Green Revolution

The Green RevolutionAgricultural Revolutioncommercial large-scale monocultureGreen Revolution/Third Agricultural Revolutionhigh-yield IR8 rice cultivarmiracle" ricemodern agricultural revolutiontechniquesthe Green Revolution planThird Agricultural Revolution
The Green Revolution, or Third Agricultural Revolution, is a set of research technology transfer initiatives occurring between 1950 and the late 1960s, that increased agricultural production worldwide, particularly in the developing world, beginning most markedly in the late 1960s.wikipedia
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Norman Borlaug

Norman E. BorlaugNorman Ernest BorlaugBorlaug
One key leader was Norman Borlaug, the "Father of the Green Revolution", who received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1970.
Norman Ernest Borlaug (March 25, 1914 – September 12, 2009) was an American agronomist who led initiatives worldwide that contributed to the extensive increases in agricultural production termed the Green Revolution.

Wheat

Triticumcorndwarf wheat
The initiatives resulted in the adoption of new technologies, including high-yielding varieties (HYVs) of cereals, especially dwarf wheats and rices, in association with chemical fertilizers and agro-chemicals,and with controlled water-supply (usually involving irrigation) and new methods of cultivation, including mechanization.
Improved agricultural husbandry has more recently included threshing machines and reaping machines (the 'combine harvester'), tractor-drawn cultivators and planters, and better varieties (see Green Revolution and Norin 10 wheat).

International Rice Research Institute

IRRIInternational Rice Research Institute (IRRI)International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) and the Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS),
In 1960, the Government of the Republic of the Philippines with the Ford Foundation and the Rockefeller Foundation established the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI).
IRRI is known for its work in developing rice varieties that contributed to the Green Revolution in the 1960s which preempted the famine in Asia.

Surajit Kumar De Datta

S.K. De DattaSurajit Kumar De Dutta
In 1968, Indian agronomist S.K. De Datta published his findings that IR8 rice yielded about 5 tons per hectare with no fertilizer, and almost 10 tons per hectare under optimal conditions.
Surajit Kumar De Datta is an Indian American agronomist who is best known for his high yield variety of rice IR-8 that contributed significantly to the Green Revolution across Asia.

Rockefeller Foundation

Rockefeller FellowshipRockefellerThe Rockefeller Foundation
In 1960, the Government of the Republic of the Philippines with the Ford Foundation and the Rockefeller Foundation established the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). Both the Ford Foundation and the Rockefeller Foundation were heavily involved. With the lead of the Mexican government in 1943 under Presidential order and finance of the Mexican President Manuel Ávila Camacho, and support of the U.S. government, the United Nations, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), and the Rockefeller Foundation; Mexico made a concerted effort to transform agricultural productivity, particularly with irrigated rather than dry-land cultivation in its northwest, to solve its problem of lack of food self-sufficiency.
It wasn't until 1959 that senior foundation officials succeeded in getting the Ford Foundation (and later USAID, and later still, the World Bank) to sign on to the major philanthropic project, known now to the world as the Green Revolution.

CGIAR

Consultative Group on International Agricultural ResearchConsultative Group for International Agricultural ResearchCGIAR Consortium of International Agricultural Research Centers
This was further supported and developed by the World Bank; on 19 May 1971, the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) was established.
Starting in 1943, the Rockefeller Foundation and the Mexican government laid the seeds for the Green Revolution when they established the Office of Special Studies, which resulted in the establishment of the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in 1960 and International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) in 1963 with support from the Rockefeller Foundation and Ford Foundation, developing high-yielding, disease-resistant varieties that dramatically increased production of these staple cereals, and turned India, for example, from a country regularly facing starvation in the 1960s to a net exporter of cereals by the late-1970s.

High-yielding variety

high-yielding varietieshigh yieldinghigh yielding variety (HYV) seeds
The initiatives resulted in the adoption of new technologies, including high-yielding varieties (HYVs) of cereals, especially dwarf wheats and rices, in association with chemical fertilizers and agro-chemicals,and with controlled water-supply (usually involving irrigation) and new methods of cultivation, including mechanization. Agronomists bred cultivars of maize, wheat, and rice that are the generally referred to as HYVs or "high-yielding varieties".
HYVs become popular in the 1960s and play an important role in the green revolution, although their ancestral roots can be older.

Manuel Ávila Camacho

Manuel Avila CamachoAvila CamachoManuel Avila
With the lead of the Mexican government in 1943 under Presidential order and finance of the Mexican President Manuel Ávila Camacho, and support of the U.S. government, the United Nations, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), and the Rockefeller Foundation; Mexico made a concerted effort to transform agricultural productivity, particularly with irrigated rather than dry-land cultivation in its northwest, to solve its problem of lack of food self-sufficiency.
In agriculture, his administration invited the Rockefeller Foundation to introduce Green Revolution technology to bolster Mexico's agricultural productivity.

Orville Vogel

high-yielding dwarf wheat
A Japanese dwarf wheat cultivar Norin 10 developed by a Japanese agronomist Gonjiro Inazuka, which was sent to Orville Vogel at Washington State University by Cecil Salmon, was instrumental in developing Green Revolution wheat cultivars.
Orville Vogel (1907–1991) was an American scientist and wheat breeder whose research made possible the "Green Revolution" in world food production.

Gibberellin

gibberellinsgibberelinsgibberellic acid
These were identified as gibberellin biosynthesis genes or cellular signaling component genes.
It is thought that the selective breeding (albeit unconscious) of crop strains that were deficient in GA synthesis was one of the key drivers of the "green revolution" in the 1960s, a revolution that is credited to have saved over a billion lives worldwide.

