Guam

Map showing the Neolithic Austronesian migrations into the islands of the Indo-Pacific
Reception of the Manila Galleon by the Chamoru in the Ladrones Islands, ca. 1590 Boxer Codex
Main street of Hagåtña, ca. 1899-1900
U.S. Marines walk through the ruins of Hagåtña, July 1944
Photograph of Guam from space captured by NASA's now decommissioned Earth observation satellite, Earth Observing-1 (EO-1), on December 30, 2011
Guam National Wildlife Refuge beach at Ritidian Point
Previously extensively dredged, Tumon Bay is now a marine preserve.
The introduction of the brown tree snake nearly eradicated the native bird population
The Guam Museum in Hagåtña opened in 2016
Youth performance of traditional dance at Micronesia Mall, 2012
Outrigger canoe team at Tumon
Beaches at the tourist center of Tumon
A proportional representation of Guam exports, 2019
Terminal at Antonio B. Won Pat International Airport. The airport hosts a hub of United Airlines, Guam's largest private-sector employer.
Map of U.S. military lands on Guam, 2010
Incumbent governor Lou Leon Guerrero
Michael San Nicolas is the Delegate for Guam's at-large congressional district.
Hagåtña from Fort Santa Agueda
Guam Highway 8 route marker
Construction at the Port of Guam, 2014
The Umatac Outdoor Library, built in 1933, was the first library in southern Guam.

Organized, unincorporated territory of the United States in the Micronesia subregion of the western Pacific Ocean.

- Guam

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Map of Micronesia (shown in dark magenta)

Micronesia

Subregion of Oceania, consisting of about two thousand small islands in the western Pacific Ocean.

Subregion of Oceania, consisting of about two thousand small islands in the western Pacific Ocean.

Map of Micronesia (shown in dark magenta)
Micronesia is one of three major cultural areas in the Pacific Ocean, along with Polynesia and Melanesia
Romanum Island, Chuuk, Micronesia
Mount Marpi in Saipan.
Beach scenery at Laura, Majuro, Marshall Islands
Spinner dolphins
Chronological dispersal of Austronesian peoples across the Indo-Pacific
Manila Galleon in the Marianas and Carolinas, c. 1590 Boxer Codex
German New Guinea before and after the German-Spanish treaty of 1899
Map from 1961 of the US Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, formerly Japan's South Seas Mandate.
A proportional representation of Micronesia exports, 2019
Chamorro people in 1915
Languages of Micronesia.
Image of the Castle Bravo nuclear test, detonated on 1 March 1954, at Bikini Atoll
An illustration of the Cross Spikes Club<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.history.navy.mil/ac/bikini/bikini1.htm |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20000521071018/http://history.navy.mil/ac/bikini/bikini1.htm |url-status=dead |archive-date=21 May 2000 |title=Operation Crossroads: Bikini Atoll |work=Navy Historical Center |publisher=Department of the Navy |access-date=4 December 2013 }}</ref> of the US Navy on Bikini Atoll, one of several Marshall Islands used for atomic bomb tests.
Kili Island is one of the smallest islands in the Marshall Islands.
Aerial view of Nauru
Nauruan districts of Denigomodu and Nibok
Wake Island as depicted by the United States Exploring Expedition, drawn by Alfred Thomas Agate
Aerial view Wake Island, looking westward
Central Nan Madol (map)
Nan Madol
Leluh
Latte stones
Rai stone

The Mariana Islands are affiliated with the United States; some of them belong to the U.S. Territory of Guam and the rest belong to the U.S. Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

Palau

Island country in the western Pacific.

Island country in the western Pacific.

