Green Revolution

The Green RevolutionAgricultural Revolutioncommercial large-scale monocultureGreen Revolution/Third Agricultural Revolutionhigh-yield IR8 rice cultivarmiracle" ricemodern agricultural revolutiontechniquesthe Green Revolution planThird Agricultural Revolution
The Green Revolution, or Third Agricultural Revolution, is a set of research technology transfer initiatives occurring between 1950 and the late 1960s, that increased agricultural production worldwide, particularly in the developing world, beginning most markedly in the late 1960s.wikipedia
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Vitamin

vitaminsfat-soluble vitaminsfat-soluble vitamin
High yield-cereal crops have low quality proteins, with essential amino acid deficiencies, are high in carbohydrates, and lack balanced essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and other quality factors.

Mineral

mineralsmineral depositsaccessory mineral
High yield-cereal crops have low quality proteins, with essential amino acid deficiencies, are high in carbohydrates, and lack balanced essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and other quality factors.

Investigative journalism

investigative journalistexposéinvestigative reporter
investigative journalist Mark Dowie, writes:

Agrarian reform

agrarian reformsagrarianagricultural reformer
In countries such as India, Mexico, and the Philippines, technological solutions were sought as an alternative to expanding agrarian reform initiatives, the latter of which were often linked to socialist politics.

Debt

debtsprincipalborrowing
Smaller farmers often went into debt, which in many cases results in a loss of their farmland.

Smallholding

smallholdersmallholderssmallholdings
The new economic difficulties of smallholder farmers and landless farm workers led to increased rural-urban migration.

Urbanization

urbanisationurbanizedUrban
The new economic difficulties of smallholder farmers and landless farm workers led to increased rural-urban migration.

Svalbard Global Seed Vault

Global Seed VaultSvalbard International Seed Vault
To address these concerns, massive seed banks such as Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research’s (CGIAR) International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (now Bioversity International) have been established (see Svalbard Global Seed Vault).

Wildlife of Brazil

fauna of BrazilBrazilFlora of Brazil
For example, the development of wheat varieties tolerant to acid soil conditions with high aluminium content, permitted the introduction of agriculture in sensitive Brazilian ecosystems such as Cerrado semi-humid tropical savanna and Amazon rainforest in the geoeconomic macroregions of Centro-Sul and Amazônia.

Tropical savanna climate

Awtropical wet and dry climatetropical wet and dry
For example, the development of wheat varieties tolerant to acid soil conditions with high aluminium content, permitted the introduction of agriculture in sensitive Brazilian ecosystems such as Cerrado semi-humid tropical savanna and Amazon rainforest in the geoeconomic macroregions of Centro-Sul and Amazônia.

Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

subtropical or tropical moist shrublandtropical savannasubtropical or tropical dry shrubland
For example, the development of wheat varieties tolerant to acid soil conditions with high aluminium content, permitted the introduction of agriculture in sensitive Brazilian ecosystems such as Cerrado semi-humid tropical savanna and Amazon rainforest in the geoeconomic macroregions of Centro-Sul and Amazônia.

Amazon rainforest

AmazonAmazoniaAmazon jungle
For example, the development of wheat varieties tolerant to acid soil conditions with high aluminium content, permitted the introduction of agriculture in sensitive Brazilian ecosystems such as Cerrado semi-humid tropical savanna and Amazon rainforest in the geoeconomic macroregions of Centro-Sul and Amazônia.

Brazil socio-geographic division

Centro-Sul and Amazôniasocio-geographic division
For example, the development of wheat varieties tolerant to acid soil conditions with high aluminium content, permitted the introduction of agriculture in sensitive Brazilian ecosystems such as Cerrado semi-humid tropical savanna and Amazon rainforest in the geoeconomic macroregions of Centro-Sul and Amazônia.

Atlantic Forest

Atlantic Forest biomeAtlantic rainforestMata Atlântica
Before the Green Revolution, other Brazilian ecosystems were also significantly damaged by human activity, such as the once 1st or 2nd main contributor to Brazilian megadiversity Atlantic Rainforest (above 85% of deforestation in the 1980s, about 95% after the 2010s) and the important xeric shrublands called Caatinga mainly in Northeastern Brazil (about 40% in the 1980s, about 50% after the 2010s – deforestation of the Caatinga biome is generally associated with greater risks of desertification).