Hybrid (biology)

hybridhybridshybridization
The basic approach was the development of high-yielding varieties of cereal grains, expansion of irrigation infrastructure, modernization of management techniques, distribution of hybridized seeds, synthetic fertilizers, and pesticides to farmers.
In agriculture and animal husbandry, the Green Revolution's use of conventional hybridization increased yields by breeding "high-yielding varieties".

Agrochemical

agrochemicalsagricultural chemicalsagrichemical
The initiatives resulted in the adoption of new technologies, including high-yielding varieties (HYVs) of cereals, especially dwarf wheats and rices, in association with chemical fertilizers and agro-chemicals,and with controlled water-supply (usually involving irrigation) and new methods of cultivation, including mechanization.
According to the article, Agriculture, Pesticides, Food Security and Food Safety, written by Fernando P. Carvalho, chemical fertilizers in the 1960s were responsible for the beginning of the "Green Revolution", where using the same surface of land using intensive irrigation and mineral fertilizers such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium has greatly increased food production.

Defoliant

defoliationdefoliantsdefoliate
Green Revolution techniques also heavily rely on chemical fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, and defoliants and rely on machines, which as of 2014 rely on or are derived from crude oil, making agriculture increasingly reliant on crude oil extraction.
Worldwide use of defoliants, along with the development of other herbicides and pesticides, allowed for the Green Revolution, an increase in agricultural production in mid-20th century.

Plant breeding

breedingplant breederplant biotechnology
Agronomists bred cultivars of maize, wheat, and rice that are the generally referred to as HYVs or "high-yielding varieties".
Similar yield increases were not produced elsewhere until after World War II, the Green Revolution increased crop production in the developing world in the 1960s.

Food security

food insecurityfood supplyfood insecure
The effects of the Green Revolution on global food security are difficult to assess because of the complexities involved in food systems.
Green Revolution techniques also heavily rely on chemical fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides, many of which are petroleum products, making agriculture increasingly reliant on petroleum.

Cecil Salmon

A Japanese dwarf wheat cultivar Norin 10 developed by a Japanese agronomist Gonjiro Inazuka, which was sent to Orville Vogel at Washington State University by Cecil Salmon, was instrumental in developing Green Revolution wheat cultivars.
He worked for the Agricultural Research Service and during his time in Japan, Salmon collected 16 varieties of wheat samples including a dwarf strain Norin 10 which later triggered the Green Revolution.

Malthusian catastrophe

MalthusianMalthusian crisisMalthusian theory
Proponents of the Peak Oil theory fear that a future decline in oil and gas production would lead to a decline in food production or even a Malthusian catastrophe.
After World War II, mechanized agriculture produced a dramatic increase in productivity of agriculture and the Green Revolution greatly increased crop yields, expanding the world's food supply while lowering food prices.

Human overpopulation

overpopulationexpanding human populationoverpopulated
Such concerns often revolve around the idea that the Green Revolution is unsustainable, and argue that humanity is now in a state of overpopulation or overshoot with regards to the sustainable carrying capacity and ecological demands on the Earth.
Dramatic growth beginning in 1950 (above 1.8% per year) coincided with greatly increased food production as a result of the industrialization of agriculture brought about by the Green Revolution.

Punjab, India

PunjabIndian PunjabPunjab state
Punjab was selected by the Indian government to be the first site to try the new crops because of its reliable water supply and a history of agricultural success.
Punjab Agricultural University is a leading institution globally for the study of agriculture and played a significant role in Punjab's Green Revolution in the 1960s–70s.

International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center

CIMMYTCentro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y TrigoInternational Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre
In 1943, the Mexican government founded the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), which became a base for international agricultural research.
Borlaug's obituarist, Christopher Reed argued in an interview with The Guardian from 2014 that although his Green Revolution and high-yielding agricultural techniques averted poverty in the short term, in the long time they might have added to it.

Rice

Aman paddypaddypalay
A rice crossing between Dee-Geo-woo-gen and Peta was done at IRRI in 1962.
The high-yielding varieties are a group of crops created intentionally during the Green Revolution to increase global food production.

Semi-dwarf IR36

IR8 was also developed into Semi-dwarf IR36.
The variety was one of many of the Green Revolution which replaced many local strains and genetic diversity previously found in rice paddies.

Malnutrition

malnourishednutritional deficienciesmalnourishment
The world population has grown by about five billion since the beginning of the Green Revolution and many believe that, without the Revolution, there would have been greater famine and malnutrition.
Reasons for the unavailability of fertilizer include moves to stop supplying fertilizer on environmental grounds, cited as the obstacle to feeding Africa by the Green Revolution pioneers Norman Borlaug and Keith Rosenberg.

Norin 10 wheat

Norin 10semi-dwarf wheat
A Japanese dwarf wheat cultivar Norin 10 developed by a Japanese agronomist Gonjiro Inazuka, which was sent to Orville Vogel at Washington State University by Cecil Salmon, was instrumental in developing Green Revolution wheat cultivars.
They obtained the high-output varieties which were tested in India (Lerma Rojo 64 and Sonora 64) during the Green Revolution.

Monoculture

monoculturesmonoculturalmonospecific
Miguel A. Altieri, (a pioneer of agroecology and peasant-advocate), writes that the comparison between traditional systems of agriculture and Green Revolution agriculture has been unfair, because Green Revolution agriculture produces monocultures of cereal grains, while traditional agriculture usually incorporates polycultures.
Given the very genetically similar strains of much of the world's wheat crops following the Green Revolution, the impacts of such diseases threaten agricultural production worldwide.