Manila Galleon in the Marianas and Carolinas, c. 1590 Boxer Codex.
Palau in Japanese mandate
Flags of countries who have foreign relations with Palau, Palasia Hotel
The sixteen states of Palau
Republic of Palau.
The Euatel, Kabekl M’tal and Bul provide littoral fishery protection.
Aerial view of Ngerukewid
Aerial view of Rock Islands
Rock Islands in Palau
An aerial view of limestone islands
A proportional representation of Palau exports, 2019
Artificially made German Channel is one of the most popular dive sites. It is also a major transport route for boats that connects the lagoon to the Pacific Ocean in south-west.
Aerial view of Koror–Babeldaob Bridge in 2016.
Palau International Airport
A traditional Palauan bai

Another ship was sent from Guam in 1711 to save them only to capsize, causing the death of three more Jesuit priests.

Spanish East Indies

The Spanish East Indies (Indias orientales españolas ; ) were the overseas territories of the Spanish Empire in Asia and Oceania from 1565 to 1901, governed from Mexico City and Madrid through the captaincy general in Manila.

The Spanish East Indies (Indias orientales españolas ; ) were the overseas territories of the Spanish Empire in Asia and Oceania from 1565 to 1901, governed from Mexico City and Madrid through the captaincy general in Manila.

Reception of the Manila Galleon by the Chamorro in the Ladrones Islands, ca. 1590, Boxer Codex
Routes of early Spanish expeditions in the Philippines.
Manila, capital of the Spanish East Indies, 1899.
1888 map showing the Spanish East Indies, including Palau Islands (map without Philippines)
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The territories ruled included present-day Philippines, Guam and the Mariana Islands, as well as Palau, part of Micronesia and for a brief period Northern Taiwan and parts of North Sulawesi and the Moluccas.

Apra Harbor from the south, with Naval Base Guam on the Orote Peninsula in the foreground

Apra Harbor

Apra Harbor from the south, with Naval Base Guam on the Orote Peninsula in the foreground
USGS map of Apra Harbor, 2000
1802 map. Piti village and the three Spanish batteries are marked. The area marked as "Lagoon" corresponds to current day Inner Apra Harbor. The anchorage marked as "Inner Harbour" is now bisected by the artificial peninsula Drydock Island.
1912 map. Piti and Sumay lie directly on the harbor, with a quarantine station on Cabras Island. The Glass Breakwater, Drydock Island, and Polaris Point have not yet been built.
Southern Apra Harbor in 1941, showing the Pan American Airways fuel piers at Sumay, as well as the lagoon that would be constructed into Inner Apra Harbor after the WWII
The bombarded former Piti Navy Yard and causeway to Cabras Island on July 20, 1944, two days before the U.S. landings.
The harbor in 1945
RMS Caribia crashing into the Glass Breakwater, 1974
Attack submarine USS Salt Lake City and tender USS Frank Cable in Inner Apra Harbor, 2002
Scuba diver on a shipwreck in Apra Harbor, 2017
Benthic cover map for the Sasa Bay Marine Preserve, 2009

Apra Harbor, also called Port Apra, is a deep-water port on the western side of the United States territory of Guam.

Federated States of Micronesia

Island country in Oceania.

Island country in Oceania.

Manila Galleon in the Marianas and Carolinas, c. 1590 Boxer Codex
Sea Hawk helicopter (US Navy) flies over the waters of Chuuk, Micronesia.
The FSS Tosiwo Nakayama, a Guardian-class patrol boat of the Federated States of Micronesia
A map of the Federated States of Micronesia
A view of Kolonia Town from Sokehs Ridge in Pohnpei
Satawal Island, Yap State
Fishing in Chuuk, 1931
People performing a welcome ceremony on the Ulithi atoll
A beach in Chuuk
Cathedral of Ponape Belltower, in Kolonia, on the island of Pohnpei, built in 1909 by German Capuchin missionaries
A large (approximately 2.4 m or about 8 ft in height) example of Yapese stone money (Rai stones) in the village of Gachpar
Yapese men dancing in traditional dress
A shop in Pohnpei selling traditional souveneirs

They lie northeast of Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, south of Guam and the Marianas, west of Nauru and the Marshall Islands, east of Palau and the Philippines, about 2900 km north of eastern Australia, 3,400 km (2,133 mi) southeast of Japan, and some 4000 km southwest of the main islands of the Hawaiian Islands.

