Ground-penetrating radar

ground penetrating radargeoradarGPRability to penetrate soilGeoradar-SurveyGround Penetrating Radar SurveyGround Penetration Radarground radarground scanning radarground-penetrating radar [GPR
Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a geophysical method that uses radar pulses to image the subsurface.wikipedia
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Radar

radar stationradarsradar system
Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a geophysical method that uses radar pulses to image the subsurface.
The modern uses of radar are highly diverse, including air and terrestrial traffic control, radar astronomy, air-defense systems, antimissile systems, marine radars to locate landmarks and other ships, aircraft anticollision systems, ocean surveillance systems, outer space surveillance and rendezvous systems, meteorological precipitation monitoring, altimetry and flight control systems, guided missile target locating systems, ground-penetrating radar for geological observations, and range-controlled radar for public health surveillance.

Geophysical imaging

seismic imagingimaginggeophysical tomography
Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a geophysical method that uses radar pulses to image the subsurface.
Ground-penetrating radar

Radioglaciology

ice-penetrating radarradar soundingradio echo sounding
In the Earth sciences it is used to study bedrock, soils, groundwater, and ice.
It employs a geophysical method similar to ground-penetrating radar that operates at frequencies in the MF, HF and VHF portions of the radio spectrum.

Hydrogeophysics

Cross borehole GPR has developed within the field of hydrogeophysics to be a valuable means of assessing the presence and amount of soil water.
Ground-penetrating radar (surface)- mapping stratigraphy and water table; monitoring water content

Yutu (rover)

YutuYutu roverYutu'' rover
The Chinese lunar rover Yutu has a GPR on its underside to investigate the soil and crust of the Moon.
The Yutu rover carried a ground-penetrating radar and spectrometers to inspect the composition of the soil and the structure of the lunar crust beneath it.

Geophysical survey (archaeology)

geophysical surveygeophysical surveysarchaeological geophysics
In environmental remediation, GPR is used to define landfills, contaminant plumes, and other remediation sites, while in archaeology it is used for mapping archaeological features and cemeteries.
Most commonly applied to archaeology are magnetometers, electrical resistance meters, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and electromagnetic (EM) conductivity meters.

Michael Sams

Stephanie SlaterJulie Dartkidnapper of Birmingham estate agent Stephanie Slater
In 1992 GPR was used to recover £150,000 in cash that kidnapper Michael Sams received as a ransom for an estate agent he had kidnapped after Sams buried the money in a field.
Out of the £175,000 ransom that was paid for the release of Slater, Police located £150,000 buried in a field by using Ground-Penetrating Radar.

Geophysics

geophysicistgeophysicalgeophysicists
Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a geophysical method that uses radar pulses to image the subsurface.

Nondestructive testing

non-destructive testingnon-destructive evaluationnondestructive
This nondestructive method uses electromagnetic radiation in the microwave band (UHF/VHF frequencies) of the radio spectrum, and detects the reflected signals from subsurface structures.

Electromagnetic radiation

electromagnetic waveelectromagnetic waveselectromagnetic
This nondestructive method uses electromagnetic radiation in the microwave band (UHF/VHF frequencies) of the radio spectrum, and detects the reflected signals from subsurface structures.

Microwave

microwavesmicrowave radiationmicrowave tube
This nondestructive method uses electromagnetic radiation in the microwave band (UHF/VHF frequencies) of the radio spectrum, and detects the reflected signals from subsurface structures.

Ultra high frequency

UHFUHF bandUHF radio
This nondestructive method uses electromagnetic radiation in the microwave band (UHF/VHF frequencies) of the radio spectrum, and detects the reflected signals from subsurface structures.

Very high frequency

VHFVHF radioVHF band
This nondestructive method uses electromagnetic radiation in the microwave band (UHF/VHF frequencies) of the radio spectrum, and detects the reflected signals from subsurface structures.

Radio spectrum

bandradio bandspectrum
This nondestructive method uses electromagnetic radiation in the microwave band (UHF/VHF frequencies) of the radio spectrum, and detects the reflected signals from subsurface structures.

Permittivity

dielectric permittivitydielectric functionelectric permittivity
When the energy encounters a buried object or a boundary between materials having different permittivities, it may be reflected or refracted or scattered back to the surface.

Seismology

seismicseismologistseismologists
The principles involved are similar to seismology, except GPR methods implement electromagnetic energy rather than acoustic energy, and energy may be reflected at boundaries where subsurface electrical properties change rather than subsurface mechanical properties as is the case with seismic energy.

Acoustics

acousticacousticianacoustical
The principles involved are similar to seismology, except GPR methods implement electromagnetic energy rather than acoustic energy, and energy may be reflected at boundaries where subsurface electrical properties change rather than subsurface mechanical properties as is the case with seismic energy.

Electrical resistivity and conductivity

electrical conductivityresistivityconductivity
The electrical conductivity of the ground, the transmitted center frequency, and the radiated power all may limit the effective depth range of GPR investigation.

Frequency

frequenciesperiodperiodic
The electrical conductivity of the ground, the transmitted center frequency, and the radiated power all may limit the effective depth range of GPR investigation.

Optical resolution

resolutionresolvedresolve
However, higher frequencies may provide improved resolution.

Granite

graniticgranitespink granite
Dry sandy soils or massive dry materials such as granite, limestone, and concrete tend to be resistive rather than conductive, and the depth of penetration could be up to 15 m. However, in moist or clay-laden soils and materials with high electrical conductivity, penetration may be as little as a few centimetres.

Limestone

limestonescalcareouslime
Dry sandy soils or massive dry materials such as granite, limestone, and concrete tend to be resistive rather than conductive, and the depth of penetration could be up to 15 m. However, in moist or clay-laden soils and materials with high electrical conductivity, penetration may be as little as a few centimetres.

Concrete

admixturesworkabilityadmixture
Dry sandy soils or massive dry materials such as granite, limestone, and concrete tend to be resistive rather than conductive, and the depth of penetration could be up to 15 m. However, in moist or clay-laden soils and materials with high electrical conductivity, penetration may be as little as a few centimetres.

Antenna (radio)

antennaantennasradio antenna
Ground-penetrating radar antennas are generally in contact with the ground for the strongest signal strength; however, GPR air-launched antennas can be used above the ground.

Soil

dirtsoilssoil moisture
Cross borehole GPR has developed within the field of hydrogeophysics to be a valuable means of assessing the presence and amount of soil water.