Deserts and xeric shrublands

xerichiperxerófiladesert scrub
Before the Green Revolution, other Brazilian ecosystems were also significantly damaged by human activity, such as the once 1st or 2nd main contributor to Brazilian megadiversity Atlantic Rainforest (above 85% of deforestation in the 1980s, about 95% after the 2010s) and the important xeric shrublands called Caatinga mainly in Northeastern Brazil (about 40% in the 1980s, about 50% after the 2010s – deforestation of the Caatinga biome is generally associated with greater risks of desertification).

Caatinga

CaatingasCaatinga Dry ForestCaatinga scrubland
Before the Green Revolution, other Brazilian ecosystems were also significantly damaged by human activity, such as the once 1st or 2nd main contributor to Brazilian megadiversity Atlantic Rainforest (above 85% of deforestation in the 1980s, about 95% after the 2010s) and the important xeric shrublands called Caatinga mainly in Northeastern Brazil (about 40% in the 1980s, about 50% after the 2010s – deforestation of the Caatinga biome is generally associated with greater risks of desertification).

Northeast Region, Brazil

Northeast regionNortheastNorth-East region
Before the Green Revolution, other Brazilian ecosystems were also significantly damaged by human activity, such as the once 1st or 2nd main contributor to Brazilian megadiversity Atlantic Rainforest (above 85% of deforestation in the 1980s, about 95% after the 2010s) and the important xeric shrublands called Caatinga mainly in Northeastern Brazil (about 40% in the 1980s, about 50% after the 2010s – deforestation of the Caatinga biome is generally associated with greater risks of desertification).

Desertification

expansion of desertsdesertdesert encroachment
Before the Green Revolution, other Brazilian ecosystems were also significantly damaged by human activity, such as the once 1st or 2nd main contributor to Brazilian megadiversity Atlantic Rainforest (above 85% of deforestation in the 1980s, about 95% after the 2010s) and the important xeric shrublands called Caatinga mainly in Northeastern Brazil (about 40% in the 1980s, about 50% after the 2010s – deforestation of the Caatinga biome is generally associated with greater risks of desertification).

Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance

Rio PactRio TreatyTIAR
Nevertheless, the world community has clearly acknowledged the negative aspects of agricultural expansion as the 1992 Rio Treaty, signed by 189 nations, has generated numerous national Biodiversity Action Plans which assign significant biodiversity loss to agriculture's expansion into new domains.

Biodiversity action plan

National Biodiversity Strategy and Action PlanBAPBiodiversity Action Plans
Nevertheless, the world community has clearly acknowledged the negative aspects of agricultural expansion as the 1992 Rio Treaty, signed by 189 nations, has generated numerous national Biodiversity Action Plans which assign significant biodiversity loss to agriculture's expansion into new domains.

Biodiversity loss

loss of biodiversitybiodiversityloss
Nevertheless, the world community has clearly acknowledged the negative aspects of agricultural expansion as the 1992 Rio Treaty, signed by 189 nations, has generated numerous national Biodiversity Action Plans which assign significant biodiversity loss to agriculture's expansion into new domains.

Carl O. Sauer

Carl SauerSauer, Carl O.Carl Ortwin Sauer
One of the critics against these techniques and the Green Revolution as a whole was Carl O. Sauer, a geography professor at the University of California, Berkeley.

University of California, Berkeley

UC BerkeleyUniversity of California at BerkeleyBerkeley
One of the critics against these techniques and the Green Revolution as a whole was Carl O. Sauer, a geography professor at the University of California, Berkeley.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Proceedings of the National Academy of SciencesPNASProc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
According to a study published in 2013 in PNAS, in the absence of the crop germplasm improvement associated with the Green Revolution, greenhouse gas emissions would have been 5.2–7.4 Gt higher than observed in 1965–2004.

Greenhouse gas

greenhouse gasescarbon emissionsgreenhouse gas emissions
According to a study published in 2013 in PNAS, in the absence of the crop germplasm improvement associated with the Green Revolution, greenhouse gas emissions would have been 5.2–7.4 Gt higher than observed in 1965–2004.