Elite late Parthian and Sasanian division who fought as heavy cataphract cavalry.- Grivpanvar
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Form of armored heavy cavalryman that originated in Persia and was fielded in ancient warfare throughout Eurasia and Northern Africa.
A twofold origin of the Greek term has been proposed: either that it was a humorous reference to the heavily armored cataphracts as men encased in armor who would heat up very quickly much like in an oven; or that it was further derived from the Old Persian word *griwbanar (or *grivpanvar), itself composed of the Iranian roots griva-pana-bara, which translates into "neck-guard wearer".
The kontos (κοντός) was the Greek name for a type of long wooden cavalry lance used by the Iranians, especially Achaemenid successors' cavalry, most notably cataphracts (Grivpanvar).
Fought in the summer of 217 between the armies of the Roman Empire under the newly ascended emperor Macrinus and the Parthian army of King Artabanus IV.
The two enemies exemplified two different approaches to warfare: the Roman army was traditionally infantry-based, relying on its excellent legions, while the Parthians were excellent horsemen, employing the heavy shock "cataphract" cavalry (grivpanvar), mounted on horses or camels, in combination with large numbers of horse-archers.
The primary military body of the Sasanian armed forces, serving alongside the Sasanian navy.
The Romans called these newly formed units clibanarii; It is said that the word clibanarii is derived from Persian word grivpanvar or griva-pana-vara meaning neck-guard wearer.
The Clibanarii or Klibanophoroi (κλιβανοφόροι, meaning "camp oven-bearers" from the Greek word κλίβανος meaning "camp oven" or "metallic furnace"), in Persian Grivpanvar, were a Sasanian Persian, late Roman and Byzantine military unit of armored heavy cavalry.
Arab Muslim military general in the service of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the Rashidun caliphs Abu Bakr ((r.
Sa'd leadership style allowed creative field commanders like al-Qa'qa to freely use their creativity utilitizing the strategy of camel horde lines, which unexpectedly managed to counter the fearsome elephants and Sassanids iron-clad horses, as the combination of the stench and body masses of those camels within close vicinity has aroused significant stresses towards those two animals and stopped their charge on track.