Philippines

Archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

Archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

Philip II of Spain
The Laguna Copperplate Inscription, the oldest known writing found in the Philippines
Manila (1847)
Filipino Ilustrados in Spain formed the Propaganda Movement. Photographed in 1890.
General Douglas MacArthur coming ashore during the Battle of Leyte on October 20, 1944
The 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo was the second largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century.
Topography of the Philippines
Mayon is an active stratovolcano, located in the south of the island of Luzon
The Philippine Eagle is endemic to the forests of the country.
A male Celestial monarch seen in Bislig.
Köppen climate classification of the Philippines
Malacañan Palace is the official residence of the president of the Philippines.
President Rodrigo Duterte and U.S. President Donald Trump discuss matters during a bilateral meeting in November 2017.
BRP Jose Rizal (FF-150) is the lead ship of her class of guided missile frigates of the Philippine Navy
Administrative map of the Philippines
Dominant ethnic groups by province
A map that shows all ethnolinguistic groups in the Philippines.
The historical Paoay Church in Ilocos Norte. Declared as a National Cultural Treasure by the Philippine government in 1973 and a UNESCO World Heritage Site under the collective group of Baroque Churches of the Philippines in 1993.
St. Luke's Medical Center in Taguig.
Founded in 1611, the University of Santo Tomas is the oldest extant university in Asia.
Real GPD per capita development of the Philippines
A proportional representation of Philippines exports, 2019
Filipinos planting rice. Agriculture employs 23% of the Filipino workforce.
Headquarters of the International Rice Research Institute in Los Baños, Laguna.
Limestone cliffs of El Nido, Palawan.
An LRT Line 2 train at Santolan station.
Ambuklao Dam in Bokod, Benguet.
A participant of the Ati-Atihan Festival.
A statue in Iriga City commemorating the mano po gesture
Colonial houses in Vigan.
Cariñosa, a Hispanic era dance for traditional Filipino courtship.
José Rizal is a pioneer of Philippine Revolution through his literary works.
Philippines men's national basketball team celebrating the 2015 Southeast Asian Games championship.

The islands had been ceded by Spain to the United States alongside Puerto Rico and Guam as a result of the latter's victory in the Spanish–American War.

Austronesian peoples

The Austronesian peoples, sometimes referred to as Austronesian-speaking peoples, are a large group of peoples in Taiwan, Maritime Southeast Asia, Micronesia, coastal New Guinea, Island Melanesia, Polynesia, and Madagascar that speak Austronesian languages.

The Austronesian peoples, sometimes referred to as Austronesian-speaking peoples, are a large group of peoples in Taiwan, Maritime Southeast Asia, Micronesia, coastal New Guinea, Island Melanesia, Polynesia, and Madagascar that speak Austronesian languages.

