely closeinfinitesimally
Archimedes was able to use infinitesimals in a way that is similar to modern integral calculus.
The Greek mathematician Archimedes (c.287 BC–c.212 BC), in The Method of Mechanical Theorems, was the first to propose a logically rigorous definition of infinitesimals.

Babylonian mathematics

BabyloniansBabylonian mathematiciansBabylonian
Greek became the language of scholarship throughout the Hellenistic world, and Greek mathematics merged with Egyptian and Babylonian mathematics to give rise to a Hellenistic mathematics.
Since the rediscovery of the Babylonian civilization, it has become apparent that Greek and Hellenistic mathematicians and astronomers, and in particular Hipparchus, borrowed greatly from the Babylonians.

Trigonometry

trigonometrictrigonometricaltrigonometrically
The methods used made no explicit use of algebra, nor trigonometry.
In the 3rd century BC, Hellenistic mathematicians such as Euclid and Archimedes studied the properties of chords and inscribed angles in circles, and they proved theorems that are equivalent to modern trigonometric formulae, although they presented them geometrically rather than algebraically.

Chronology of ancient Greek mathematicians

Greek mathematicians
This is a chronology of ancient Greek mathematicians (see also Timeline of ancient Greek mathematicians)

History of mathematics

historian of mathematicsmathematicshistory
Greek mathematics greatly refined the methods (especially through the introduction of deductive reasoning and mathematical rigor in proofs) and expanded the subject matter of mathematics.

Ancient Egyptian mathematics

Egyptian mathematicsEgyptianEgyptians
Greek became the language of scholarship throughout the Hellenistic world, and Greek mathematics merged with Egyptian and Babylonian mathematics to give rise to a Hellenistic mathematics.

Algebra

algebraicAlgebra IAlgebra 1
The methods used made no explicit use of algebra, nor trigonometry.
By contrast, most Egyptians of this era, as well as Greek and Chinese mathematics in the 1st millennium BC, usually solved such equations by geometric methods, such as those described in the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus, Euclid's Elements, and The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art.

Timeline of ancient Greek mathematicians

This is a timeline of ancient Greek mathematicians (see also Chronology of ancient Greek mathematicians).

Classical Greece

ClassicalClassical periodClassical Greek
Greek mathematics refers to mathematics texts written during and ideas stemming from the Classical and Hellinistic periods, extant from the 7th century BC to the 4th century AD, around the shores of the Eastern Mediterranean.

Eastern Mediterranean

East MediterraneanEastern Mediterranean countriesEastern Mediterranean Sea
Greek mathematics refers to mathematics texts written during and ideas stemming from the Classical and Hellinistic periods, extant from the 7th century BC to the 4th century AD, around the shores of the Eastern Mediterranean.

Culture of Greece

Greek cultureGreekHellenic
Greek mathematicians lived in cities spread over the entire Eastern Mediterranean from Italy to North Africa but were united by culture and language.

Greek language

GreekAncient GreekModern Greek
Greek mathematicians lived in cities spread over the entire Eastern Mediterranean from Italy to North Africa but were united by culture and language.

Europe

EuropeanEUEuropean continent
The earliest advanced civilizations in Greece and in Europe were the Minoan and later Mycenaean civilizations, both of which flourished during the 2nd millennium BC.