Grodno

HrodnaHrodnoGrodnaGardinasHoradniaKiełbasin GrodnoGorodnoGrodnenskiyGrodnian
Hrodna, or Grodno (Гродна ; Grodno;, גראדנע, see also other names) is a city in western Belarus.wikipedia
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Grodno Region

Hrodna VoblastGrodno OblastGrodno
It is the capital of Hrodna Region and Hrodna District.
The capital, Hrodna, is the biggest city of the region.

Belarus

BLRRepublic of BelarusBelorussia
Hrodna, or Grodno (Гродна ; Grodno;, גראדנע, see also other names) is a city in western Belarus.
In western Belarus under Polish control, Byelorussia became commonly used in the regions of Białystok and Grodno during the interwar period.

Vytautas

Vytautas the GreatWitoldVitaut
The famous Lithuanian Grand Duke Vytautas was the prince of Hrodna from 1376 to 1392, and he stayed there during his preparations for the Battle of Grunwald (1410).
He was also the Prince of Hrodna (1370–1382), Prince of Lutsk (1387–1389), and the postulated king of the Hussites.

Black Ruthenia

Black RusBlack Russia
Along with Navahrudak, Hrodna was regarded as the main city on the western borderlands of Black Ruthenia. In the 1240–1250s the Hrodna area, as well as the most of Black Ruthenia, was controlled by princes of Lithuanian origin (Mindaugas and others) to form the Baltic state—Grand Duchy of Lithuania—on these territories.
Besides Navahrudak, other important cities of the Black Ruthenian region included Hrodna (Grodno), Slonim (Słonim), Volkovysk (Vaŭkavysk) and Niasvizh (Niasviž).

Old Grodno Castle

Old Hrodna CastleHrodnaHrodna Old Castle
Also, the Old and New Castles were often visited by the Commonwealth monarchs including famous Stephen Báthory of Poland who made a royal residence here.
The Old Grodno Castle (also known as the Grodno Upper Castle and Bathory's Castle) originated in the 11th century as the seat of a dynasty of Black Ruthenian rulers, descended from a younger son of Yaroslav the Wise of Kiev.

Grodno Sejm

Grodno ''SejmGrodno Voivodeshiplast Sejm in the history of the Commonwealth
In 1793 the last Sejm in the history of the Commonwealth occurred at Hrodna.
The Grodno Sejm, held in fall of 1793 in Grodno, Grand Duchy of Lithuania (now Hrodna, Belarus) is infamous because its deputies, bribed or coerced by the Russian Empire, passed the act of Second Partition of Poland.

Grand Duchy of Lithuania

LithuaniaLithuanianGrand Duke of Lithuania
The border region neighboured the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In the 1240–1250s the Hrodna area, as well as the most of Black Ruthenia, was controlled by princes of Lithuanian origin (Mindaugas and others) to form the Baltic state—Grand Duchy of Lithuania—on these territories.
The battle provided a break in the wars with the Knights, and Lithuania exploited this situation, arranging attacks towards the Ruthenian provinces and annexing Navahrudak and Hrodna.

Trakai Voivodeship

Voivode of TrakaiTrakaiTroki
Since 1413, Hrodna had been the administrative center of a powiat in Trakai Voivodeship.
The biggest cities in the voivodeship were Kaunas, Grodno and Trakai.

Grodno Governorate

GrodnoSlonim GovernorateLithuania-Grodno Governorate
In the Russian Empire, the city continued to serve its role as a seat of Grodno Governorate since 1801.
Grodno, Brest, Bielsk, Volkovysk, Kobryn, Prushana, Slonim and Belostok.

Mindaugas

King MindaugasKaraliaus MindaugoLithuanian King Mindaugas
In the 1240–1250s the Hrodna area, as well as the most of Black Ruthenia, was controlled by princes of Lithuanian origin (Mindaugas and others) to form the Baltic state—Grand Duchy of Lithuania—on these territories.
Constrained in the north and west, Mindaugas moved to the east and southeast, conquering Navahrudak, Hrodna, Vawkavysk, and the Principality of Polotsk, but there is no information about any battles for those cities.

First Battle of Grodno (1920)

First Battle of GrodnoBattle of Grodno
The city was lost to the Red Army on July 20, 1920 in what became known as the First Battle of Grodno.
In the effect of a three-day-long struggle for the control of the city of Grodno (modern Hrodna, Belarus), the town was captured by Russian forces, despite repeated counter-attacks by Polish infantry, tanks and armoured trains.

Belarusian People's Republic

Belarusian Democratic RepublicBelarusBelarusian National Republic
After the war the German government permitted a short-lived state to be set up there, the first one with a Belarusian name—the Belarusian People's Republic.
In 1919, it co-existed with an alternative Communist government of Belarus (the Socialist Soviet Republic of Byelorussia, which later became part of the Lithuanian–Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic), moving its seat of government to Vilnius and Hrodna, but ceased to exist due to the capture of the whole Belarusian territory by Polish and Bolshevik forces during the Polish–Soviet War of 1919-1921.