Skulls representing Johann Friedrich Blumenbach's "five races" in De Generis Humani Varietate Nativa (1795). The Tahitian skull labelled "O-taheitae" represented what he called the "Malay race"
The New Physiognomy map (1889) printed by the Fowler & Wells Company depicting Johann Friedrich Blumenbach's five human races. The region inhabited by the "Malay race" is shown enclosed in dotted lines. Like in most 19th century sources, Islander Melanesians are excluded. Taiwan, which was annexed by the Qing Dynasty in the 17th century is also excluded.
Distribution of the Austronesian languages (Blust, 1999)
Paraw sailboats from Boracay, Philippines. Outrigger canoes and crab claw sails are hallmarks of the Austronesian maritime culture.
Coconuts in Rangiroa island in the Tuamotus, French Polynesia, a typical island landscape in Austronesia. Coconuts are native to tropical Asia, and were spread as canoe plants to the Pacific Islands and Madagascar by Austronesians.
Extent of contemporary Austronesia and possible further migrations and contact (Blench, 2009)
Map showing the distribution of the Austronesian language family (light rose pink). It roughly corresponds to the distribution of all the Austronesian peoples.
Samoan man carrying two containers over his shoulder
The Javanese people of Indonesia are the largest Austronesian ethnic group.
Representation of the coastal migration model, with the indication of the later development of mitochondrial haplogroups
Coastlines of Island Southeast Asia, New Guinea, and Australia during the last glacial period
Aeta fishermen in an outrigger canoe in Luzon, Philippines (c. 1899)
Possible language family homelands and the spread of rice into Southeast Asia (ca. 5,500–2,500 BP). The approximate coastlines during the early Holocene are shown in lighter blue.
Yue statue of a tattooed Baiyue man in the Zhejiang Provincial Museum (c. 3rd century BCE)
Suggested early migration route of early Austronesians into and out of Taiwan based on ancient and modern mtDNA data. This hypothesis assumes the Sino-Austronesian grouping, a minority view among linguists. (Ko et al., 2014)
Proposed routes of Austroasiatic and Austronesian migrations into Indonesia (Simanjuntak, 2017)
Proposed genesis of Daic languages and their relation with Austronesians (Blench, 2018)
Early waves of migration to Taiwan proposed by Roger Blench (2014)
Colorized photograph of a Tsou warrior from Taiwan wearing traditional clothing (pre-World War II)
Map showing the migration of the Austronesians
Hōkūlea, a modern replica of a Polynesian double-hulled voyaging canoe, is an example of a catamaran, another of the early sailing innovations of Austronesians
Proposed migration waves from Sundaland in the Late Pleistocene based on mtDNA data; and later "back-migrations" into Island Southeast Asia during the early to mid-Holocene expansion of rice-farming Austronesians from mainland southern China. The extent of the coastlines of Sundaland during the last ice age is presented in light shading; while modern coastlines after the rise of sea levels in the Late Pleistocene to mid-Holocene is in dark shading. (Brandão et al., 2016)
Queen Liliuokalani, the last sovereign monarch of the Kingdom of Hawaii
Succession of forms in the development of the Austronesian boat
Austronesian proto-historic and historic maritime trade network in the Indian Ocean
Aboriginal Taiwanese Architecture
Sama-Bajau villages are typically built directly on shallow water
The raised bale houses of the Ifugao people with capped house posts are believed to be derived from the designs of traditional granaries
Tongkonan houses of the Toraja people with the distinctive saddleback roofs reminiscent of boats
Bai meeting house of the Palauan people with colourfully decorated gables
Māori pataka storehouses
Cast of a Lapita red-slipped earthenware shard from the Santa Cruz Islands (c. 1000 BCE), showing dentate-stamped, circle-stamped, and cross-in-circle decorations. The latter two are shared elements from Neolithic red-slipped pottery from the Nagsabaran Site in the Philippines.
Māori hei matau jade pendant
Hand stencils in the "Tree of Life" cave painting in Gua Tewet, Kalimantan, Indonesia
Watu Molindo ("the entertainer stone"), one of the megaliths in Bada Valley, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, usually found near megalithic stone vats known as kalamba.
Toraja megaliths memorializing the deceased in Sulawesi, Indonesia
Boats and human figures in a cave painting in the Niah National Park of Sarawak, Malaysia; an example of the Austronesian Painting Traditions (APT)
Petroglyphs in Vanuatu with the concentric circles and swirling designs characteristic of the Austronesian Engraving Style (AES)
Haligi pillars from the Latte period of Guam, these served as supports for raised buildings
The ruins of Nan Madol, a stone city built on artificial islets in Pohnpei
A rai stone, large stone discs used as currency in Yap
A marae sacred site in Raiatea, French Polynesia
Hawaiian petroglyph depicting a poi dog (īlio)
Carving of Rongo, the Māori deity (atua) of kūmara, from Taranaki, North Island, New Zealand
A 1782 illustration of a heiau temple in Hawaii
Elder Tayal women from Taiwan with facial tattoos
Teeth filing on a Mentawai man in the Mentawai Islands, Dutch East Indies, c. 1938
Tablet B of rongorongo, an undeciphered system of glyphs from Rapa Nui
An example of the abundant petroglyphs in Orongo, Rapa Nui associated with the tangata manu cult of Makemake. Rongorongo does not appear in any of these petroglyphs.
The Talang Tuo inscription, a 7th-century Srivijaya stele featuring Old Malay written in a derivative of the Pallava script
Page from Doctrina Cristiana Española Y Tagala (1593) featuring the Baybayin script alongside the Latin alphabet
Wharenui meeting house of the Māori people
Besakana of the Merina people
Bahay kubo of the Filipinos. Also known as Payag in Visayan.
Bure of the Fijian people
Uma mbatangu of the Sumba people
Jabu of the Toba Batak people
Rumoh of the Acehnese people
Rumah gadang of the Minangkabau people
Torogan of the Maranao people
Kubing jaw harps, flutes, and a kagul slit drum from the Philippines
Karinding jaw harps of the Sundanese people, Indonesia
Sapeh, traditional lutes of the Orang Ulu people of Malaysia
Atingting kon, wooden slit drums from Vanuatu
An Indonesian gamelan ensemble
A kanaka maoli (native) from Hawaii performing the hula
Kapa haka of the Māori people
Traditional song and dance at a funeral in Tana Toraja, Sulawesi, Indonesia
Ramayana Ballet, traditional theatre dance from Java, Indonesia
Gending Sriwijaya, traditional dance from Palembang, Indonesia
A Minahasan Kabasaran war dancer from Tomohon, North Sulawesi, Indonesia
Kecak dancers from Bali, Indonesia
Hudoq, traditional dance from Kalimantan, Indonesia
Aloalo funerary pole of the Sakalava people of Madagascar
Adu zatua ancestor carvings of the Nias people of western Indonesia
Taotao carvings of anito ancestor spirits from the Ifugao people, Philippines
Stone tiki from Hiva Oa, Marquesas
Ki'i carving at Puʻuhonua o Hōnaunau, Hawaii
Māori poupou from the Ruato tomb of Rotorua
Moai in Ahu Tongariki, Rapa Nui
Toraja tau tau (wooden statue of the deceased) in South Sulawesi, Indonesia
Balinese small familial house shrines to honor the households' ancestors in Bali, Indonesia

