Grey literature

gray literaturegreygrey-literaturepromotional report
Grey literature (or gray literature) are materials and research produced by organizations outside of the traditional commercial or academic publishing and distribution channels.wikipedia
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Academic publishing

research papersacademic paperacademic publisher
Grey literature (or gray literature) are materials and research produced by organizations outside of the traditional commercial or academic publishing and distribution channels.
The part of academic written output that is not formally published but merely printed up or posted on the Internet is often called "grey literature".

Annual report

annual reportsannualannual accounts
Common grey literature publication types include reports (annual, research, technical, project, etc.), working papers, government documents, white papers and evaluations.
They may be considered as grey literature.

White paper

white paperswhitepaperpolicy paper
Common grey literature publication types include reports (annual, research, technical, project, etc.), working papers, government documents, white papers and evaluations.
White papers may be considered grey literature.

Working paper

working papersdiscussion papersworking-paper
Common grey literature publication types include reports (annual, research, technical, project, etc.), working papers, government documents, white papers and evaluations. These include: research and project reports, annual or activity reports, theses, conference proceedings, preprints, working papers, newsletters, technical reports, recommendations and technical standards, patents, technical notes, data and statistics, presentations, field notes, laboratory research books, academic courseware, lecture notes, evaluations, and many more.

Technical report

reportspublicationstechnical
Common grey literature publication types include reports (annual, research, technical, project, etc.), working papers, government documents, white papers and evaluations.
They may be considered as grey literature.

Grey Literature Network Service

GreyNet
The international network GreyNet maintains an online listing of document types.
GreyNet International, the Grey Literature Network Service is an independent organization founded in 1992, which is dedicated to research, publication, open access, education, and public awareness to grey literature.

Newsletter

newsletterselectronic newslettere-newsletter
These include: research and project reports, annual or activity reports, theses, conference proceedings, preprints, working papers, newsletters, technical reports, recommendations and technical standards, patents, technical notes, data and statistics, presentations, field notes, laboratory research books, academic courseware, lecture notes, evaluations, and many more.
A newsletter may be considered grey literature.

Proceedings

conference proceedingsproceedingconference proceeding
These include: research and project reports, annual or activity reports, theses, conference proceedings, preprints, working papers, newsletters, technical reports, recommendations and technical standards, patents, technical notes, data and statistics, presentations, field notes, laboratory research books, academic courseware, lecture notes, evaluations, and many more.
In many fields, they are published as supplements to academic journals; in others they may be considered grey literature.

Manuscript (publishing)

preprintsmanuscriptManuscript format
These include: research and project reports, annual or activity reports, theses, conference proceedings, preprints, working papers, newsletters, technical reports, recommendations and technical standards, patents, technical notes, data and statistics, presentations, field notes, laboratory research books, academic courseware, lecture notes, evaluations, and many more.

Thesis

dissertationdoctoral thesisdoctoral dissertation
These include: research and project reports, annual or activity reports, theses, conference proceedings, preprints, working papers, newsletters, technical reports, recommendations and technical standards, patents, technical notes, data and statistics, presentations, field notes, laboratory research books, academic courseware, lecture notes, evaluations, and many more.

Institutional repository

institutional repositoriesrepositoryrepositories
Documents are often not assigned permanent URLs or DOI numbers, or stored in electronic depositories, so that link rot can develop within citations, reference lists, databases and websites.
Some of the main objectives for having an institutional repository are to provide open access to institutional research output by self-archiving in an open access repository, to create global visibility for an institution's scholarly research, and to store and preserve other institutional digital assets, including unpublished or otherwise easily lost ("grey") literature such as theses, working papers or technical reports.

Analysis & Policy Observatory

Analysis & Policy Observatory (APO)Australian Policy Online
Analysis & Policy Observatory has an extensive collection of grey literature on a wide range of public policy issues, ArXiv is a collection of preprints on physics and other sciences, and RePEc is a collection of economics working papers.
Analysis & Policy Observatory (also known as APO) is a not-for-profit open access subject repository or digital library, specialising in public policy and practice grey literature and journal articles, mainly from Australia and New Zealand, with some coverage of other countries.

OpenSIGLE

The creation of the OpenSIGLE archive was decided by some major European STI centres, members of the former European network EAGLE for the collection and dissemination of grey literature (European Association for Grey Literature Exploitation).

Systematic review

systematic reviewsreviewsystematic literature review
In the last few decades, systematic literature reviews in health and medicine have established the importance of discovering and analyzing grey literature as part of the evidence-base and in order to avoid publication bias.
A 2003 study suggested that extending searches beyond major databases, perhaps into grey literature, would increase the effectiveness of reviews.

European Association for Grey Literature Exploitation

The objective was to improve information transfer, ensure availability of research results and increase international awareness of European grey literature by making the bibliographic records as widely available as possible.

Publishing

publisherpublishedpublishing house
Grey literature (or gray literature) are materials and research produced by organizations outside of the traditional commercial or academic publishing and distribution channels.

Evaluation

evaluateevaluativeevaluating
Common grey literature publication types include reports (annual, research, technical, project, etc.), working papers, government documents, white papers and evaluations.

Non-governmental organization

NGONGOsnon-governmental organisation
Organizations that produce grey literature include government departments and agencies, civil society or non-governmental organisations, academic centres and departments, and private companies and consultants.

Allies of World War II

AlliedAlliesAllied forces
The literature he referred to consisted of intelligence reports and notes on atomic research produced in vast quantities by the Allied Forces during World War II.

World War II

Second World WarwarWWII
The literature he referred to consisted of intelligence reports and notes on atomic research produced in vast quantities by the Allied Forces during World War II.

New York City

New YorkNew York, New YorkNew York City, New York
In 2004, at the Sixth Conference in New York City, a postscript was added to the definition for purposes of clarification: grey literature is "...not controlled by commercial publishers, i.e., where publishing is not the primary activity of the producing body".

Website

web sitewebsitesonline
Due to the rapid increase web publishing and access to documents, the focus of grey literature has shifted to quality, intellectual property, curation, and accessibility.

Intellectual property

intellectual property rightsIPintellectual property law
Due to the rapid increase web publishing and access to documents, the focus of grey literature has shifted to quality, intellectual property, curation, and accessibility.