# Greek mathematics

**Greek mathematicianancient Greek mathematiciansGreekmathematicianGreek mathematiciansmathematicsAncient Greekancient Greek mathematicsancient GreeksHellenistic mathematician**

Greek mathematics refers to mathematics texts written during and ideas stemming from the Classical and Hellinistic periods, extant from the 7th century BC to the 4th century AD, around the shores of the Eastern Mediterranean.wikipedia

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### Mathematics

**mathematicalmathmathematician**

Greek mathematics refers to mathematics texts written during and ideas stemming from the Classical and Hellinistic periods, extant from the 7th century BC to the 4th century AD, around the shores of the Eastern Mediterranean.

Rigorous arguments first appeared in Greek mathematics, most notably in Euclid's Elements.

### Greece

**GreekHellenic RepublicGreeks**

The earliest advanced civilizations in Greece and in Europe were the Minoan and later Mycenaean civilizations, both of which flourished during the 2nd millennium BC.

Greece is considered the cradle of Western civilisation, being the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, Western literature, historiography, political science, major scientific and mathematical principles, Western drama and notably the Olympic Games.

### Thales of Miletus

**ThalesThalisThales Avionics**

Historians traditionally place the beginning of Greek mathematics proper to the age of Thales of Miletus (ca.

undefined 624/623 – c. 548/545 BC) was a Greek mathematician, astronomer and pre-Socratic philosopher from Miletus in Ionia, Asia Minor.

### Euclid's Elements

**ElementsEuclid's ''ElementsEuclid**

It has been customarily said that the Pythagoreans discovered most of the material in the first two books of Euclid's Elements.

The Elements ( Stoicheia) is a mathematical treatise consisting of 13 books attributed to the ancient Greek mathematician Euclid in Alexandria, Ptolemaic Egypt c. 300 BC.

### Euclid

**Euclid of AlexandriaEuklidGreek Mathematician**

It has been customarily said that the Pythagoreans discovered most of the material in the first two books of Euclid's Elements.

Euclid ( – Eukleídēs, ; fl. 300 BC), sometimes called Euclid of Alexandria to distinguish him from Euclid of Megara, was a Greek mathematician, often referred to as the "founder of geometry" or the "father of geometry".

### Geometry

**geometricgeometricalgeometries**

Thales is supposed to have used geometry to solve problems such as calculating the height of pyramids based on the length of shadows, and the distance of ships from the shore.

Geometry began to see elements of formal mathematical science emerging in Greek mathematics as early as the 6th century BC.

### Hellenistic period

**HellenisticHellenistic eraHellenistic Age**

Greek mathematics refers to mathematics texts written during and ideas stemming from the Classical and Hellinistic periods, extant from the 7th century BC to the 4th century AD, around the shores of the Eastern Mediterranean.

During the Hellenistic period Greek cultural influence and power reached the peak of its geographical expansion, being dominant in the Mediterranean World and most of West and Central Asia, even in parts of the Indian subcontinent, experiencing prosperity and progress in the arts, exploration, literature, theatre, architecture, music, mathematics, philosophy, and science.

### Irrational number

**irrationalirrational numbersirrationality**

They are credited with numerous mathematical advances, such as the discovery of irrational numbers.

Greek mathematicians termed this ratio of incommensurable magnitudes alogos, or inexpressible.

### Archimedes

**Archimedes of SyracuseArchimedeanArchimedes Heat Ray**

Archimedes was able to use infinitesimals in a way that is similar to modern integral calculus.

287) was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer.

### Babylonia

**BabyloniansBabylonianBabylonian Empire**

Though no direct evidence is available, it is generally thought that the neighboring Babylonian and Egyptian civilizations had an influence on the younger Greek tradition.

Neo-Babylonian astronomy can thus be considered the direct predecessor of much of ancient Greek mathematics and astronomy, which in turn is the historical predecessor of the European (Western) scientific revolution.

### Pi

**ππ\pi**

This technique is known as the method of exhaustion, and he employed it to approximate the value of π (Pi).

Around 250 BC the Greek mathematician Archimedes created an algorithm for calculating it.

### Mathematical analysis

**analysisclassical analysisanalytic**

Greek mathematics also contributed importantly to ideas on number theory, mathematical analysis, applied mathematics, and, at times, approached close to integral calculus.

Later, Greek mathematicians such as Eudoxus and Archimedes made more explicit, but informal, use of the concepts of limits and convergence when they used the method of exhaustion to compute the area and volume of regions and solids.

### Infinitesimal

**infinitesimalsinfinitely closeinfinitesimally**

Archimedes was able to use infinitesimals in a way that is similar to modern integral calculus.

The Greek mathematician Archimedes (c.287 BC–c.212 BC), in The Method of Mechanical Theorems, was the first to propose a logically rigorous definition of infinitesimals.

### Babylonian mathematics

**BabyloniansBabylonian mathematiciansBabylonian**

Greek became the language of scholarship throughout the Hellenistic world, and Greek mathematics merged with Egyptian and Babylonian mathematics to give rise to a Hellenistic mathematics.

Since the rediscovery of the Babylonian civilization, it has become apparent that Greek and Hellenistic mathematicians and astronomers, and in particular Hipparchus, borrowed greatly from the Babylonians.

### Trigonometry

**trigonometrictrigonometricaltrigonometrically**

The methods used made no explicit use of algebra, nor trigonometry.

In the 3rd century BC, Hellenistic mathematicians such as Euclid and Archimedes studied the properties of chords and inscribed angles in circles, and they proved theorems that are equivalent to modern trigonometric formulae, although they presented them geometrically rather than algebraically.

### Chronology of ancient Greek mathematicians

**Greek mathematicians**

This is a chronology of ancient Greek mathematicians (see also Timeline of ancient Greek mathematicians)

### History of mathematics

**historian of mathematicsmathematicshistory**

Greek mathematics greatly refined the methods (especially through the introduction of deductive reasoning and mathematical rigor in proofs) and expanded the subject matter of mathematics.

### Ancient Egyptian mathematics

**Egyptian mathematicsEgyptianEgyptians**

Greek became the language of scholarship throughout the Hellenistic world, and Greek mathematics merged with Egyptian and Babylonian mathematics to give rise to a Hellenistic mathematics.

### Algebra

**algebraicAlgebra IAlgebra 1**

The methods used made no explicit use of algebra, nor trigonometry.

By contrast, most Egyptians of this era, as well as Greek and Chinese mathematics in the 1st millennium BC, usually solved such equations by geometric methods, such as those described in the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus, Euclid's Elements, and The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art.

### Timeline of ancient Greek mathematicians

This is a timeline of ancient Greek mathematicians (see also Chronology of ancient Greek mathematicians).

### Classical Greece

**ClassicalClassical periodClassical Greek**

Greek mathematics refers to mathematics texts written during and ideas stemming from the Classical and Hellinistic periods, extant from the 7th century BC to the 4th century AD, around the shores of the Eastern Mediterranean.

### Eastern Mediterranean

**East MediterraneanEastern Mediterranean countriesEastern Mediterranean Sea**

### Culture of Greece

**Greek cultureGreekHellenic**

Greek mathematicians lived in cities spread over the entire Eastern Mediterranean from Italy to North Africa but were united by culture and language.

### Greek language

**GreekAncient GreekModern Greek**

Greek mathematicians lived in cities spread over the entire Eastern Mediterranean from Italy to North Africa but were united by culture and language.

### Europe

**EuropeanEUEuropean continent**

The earliest advanced civilizations in Greece and in Europe were the Minoan and later Mycenaean civilizations, both of which flourished during the 2nd millennium BC.