Western Europeans in search of spices and gold later colonized most of the Austronesian-speaking countries of the Asia-Pacific region, beginning from the 16th century with the Portuguese and Spanish colonization of the Philippines, Palau, Guam, the Mariana Islands, and some parts of Indonesia (present-day East Timor); the Dutch colonization of the Indonesian archipelago; the British colonization of Malaysia and Oceania; the French colonization of French Polynesia; and later, the American governance of the Pacific.

Marines planting the US flag

Battle of Guam (1944)

Marines planting the US flag
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Seabee welcome sign left for the U.S. Marine Corps on Guam. - U.S. Navy
Bombardment of Guam on 14 July 1944 before the battle, as seen from the USS New Mexico (BB-40)
U.S. Marines move inland.
Map showing the progress of the Guam campaign
U.S. Marines show their appreciation to the Coast Guard.
Three Marine officers of an amphibian tractor battalion who took part in the invasion of Guam (left to right): Major Erwin F. Wann, Major W. W. Butler, and Lt. Colonel Sylvester Stephens

The Battle of Guam (21 July–10 August 1944) was the American recapture of the Japanese-held island of Guam, a U.S. territory in the Mariana Islands captured by the Japanese from the United States in the First Battle of Guam in 1941 during the Pacific campaign of World War II.

