Guano

bat guanowanudroppingsguano miningguano islandsbat droppingsbatshit crazybird droppingbird droppingsbird feces
Guano (via Spanish from wanu) is the accumulated excrement of seabirds and bats.wikipedia
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Bat

batsChiropterachiropteran
Guano (via Spanish from wanu) is the accumulated excrement of seabirds and bats.
Bat dung has been mined as guano from caves and used as fertiliser.

Ammonia

NH 3 anhydrous ammonialiquid ammonia
By mass, it is 8–21% nitrogen; the nitrogen content is about 80% uric acid, 10% protein, 7% ammonia, and 0.5% nitrate.
Ammonia and ammonium salts are also found in small quantities in rainwater, whereas ammonium chloride (sal ammoniac), and ammonium sulfate are found in volcanic districts; crystals of ammonium bicarbonate have been found in Ronak guano.

Taranakite

It may react with the rocky substrate of islands like basalt to form authigenic, phosphatic minerals including taranakite and leucophosphite.
It forms from the reaction of clay minerals or aluminous rocks with solutions enriched in phosphate derived from bat or bird guano or, less commonly, from bones or other organic matter.

Manure

dunganimal wastefertiliser
As a manure, guano is a highly effective fertilizer due to its exceptionally high content of nitrogen, phosphate and potassium: key nutrients essential for plant growth.
For example horses, cattle, pigs, sheep, chickens, turkeys, rabbits, and guano from seabirds and bats all have different properties.

Feces

faecesdungexcrement
Guano (via Spanish from wanu) is the accumulated excrement of seabirds and bats.
The feces of animals often are used as fertilizer; see guano and manure.

Whitlockite

Similar to bird guano, the acidic properties of the guano and limestone of the cave can interact to create phosphatic minerals such as whitlockite, taranakite, variscite, spheniscidite, montgomeryite, and leucophosphite.
It is a relatively rare mineral but is found in granitic pegmatites, phosphate rock deposits, guano caves and in chondrite meteorites.

Peruvian booby

Peruvian boobiesSula variegataboobies
Other important guano-producing species off the coast of Peru are the Peruvian pelican and the Peruvian booby.
It is the most abundant seabird species that inhabits the Peruvian coast and the second most important guano-producing seabird.

Phosphorus

PP 4 phosphoric
Some of bird guano's most common chemical elements are phosphorus, calcium, and magnesium.
Albright and Wilson in the UK and their Niagara Falls plant, for instance, were using phosphate rock in the 1890s and 1900s from Tennessee, Florida, and the Îles du Connétable (guano island sources of phosphate); by 1950, they were using phosphate rock mainly from Tennessee and North Africa.

Guano Islands Act

Guano ActGuano Act of 1856Guano Islands Act of 1856
The demand for guano led the United States to pass the Guano Islands Act in 1856, which gave U.S. citizens discovering a source of guano on an unclaimed island exclusive rights to the deposits.
The Guano Islands Act (, enacted August 18, 1856, codified at §§ 1411-1419) is a United States federal law passed by the U.S. Congress that enables citizens of the United States to take possession, in the name of the United States, of unclaimed islands containing guano deposits.

Peru

PerúRepublic of PeruPeruvian
Archaeological evidence suggests that Andean people collected guano from small islands and points off the desert coast of Peru for use as a soil amendment for well over 1,500 years and perhaps as long as 5,000 years.
From the 1840s to the 1860s, Peru enjoyed a period of stability under the presidency of Ramón Castilla, through increased state revenues from guano exports.

War of the Pacific

Pacific WarSaltpeter Warconquered land from Peru and Bolivia
The Guano Age ended with the War of the Pacific (1879–1884), which saw Chilean marines invade coastal Bolivia to claim its guano and saltpeter resources.
Wanu (Hispanicized guano) is a Quechua word for fertilizer.

Alexander von Humboldt

HumboldtHumb.Alexander Humboldt
In November 1802, Prussian geographer and explorer Alexander von Humboldt first encountered guano and began investigating its fertilizing properties at Callao in Peru, and his subsequent writings on this topic made the subject well known in Europe.
At Callao, the main port for Peru, Humboldt observed the transit of Mercury on 9 November and studied the fertilizing properties of guano, rich in nitrogen, the subsequent introduction of which into Europe was due mainly to his writings.

