Guanine

GG'''uanineGGGGGguanine nucleotidesguaninespolyguanylate sequences
Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).wikipedia
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DNA

deoxyribonucleic aciddouble-stranded DNAdsDNA
Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
Each nucleotide is composed of one of four nitrogen-containing nucleobases (cytosine [C], guanine [G], adenine [A] or thymine [T]), a sugar called deoxyribose, and a phosphate group.

Nucleobase

basesnucleobasesbase
Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
Five nucleobases—adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), thymine (T), and uracil (U)—are called primary or canonical.

RNA

ribonucleic aciddsRNAdouble-stranded RNA
Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
Cellular organisms use messenger RNA (mRNA) to convey genetic information (using the nitrogenous bases of guanine, uracil, adenine, and cytosine, denoted by the letters G, U, A, and C) that directs synthesis of specific proteins.

Adenine

AA'''denineadenine nucleotides
Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
The three others are guanine, cytosine and thymine.

Cytosine

CC'''ytosinecytosines
Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
Cytosine ( C) is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).

Uracil

Uuracil nucleotidesU'''racil
Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
Uracil (U) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA that are represented by the letters A, G, C and U. The others are adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G).

Thymine

TT'''hymineT nucleobase
Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
The others are adenine, guanine, and cytosine.

Guanosine

G
The guanine nucleoside is called guanosine.
Guanosine is a purine nucleoside comprising guanine attached to a ribose (ribofuranose) ring via a β-N 9 -glycosidic bond.

Nucleoside

nucleosides2'-deoxynucleosidesaminonucleoside
The guanine nucleoside is called guanosine.

Nucleic acid

nucleic acidsNAmolecular basis
Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
Also, the nucleobases found in the two nucleic acid types are different: adenine, cytosine, and guanine are found in both RNA and DNA, while thymine occurs in DNA and uracil occurs in RNA.

Tautomer

tautomerizationtautomerismtautomers
Guanine has two tautomeric forms, the major keto form (see figures) and rare enol form.

Xanthine

methylxanthinemethylxanthinesxanthines
First, guanine gets deaminated to become xanthine.
In August 2011, a report, based on NASA studies with meteorites found on Earth, was published suggesting xanthine and related organic molecules, including the DNA and RNA components adenine and guanine, were found in outer space.

Pyrimidine

pyrimidinespyrimidine nucleotidesp'''Y'''rimidine
With the formula C 5 H 5 N 5 O, guanine is a derivative of purine, consisting of a fused pyrimidine-imidazole ring system with conjugated double bonds.
Thus, in DNA, the purines adenine (A) and guanine (G) pair up with the pyrimidines thymine (T) and cytosine (C), respectively.

Keto–enol tautomerism

keto-enol tautomerismenolizationketo-enol tautomerization
Guanine has two tautomeric forms, the major keto form (see figures) and rare enol form.
Rare enol tautomers of the bases guanine and thymine can lead to mutation because of their altered base-pairing properties.

Purine

purinespu'''R'''ineTraube purine synthesis
With the formula C 5 H 5 N 5 O, guanine is a derivative of purine, consisting of a fused pyrimidine-imidazole ring system with conjugated double bonds.
They include the nucleobases adenine (2) and guanine (3).

Deamination

deaminasedeaminateddeaminate
First, guanine gets deaminated to become xanthine.
Deamination of guanine results in the formation of xanthine.

Guano

bat guanowanudroppings
The first isolation of guanine was reported in 1844 by the German chemist Julius Bodo Unger (1819–1885), who obtained it as a mineral formed from the excreta of sea birds, which is known as guano and which was used as a source of fertilizer; guanine was named in 1846.
Guano is also the namesake for one of the nucleobases that comprise RNA and DNA: guanine.

Common bleak

bleakAlburnus alburnusblay
In 1656 in Paris, a Mr. Jaquin extracted from the scales of the fish Alburnus alburnus so-called "pearl essence", which is crystalline guanine.
In 1656 in Paris, a Mr. Jaquin extracted from the scales of the common bleak, so-called "Essence Orientale" or "pearl essence", (used in making artificial pearls) which is crystalline guanine.

Guanine deaminase

GDAGDA (gene)Guanase
Guanine deaminase also known as cypin, guanase, guanine aminase, GAH, and guanine aminohydrolase is an aminohydrolase enzyme which converts guanine to xanthine.

Uguisu no fun

droppingnightingale's droppings
Facial treatments using the droppings, or guano, from Japanese nightingales have been used in Japan and elsewhere, reportedly because the guanine in the droppings produces a clear, "bright" skin tone that users desire.
The guano from the nightingale has a high concentration of urea and guanine.

Imidazole

imidazoliumimidazolesimidazolium salt
With the formula C 5 H 5 N 5 O, guanine is a derivative of purine, consisting of a fused pyrimidine-imidazole ring system with conjugated double bonds.

Hydrogen bond

hydrogen bondinghydrogen bondshydrogen-bonding
It binds to cytosine through three hydrogen bonds.

Hydrolysis

hydrolyzedhydrolysehydrolyze
Guanine can be hydrolyzed with strong acid to glycine, ammonia, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide.

Glycine

GlyGglycinate
Guanine can be hydrolyzed with strong acid to glycine, ammonia, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide.

Ammonia

NH 3 anhydrous ammonialiquid ammonia
Guanine can be hydrolyzed with strong acid to glycine, ammonia, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide.