Grid computing

gridgridscomputing gridcomputational gridgrid computerComputing GridsGrid technologygrid-computingcomputationalcomputer grids
Grid computing is the use of widely distributed computer resources to reach a common goal.wikipedia
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Computer cluster

clusterclusteringclusters
Grid computing is distinguished from conventional high-performance computing systems such as cluster computing in that grid computers have each node set to perform a different task/application.
Unlike grid computers, computer clusters have each node set to perform the same task, controlled and scheduled by software.

Parallel computing

parallelparallel processingparallelism
For certain applications, distributed or grid computing can be seen as a special type of parallel computing that relies on complete computers (with onboard CPUs, storage, power supplies, network interfaces, etc.) connected to a computer network (private or public) by a conventional network interface, such as Ethernet.
Parallel computers can be roughly classified according to the level at which the hardware supports parallelism, with multi-core and multi-processor computers having multiple processing elements within a single machine, while clusters, MPPs, and grids use multiple computers to work on the same task.

UNICORE

Unicore
Major grid middlewares are Globus Toolkit, gLite, and UNICORE.
UNICORE (UNiform Interface to COmputing REsources) is a grid computing technology for resources such as supercomputers or cluster systems and information stored in databases.

GLite

workload management system
Major grid middlewares are Globus Toolkit, gLite, and UNICORE.
gLite (pronounced "gee-lite") is a middleware computer software project for grid computing used by the CERN LHC experiments and other scientific domains.

Supercomputer

high-performance computingsupercomputinghigh performance computing
This is in contrast to the traditional notion of a supercomputer, which has many processors connected by a local high-speed computer bus.
In the grid computing approach, the processing power of many computers, organised as distributed, diverse administrative domains, is opportunistically used whenever a computer is available.

Globus Toolkit

GlobusGT4
Major grid middlewares are Globus Toolkit, gLite, and UNICORE.
The Globus Toolkit is an open-source toolkit for grid computing developed and provided by the Globus Alliance.

Distributed computing

distributeddistributed systemsdistributed system
The grid can be thought of as a distributed system with non-interactive workloads that involve a large number of files.
scientific computing, including cluster computing and grid computing and various volunteer computing projects (see the list of distributed computing projects),

Scientific workflow system

scientific workflowScientific workflowsbioinformatics workflow management systems
Grid workflow systems have been developed as a specialized form of a workflow management system designed specifically to compose and execute a series of computational or data manipulation steps, or a workflow, in the Grid context.
By focusing on the scientists, the focus of designing scientific workflow system shifts away from the workflow scheduling activities, typically considered by grid computing environments for optimizing the execution of complex computations on predefined resources, to a domain-specific view of what data types, tools and distributed resources should be made available to the scientists and how can one make them easily accessible and with specific Quality of Service requirements

Carl Kesselman

The power grid metaphor for accessible computing quickly became canonical when Ian Foster and Carl Kesselman published their seminal work, "The Grid: Blueprint for a new computing infrastructure" (1999).
Carl Kesselman is an American computer scientist specializing in grid computing technologies.

Virtual organization (grid computing)

virtual organizationVOvirtual organizations
Example areas include SLA management, Trust, and Security, Virtual organization management, License Management, Portals and Data Management.
In grid computing, a virtual organization (VO) refers to a dynamic set of individuals or institutions defined around a set of resource-sharing rules and conditions.

Sun Microsystems

SunOracleSunSoft
Major players in the utility computing market are Sun Microsystems, IBM, and HP.
In February 2005, Sun announced the Sun Grid, a grid computing deployment on which it offered utility computing services priced at US$1 per CPU/hour for processing and per GB/month for storage.

Utility computing

computing utilitycomputer utility
This can facilitate commercial transactions, as in utility computing, or make it easier to assemble volunteer computing networks.
The term "grid computing" is often used to describe a particular form of distributed computing, where the supporting nodes are geographically distributed or cross administrative domains.