Kiritimati

Christmas IslandKiritimati IslandKiritimati (or Christmas Island)
The United Kingdom claimed Kiritimati and Malden Island.
It was claimed by the United States under the Guano Islands Act of 1856, though little actual mining of guano took place.

Malden Island

MaldenMalden Island, Kiribati
The United Kingdom claimed Kiritimati and Malden Island.
The island is chiefly notable for its mysterious prehistoric ruins, its once-extensive deposits of phosphatic guano (exploited by Australian interests from c.

Quechuan languages

QuechuaQuechua languageQuechuan
The word "guano" originates from the Andean indigenous language Quechua, which refers to any form of dung used as an agricultural fertilizer.
A number of Quechua loanwords have entered English (also in French with minor orthographic adaptations) via Spanish, including coca, condor, guano, jerky, llama (lama in French), pampa, poncho, puma, quinine, quinoa, vicuña (vigogne in French), and, possibly, gaucho.

Ichaboe Island

Ichebo
By 1846, 462057 MT of guano had been exported from Ichaboe Island, off the coast of Namibia, and surrounding islands to Great Britain.
The island was once covered in over 7 m of bird-droppings (guano), which was quarried in the 19th and 20th-centuries for sale as manure.

Navassa Island

NavassaNavassa Island, U.S. Minor Outlying IslandsHistory of Navassa Island
Conditions on annexed guano islands were poor for workers, resulting in a rebellion on Navassa Island in 1889 where black workers killed their white overseers.
Navassa Island's topography, ecology, and modern history are similar to that of Mona Island, a small limestone island located in the Mona Passage between Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic, which were once centers of guano mining, and are nature reserves for the United States.

Potassium

KK + potassium ion
As a manure, guano is a highly effective fertilizer due to its exceptionally high content of nitrogen, phosphate and potassium: key nutrients essential for plant growth.
Potassium nitrate or saltpeter is obtained from natural sources such as guano and evaporites or manufactured via the Haber process; it is the oxidant in gunpowder (black powder) and an important agricultural fertilizer.

Leucophosphite

It may react with the rocky substrate of islands like basalt to form authigenic, phosphatic minerals including taranakite and leucophosphite.
Leucophosphite is a phosphatic mineral derived from guano (bird or bat excrement).

Chincha Islands

Pisco and Chincha Islands
By the late 1860s, it became apparent that Peru's most productive guano site, the Chincha Islands, was nearing depletion.
Since pre-Incan times they were of interest for their extensive guano deposits, but the supplies were mostly exhausted by 1874.

Potassium nitrate

saltpetersaltpetreKNO 3
During the American Civil War (1861–1865), the Union's blockade of the southern Confederate States of America meant that the Confederacy resorted to mining guano from caves to produce saltpeter.
A major natural source of potassium nitrate was the deposits crystallizing from cave walls and the accumulations of bat guano in caves.

Bat Cave mine

From the 1930s, Bat Cave mine in Arizona was used for guano extraction, though it cost more to develop than it was worth.
The natural cave was a bat habitat and contained an accumulation of guano.

Blackbirding

blackbirdedblackbirderblackbirders
In the 1840s and 1850s, thousands of men were blackbirded (coerced or kidnapped) from the Pacific islands and southern China.
In the 1860s, Peruvian blackbirders sought workers at their haciendas and to mine the guano deposits on the Chincha Islands.

Guanay cormorant

Phalacrocorax bougainvilliiguanayesGuanos
The Guanay cormorant is historically the most abundant and important producer of guano.
The nest is built of guano on flat surfaces on offshore islands or remote headlands.

Peruvian Corporation

In 1913, Scottish ornithologist Henry Ogg Forbes authored a report on behalf of the Peruvian Corporation focusing on how human actions harmed the birds and subsequent guano production.
A major problem, that would take many years to resolve, was that the rich guano deposits were used as security on all the bonds.