(clockwise from top left) Signal Corps extending telegraph lines

USS Iowa (BB-4)

Filipino soldiers wearing Spanish pith helmets outside Manila

The Spanish signing the Treaty of Paris

Roosevelt and his Rough Riders at San Juan Hill

Replacing of the Spanish flag at Fort San Antonio Abad (Fort Malate)

Spanish–American War

Period of armed conflict between Spain and the United States.

Period of armed conflict between Spain and the United States.

(clockwise from top left) Signal Corps extending telegraph lines

USS Iowa (BB-4)

Filipino soldiers wearing Spanish pith helmets outside Manila

The Spanish signing the Treaty of Paris

Roosevelt and his Rough Riders at San Juan Hill

Replacing of the Spanish flag at Fort San Antonio Abad (Fort Malate)
Cuban War of Independence
A Spanish satirical drawing published in La Campana de Gràcia (1896) criticizing U.S. behavior regarding Cuba by Manuel Moliné. Upper text reads (in old Catalan): "Uncle Sam's craving", and below: "To keep the island so it won't get lost".
An American cartoon published in Judge, February 6, 1897: Columbia (representing the American people) reaches out to the oppressed Cuba (the caption under the chained child reads "Spain's 16th Century methods") while Uncle Sam (representing the U.S. government) sits blindfolded, refusing to see the atrocities or use his guns to intervene (cartoon by Grant E. Hamilton).
Illustrated map published by the Guardia Civil showing the Kingdom of Spain and its remaining colonial possessions in 1895 (Caroline and Mariana Islands, as well as Spanish Sahara, Morocco, Guinea and Guam are not included.)
The American transport ship Seneca, a chartered vessel that carried troops to Puerto Rico and Cuba
Spanish Vessels captured up to evening of May 1, 1898
CHAP. 189. – An Act Declaring that war exists between the United States of America and the Kingdom of Spain on April 25, 1898.
The last stand of the Spanish Garrison in Cuba by Murat Halstead, 1898
The Pacific theatre of the Spanish–American War
Spanish Marines trenched during the Battle of Manila Bay
The Battle of Manila Bay
Spanish artillery regiment during the Philippine Campaign
Group of Tagalog Filipino revolutionaries during the Spanish-American War of 1898
Spanish infantry troops and officers in Manila
The Spanish armored cruiser, which was destroyed during the Battle of Santiago on July 3, 1898
Detail from Charge of the 24th and 25th Colored Infantry and Rescue of Rough Riders at San Juan Hill, July 2, 1898, depicting the Battle of San Juan Hill
Mauser Model 1893 rifle, used by the Spanish infantry and superior to American rifles; the Springfield Model 1892-99 and the Krag-Jørgensen rifle. Because of this superiority the US Army developed the M1903 Springfield.
Charge of the Rough Riders
Receiving the news of the surrender of Santiago
The Santiago Campaign (1898)
Crewmen pose under the gun turrets of USS Iowa (BB-4) in 1898.
Spanish troops before they departed to engage the American forces at Hormigueros, Puerto Rico
A monument in Guánica, Puerto Rico, for the U.S. infantrymen who lost their lives in the Spanish–American War in 1898.
Oil on canvas painted and signed with initials A.A. by Antonio Antón and Antonio Iboleón, around 1897. It is an ideal view of the Spanish Squadron of Instruction in 1896, before the war of 1898, since the ships represented never sailed together. On the left the Battleship Pelayo with insignia, followed by the cruisers Cristóbal Colón, Infanta María Teresa and Alfonso XIII; on the right, the cruiser Carlos V with insignia, Almirante Oquendo and Vizcaya. On the starboard side of the Pelayo sails the torpedo boat Destructor; Two Furor-class destroyer boats sail along the bows of the Carlos V. Stormy sea and partly cloudy skies.
Cámara's squadron in the Suez Canal in July 1898. His flagship, the battleship Pelayo, can be seen in the foreground. The last ship of the line is the armored cruiser Carlos V. Finally this squad would not fight in the war.
Jules Cambon, the French ambassador to the United States, signing the memorandum of ratification on behalf of Spain
US Army "War with Spain" campaign streamer
Cross of Military Merit for Combat in Cuba

The treaty ceded ownership of Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippine islands from Spain to the United States and granted the United States temporary control of Cuba.