Battle of the Niemen River

Battle of the NiemenBattle of GrodnoBattle of Niemen
Instead, the Red Army organised its last stand in the city and the Battle of Neman took place there.
It took place near the middle Neman River between the cities of Suwałki, Grodno and Białystok.

Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

Polish-Lithuanian CommonwealthPolandPolish
After the First Partition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Hrodna became the capital of the short-lived Grodno Voivodeship in 1793.
Hrodna become an important site after formation of a customs post at Augustów in 1569, which became a checkpoint for merchants travelling to the Crown lands from the Grand Duchy.

Battle of Grodno (1939)

Battle of Grodnodefence of GrodnoGrodno
In the course of the Battle of Grodno (September 20 – September 22) the Red Army lost some hundred men (according to Polish sources; according to Soviet sources – 57 killed and 159 wounded) and also 19 tanks and 4 APCs destroyed or damaged.
The Battle of Grodno took place between 21 September and 24 September 1939, during the Soviet invasion of Poland.

Battle of Grunwald

GrunwaldBattle of Grunwald (Tannenberg)Battle of Tannenberg
The famous Lithuanian Grand Duke Vytautas was the prince of Hrodna from 1376 to 1392, and he stayed there during his preparations for the Battle of Grunwald (1410).
The Lithuanian army marched out from Vilnius on 3 June and joined the Ruthenian regiments in Hrodna.

Grodno Ghetto

Grodnoghetto in Grodnosouth of Grodno
In the course of the Operation Barbarossa in World War II, the majority of Jews were herded by the Nazis into the Grodno Ghetto and subsequently exterminated in German concentration camps.
The Grodno Ghetto (getto w Grodnie, Гродзенскае гета, גטו גרודנו) was a Nazi ghetto established in November 1941 by Nazi Germany in the city of Grodno for the purpose of persecution and exploitation of Jews in Western Belarus.

Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic

Belarusian SSRByelorussian SSRBelorussian SSR
In accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, the city became part of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic of the Soviet Union, and several thousand of the city's Polish inhabitants were deported to remote areas of the Soviet Union.
In western Belarus under Polish control, Byelorussia became commonly used in the regions of Białystok and Hrodna during the interwar period.

Białystok

BialystokBelostokBialystok, Poland
Initially, prosperity was reduced due to the fact that the city remained only the capital of a powiat, while the capital of the voivodship was moved to Białystok.
In 1862 a railway connection was launched, connecting Białystok with Warsaw, Grodno, Wilno and Saint Petersburg.

Battle of Warsaw (1920)

Battle of WarsawMiracle at the Vistulabattle of Warsaw in 1920
However, Soviet defeat in the Battle of Warsaw made these plans obsolete, and Lithuanian authority was never established in the city.
On July 19 the Red Army seized Grodno and on July 28, it reached Białystok.

Partitions of Poland

partition of Polandpartitionsfirst partition of Poland
After the First Partition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Hrodna became the capital of the short-lived Grodno Voivodeship in 1793.
The King of Poland, Stanisław August Poniatowski, under Russian military escort left for Grodno where he abdicated on November 25, 1795; next he left for Saint Petersburg, Russia, where he would spend his remaining days.

Shimon Shkop

Rabbi Shimon Shkop
In the period of independent Poland a yeshiva had operated in the city (Shaar ha-tora) under the management of Rabbi Shimon Shkop.
Shimon Yehuda Shkop (שמעון שקופ; 1860 – October 22, 1939) was a rosh yeshiva (dean) of the Yeshiva of Telshe (Telšiai) and then of Yeshiva Shaar HaTorah of Grodno, and a renowned Talmid Chacham (Talmudic scholar).

Poles

PolishPolePolish people
In accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, the city became part of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic of the Soviet Union, and several thousand of the city's Polish inhabitants were deported to remote areas of the Soviet Union.
In Ukraine it is most common in the western Lviv and Volyn oblast (provinces), while in western Belarus it is used by the significant Polish minority, especially in the Brest and Grodno regions and in areas along the Lithuanian border.

Antoni Tyzenhaus

Antoni TyzenhauzAntanas Tyzenhauzas
The industrial activities, started in the late 18th century by Antoni Tyzenhaus, continued to develop.
After the election of Poniatowski to the throne of Poland–Lithuania (1764), Tyzenhaus became Court Treasurer of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Starosta of Hrodna, and administrator of royal estates.

Polish–Soviet War

Polish-Soviet WarPolish-Bolshevik WarPolish-Bolshevist War
After the outbreak of the Polish–Bolshevik War, the German commanders of the Ober Ost feared that the city might fall to Soviet Russia, so on April 27, 1919 they passed authority to Poland.
That month the Red Army had captured Grodno, but was soon pushed out by a Polish counter-offensive.