World Community Grid

Mapping Cancer MarkersMicrobiome Immunity ProjectWCG
As of October 2016, over 4 million machines running the open-source Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) platform are members of the World Community Grid.
World Community Grid (WCG) is an effort to create the world's largest public computing grid to tackle scientific research projects that benefit humanity.

Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing

BOINCBerkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC)BOINC Account Manager
As of October 2016, over 4 million machines running the open-source Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) platform are members of the World Community Grid. BOINC is a common one for various academic projects seeking public volunteers; more are listed at the end of the article.
The Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC, pronounced – rhymes with "oink" ), an open-source middleware system, supports volunteer and grid computing.

Cloud computing

cloudcloud-basedcloud services
In 2007 the term cloud computing came into popularity, which is conceptually similar to the canonical Foster definition of grid computing (in terms of computing resources being consumed as electricity is from the power grid) and earlier utility computing.
Cloud computing is a kind of grid computing; it has evolved by addressing the QoS (quality of service) and reliability problems.

Large Hadron Collider

LHCLarge Hadron Collider (LHC)CERN Large Hadron Collider
This, along with the LHC Computing Grid (LCG), was developed to support experiments using the CERN Large Hadron Collider.
The LHC's computing grid is a world record holder.

Ian Foster

Ian Tremere Foster
The power grid metaphor for accessible computing quickly became canonical when Ian Foster and Carl Kesselman published their seminal work, "The Grid: Blueprint for a new computing infrastructure" (1999).
With Carl Kesselman and Steve Tuecke, Foster coined the term grid computing: techniques for data-intensive, multi-institution collaboration that paved the way for cloud computing.

United Devices

In 2001, United Devices operated the United Devices Cancer Research Project based on its Grid MP product, which cycle-scavenges on volunteer PCs connected to the Internet.
United Devices, Inc. was a privately held, commercial distributed computing company that focused on the use of grid computing to manage high-performance computing systems and enterprise cluster management.

HTCondor

Condor HTCondor High-Throughput Computing SystemCondor Cloud
For instance, HTCondor the open-source high-throughput computing software framework for coarse-grained distributed rationalization of computationally intensive tasks can be configured to only use desktop machines where the keyboard and mouse are idle to effectively harness wasted CPU power from otherwise idle desktop workstations.
It can be used to manage workload on a dedicated cluster of computers, or to farm out work to idle desktop computers – so-called cycle scavenging.

Grid.org

In 2001, United Devices operated the United Devices Cancer Research Project based on its Grid MP product, which cycle-scavenges on volunteer PCs connected to the Internet.
grid.org was a website and online community established in 2001 for cluster computing and grid computing software users.

Worldwide LHC Computing Grid

LHC Computing Grid (LCG)Computing gridGrid
This, along with the LHC Computing Grid (LCG), was developed to support experiments using the CERN Large Hadron Collider.
, The LHC Computing Grid is the world's largest computing grid comprising over 170 computing facilities in a worldwide network across 42 countries.

Sensor grid

sensory network
Sensor grid
A sensor grid integrates wireless sensor networks with grid computing concepts to enable real-time sensor data collection and the sharing of computational and storage resources for sensor data processing and management.

Techila Grid

Techila
Techila
Techila Distributed Computing Engine (earlier known as Techila Grid) is a commercial grid computing software product.

NorduGrid

NorduGrid
NorduGrid is a collaboration aiming at development, maintenance and support of the free Grid middleware, known as the Advanced Resource Connector (ARC).

European Grid Infrastructure

EGEEEGIEGI Design Study
The Enabling Grids for E-sciencE project, based in the European Union and included sites in Asia and the United States, was a follow-up project to the European DataGrid (EDG) and evolved into the European Grid Infrastructure.
European Grid Infrastructure (EGI) is a series of efforts to provide access to high-throughput computing resources across Europe using grid computing techniques.