New Spain

Integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas and having its capital in Mexico City.

Integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas and having its capital in Mexico City.

Giacomo Gastaldi's 1548 map of New Spain, Nueva Hispania Tabula Nova
Spanish historical presence, claimed territories, and expeditions in North America.
In 1794.
New Spain in 1819 with the boundaries established at the Adams–Onís Treaty
Hernán Cortés and La Malinche meet the emperor Moctezuma II in Tenochtitlán, November 8, 1519.
Evangelization of Mexico
An auto-da-fé in New Spain, 18th century
Girolamo Ruscelli's 1561 map of New Spain, Nueva Hispania Tabula Nova
Vázquez de Coronado Sets Out to the North (1540), by Frederic Remington, oil on canvas, 1905
General locations of the Spanish Presidios built in the 1660s, officered by Spaniards and manned by personnel from Mexico and Peru that defended the native Filipino settlements from Muslim, Wokou, Dutch and English attacks.
White represents the route of the Manila Galleons in the Pacific and the flota in the Atlantic; blue represents Portuguese routes.
Viceroy don Antonio de Mendoza and Tlaxcalan Indians battle with the Caxcanes in the Mixtón war, 1541–42 in Nueva Galicia.
José de Gálvez, 1st Marquess of Sonora, Visitador in New Spain, who initiated major reforms
Spanish and Portuguese empires in 1790.
18th-century soldado de cuera in colonial Mexico
Bernardo de Gálvez and his army at the Siege of Pensacola in 1781.
Spanish territorial claims in the northern West Coast of North America, 18th century
On September 28, 1810, Miguel Hidalgo led the siege of the Alhóndiga de Granaditas in Guanajuato
Territories of the Viceroyalty of New Spain which became parts of the United States, Mexico, and other nations by 1900.
Silver coin minted in New Spain. Silver was its most important export, starting in the 16th century. '''8 reales Carlos III - 1778
Indigenous man collecting cochineal with a deer tail by José Antonio de Alzate y Ramírez (1777). Cochineal was New Spain's most important export product after silver and its production was almost exclusively in the hands of indigenous cultivators
Arrieros in Mexico. Mules were the main way cargo was moved overland, engraving by Carl Nebel
Pedro de Alvarado, one of the first negotiators to hold office in Hibueras where he founded the towns of San Pedro Sula and Guatemala.
View of the Plaza Mayor of Mexico City, 1695 by Cristóbal de Villalpando
Indian Wedding and Flying Pole, circa 1690
New Spain after the Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819 (not including the island territories of the Pacific Ocean).
San Miguel chapel in New Mexico.
Church of Santo Domingo, Oaxaca City
Arco de Santa Catalina, Antigua Guatemala
18th century golden altar piece insede the Tegucigalpa cathedral.
Nahua depiction of smallpox, Book XII on the conquest of Mexico in the Florentine Codex (1576)
Español and Mulata with their Morisco children
Mestizo and India with their Coyote children
Carlos Francisco de Croix, 1st Marquess of Croix, Viceroy of New Spain (1766–1771)
Antonio María de Bucareli, Viceroy of New Spain
Juan Vicente de Güemes, 2nd Count of Revillagigedo, Viceroy of New Spain (1789–1794)

The Spanish-Chamorro Wars that began on Guam in 1670 after the Spanish establishment of a physical presence resulted in a series of sieges of the Spanish presidio, the last in 1684.