Gregor Mendel

MendelGregor Johann MendelMendeliandiscoverers of Mendels publicationsGregor Joh. MendelJohann Gregor MendelJohann MendelMendel's lawsMendel's pea plant experimentsMendel, Gregor
Gregor Johann Mendel (Řehoř Jan Mendel; 20 July 1822 – 6 January 1884) was a scientist, Augustinian friar and abbot of St. Thomas' Abbey in Brno, Margraviate of Moravia.wikipedia
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Genetics

geneticgeneticistgenetically
Mendel was born in a German-speaking family in the Silesian part of the Austrian Empire (today's Czech Republic) and gained posthumous recognition as the founder of the modern science of genetics. The strongest opposition to this school came from William Bateson, who perhaps did the most in the early days of publicising the benefits of Mendel's theory (the word "genetics", and much of the discipline's other terminology, originated with Bateson).
Though heredity had been observed for millennia, Gregor Mendel, a scientist and Augustinian friar working in the 19th century, was the first to study genetics scientifically.

St Thomas's Abbey, Brno

St Thomas's AbbeyAbbey of St. ThomasAlt-Brunn
Gregor Johann Mendel (Řehoř Jan Mendel; 20 July 1822 – 6 January 1884) was a scientist, Augustinian friar and abbot of St. Thomas' Abbey in Brno, Margraviate of Moravia. Upon recommendation of his physics teacher Friedrich Franz, Mendel entered the Augustinian St Thomas's Abbey in Brno (called Brünn in German) and began his training as a priest.
The geneticist and Abbot Gregor Mendel was its most famous religious leader to date, who between 1856 and 1863 conducted his experiments on pea plants in the monastery garden.

Brno

BrünnBrno, Czech RepublicBrunn
Gregor Johann Mendel (Řehoř Jan Mendel; 20 July 1822 – 6 January 1884) was a scientist, Augustinian friar and abbot of St. Thomas' Abbey in Brno, Margraviate of Moravia.
Gregor Mendel conducted his groundbreaking experiments in genetics while he was a monk at St. Thomas's Abbey in Brno in the 1850s.

Hugo de Vries

de VriesDe Vries, Hugo MarieHugo DeVries
Erich von Tschermak, Hugo de Vries, Carl Correns and William Jasper Spillman independently verified several of Mendel's experimental findings, ushering in the modern age of genetics.
He is known chiefly for suggesting the concept of genes, rediscovering the laws of heredity in the 1890s while apparently unaware of Gregor Mendel's work, for introducing the term "mutation", and for developing a mutation theory of evolution.

Gene

genesnumber of genesgene sequence
(In the preceding example, the green trait, which seems to have vanished in the first filial generation, is recessive and the yellow is dominant.) He published his work in 1866, demonstrating the actions of invisible "factors"—now called genes—in predictably determining the traits of an organism.
The existence of discrete inheritable units was first suggested by Gregor Mendel (1822–1884).

William Jasper Spillman

William J. Spillman
Erich von Tschermak, Hugo de Vries, Carl Correns and William Jasper Spillman independently verified several of Mendel's experimental findings, ushering in the modern age of genetics.
In addition, he is notable for being the only American to independently rediscover Mendel's laws of genetics.

Carl Correns

Carl Erich CorrensCorrensCorrens, Karl Franz Joseph Erich
Erich von Tschermak, Hugo de Vries, Carl Correns and William Jasper Spillman independently verified several of Mendel's experimental findings, ushering in the modern age of genetics.
Carl Erich Correns (19 September 1864 – 14 February 1933) was a German botanist and geneticist, who is notable primarily for his independent discovery of the principles of heredity, and for his rediscovery of Gregor Mendel's earlier paper on that subject, which he achieved simultaneously but independently of the botanists Erich Tschermak von Seysenegg and Hugo de Vries, and the agronomist William Jasper Spillman.

Palacký University Olomouc

University of OlomoucPalacký UniversityPalacký University of Olomouc
From 1840 to 1843, he studied practical and theoretical philosophy and physics at the Philosophical Institute of the University of Olomouc, taking another year off because of illness.
Many distinguished figures have taught, worked and studied here including Albrecht von Wallenstein and Gregor Mendel.

Erich von Tschermak

Erich von Tschermak-SeyseneggErich Tschermak von SeyseneggErich Tschermak
Erich von Tschermak, Hugo de Vries, Carl Correns and William Jasper Spillman independently verified several of Mendel's experimental findings, ushering in the modern age of genetics.
His maternal grandfather was the famous botanist, Eduard Fenzl, who taught Gregor Mendel botany during his student days in Vienna.

Czech Republic

CzechCZEthe Czech Republic
Mendel was born in a German-speaking family in the Silesian part of the Austrian Empire (today's Czech Republic) and gained posthumous recognition as the founder of the modern science of genetics. Mendel was born into a German-speaking family in Hynčice (Heinzendorf bei Odrau in German), at the Moravian-Silesian border, Austrian Empire (now a part of the Czech Republic).

Friedrich Franz

Upon recommendation of his physics teacher Friedrich Franz, Mendel entered the Augustinian St Thomas's Abbey in Brno (called Brünn in German) and began his training as a priest.
Friedrich Franz, Bedřich Franz, (1 December 1783 – 4 December 1860) was a professor of physics and applied mathematics at the Faculty of Philosophy of University of Olomouc, who greatly influenced his student Gregor Johann Mendel, later known as "The Father of Genetics".

Mendelian inheritance

Mendelian geneticsMendelianMendel's laws
Though farmers had known for millennia that crossbreeding of animals and plants could favor certain desirable traits, Mendel's pea plant experiments conducted between 1856 and 1863 established many of the rules of heredity, now referred to as the laws of Mendelian inheritance.
Mendelian inheritance is a type of biological inheritance that follows the principles originally proposed by Gregor Mendel in 1865 and 1866, re-discovered in 1900 and popularised by William Bateson.

Heredity

hereditaryinheritedinheritance
Though farmers had known for millennia that crossbreeding of animals and plants could favor certain desirable traits, Mendel's pea plant experiments conducted between 1856 and 1863 established many of the rules of heredity, now referred to as the laws of Mendelian inheritance.
The idea of particulate inheritance of genes can be attributed to the Moravian monk Gregor Mendel who published his work on pea plants in 1865.

Dominance (genetics)

autosomal recessiverecessiveautosomal dominant
To explain this phenomenon, Mendel coined the terms "recessive" and "dominant" in reference to certain traits.
The concept of dominance was introduced by Gregor Johann Mendel.

Experiments on Plant Hybridization

His workhybridization experimentsVersuche über Pflanzen-Hybriden
Mendel presented his paper, "Versuche über Pflanzenhybriden" ("Experiments on Plant Hybridization"), at two meetings of the Natural History Society of Brno in Moravia on 8 February and 8 March 1865.
"Experiments on Plant Hybridization" (German: Versuche über Pflanzen-Hybriden) is a seminal paper written in 1865 and published in 1866 by Gregor Mendel, an Augustinian friar considered to be the founder of modern genetics.

Johann Karl Nestler

When Mendel entered the Faculty of Philosophy, the Department of Natural History and Agriculture was headed by Johann Karl Nestler who conducted extensive research of hereditary traits of plants and animals, especially sheep.
According to Wood and Orel the search for rules of heredity in sheep created an atmosphere of enquiry about heredity in general, which had influence on later work of Gregor Johann Mendel, himself a student at the Faculty of Philosophy in 1840–43.

Order of Saint Augustine

O.S.A.AugustinianO.E.S.A.
He was given the name Gregor (Řehoř in Czech) when he joined the Augustinian friars.
A number of mathematicians, astronomers, and musicians are also found among the members of the order, but it was the great scientist Johann Gregor Mendel, abbot of the Czech monastery of St. Thomas at Old Brno in Moravia (d.

Carl Nägeli

Karl Wilhelm von NägeliNägeliCarl Wilhelm von Nägeli
In his correspondence with Carl Nägeli he discussed his results but was unable to explain them.
He studied cell division and pollination but became known as the man who discouraged Gregor Mendel from further work on genetics.

Czech Silesia

SilesiaSilesianMoravian Silesia
Mendel was born into a German-speaking family in Hynčice (Heinzendorf bei Odrau in German), at the Moravian-Silesian border, Austrian Empire (now a part of the Czech Republic).

Biostatistics

biostatisticianbiometrybiometrician
Most prominent of these previous approaches was the biometric school of Karl Pearson and W. F. R. Weldon, which was based heavily on statistical studies of phenotype variation.
Gregor Mendel started the genetics studies investigating genetics segregation patterns in families of peas and used statistics to explain the collected data.

Moravia

Habsburg MoraviaMoravianMorava
Mendel presented his paper, "Versuche über Pflanzenhybriden" ("Experiments on Plant Hybridization"), at two meetings of the Natural History Society of Brno in Moravia on 8 February and 8 March 1865. Mendel was born into a German-speaking family in Hynčice (Heinzendorf bei Odrau in German), at the Moravian-Silesian border, Austrian Empire (now a part of the Czech Republic).

William Bateson

BatesonBateson, WilliamBateson's rule
The strongest opposition to this school came from William Bateson, who perhaps did the most in the early days of publicising the benefits of Mendel's theory (the word "genetics", and much of the discipline's other terminology, originated with Bateson).
William Bateson (8 August 1861 – 8 February 1926) was an English biologist who was the first person to use the term genetics to describe the study of heredity, and the chief populariser of the ideas of Gregor Mendel following their rediscovery in 1900 by Hugo de Vries and Carl Correns.

Modern synthesis (20th century)

modern synthesismodern evolutionary synthesisevolutionary synthesis
The combination, in the 1930s and 1940s, of Mendelian genetics with Darwin's theory of natural selection resulted in the modern synthesis of evolutionary biology.
The modern synthesis was the early 20th-century synthesis reconciling Charles Darwin's theory of evolution and Gregor Mendel's ideas on heredity in a joint mathematical framework.

Christian Doppler

Christian Andreas DopplerDoppler, ChristianDoppler, Christian Johann
At Vienna, his professor of physics was Christian Doppler.
While there, Doppler, along with Franz Unger, influenced the development of young Gregor Mendel, the founding father of genetics, who was a student at the University of Vienna from 1851 to 1853.

Pangenesis

gemmulespangenegemmae
Charles Darwin tried unsuccessfully to explain inheritance through a theory of pangenesis.
This hypothesis was made effectively obsolete after the 1900 rediscovery among biologists of Gregor Mendel's theory of the particulate nature of inheritance.