Guatemala

GuatemalanRepublic of GuatemalaGTMGTGUAGuatemalan 1944 coup d'étatGuatelamalanGuatemala F1Guatemala Peace AccordsGuatemala: Balls, Brains & Bull's Eyes
Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, Belize and the Caribbean to the northeast, Honduras to the east, El Salvador to the southeast and the Pacific Ocean to the south.wikipedia
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Mexico

MexicanMéxicoMEX
Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, Belize and the Caribbean to the northeast, Honduras to the east, El Salvador to the southeast and the Pacific Ocean to the south.
It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico.

Belize

British HondurasBelizeanBelizian
Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, Belize and the Caribbean to the northeast, Honduras to the east, El Salvador to the southeast and the Pacific Ocean to the south.
Belize is bordered on the northwest by Mexico, on the east by the Caribbean Sea, and on the south and west by Guatemala.

Honduras

HonduranRepublic of HondurasHondurans
Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, Belize and the Caribbean to the northeast, Honduras to the east, El Salvador to the southeast and the Pacific Ocean to the south.
The republic of Honduras is bordered to the west by Guatemala, to the southwest by El Salvador, to the southeast by Nicaragua, to the south by the Pacific Ocean at the Gulf of Fonseca, and to the north by the Gulf of Honduras, a large inlet of the Caribbean Sea.

Guatemala City

Guatemala City, GuatemalaCiudad de GuatemalaGuatemala
Guatemala is a representative democracy; its capital and largest city is Nueva Guatemala de la Asunción, also known as Guatemala City.
Guatemala City (Ciudad de Guatemala), locally known as Guatemala or Guate, officially Nueva Guatemala de la Asunción (New Guatemala of the Assumption), is the capital and largest city of Guatemala, and the most populous city in Central America.

Spanish conquest of Guatemala

Spanish conquestconquest of GuatemalaGuatemala
Most of the country was conquered by the Spanish in the 16th century, becoming part of the viceroyalty of New Spain.
The Spanish conquest of Guatemala was a protracted conflict during the Spanish colonization of the Americas, in which Spanish colonisers gradually incorporated the territory that became the modern country of Guatemala into the colonial Viceroyalty of New Spain.

Maya civilization

MayaMayanMayans
The territory of modern Guatemala once formed the core of the Maya civilization, which extended across Mesoamerica.
The Maya civilization developed in an area that encompasses southeastern Mexico, all of Guatemala and Belize, and the western portions of Honduras and El Salvador.

Guatemalan genocide

genocide626 massacres against the Maya populationa policy
From 1960 to 1996, Guatemala endured a bloody civil war fought between the US-backed government and leftist rebels, including genocidal massacres of the Maya population perpetrated by the military.
The Guatemalan genocide, Maya(n) genocide, or Silent Holocaust refers to the massacre of Maya civilians during the Guatemalan military government's counterinsurgency operations.

Caribbean Sea

CaribbeanCaribbean coastMar Caribe
Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, Belize and the Caribbean to the northeast, Honduras to the east, El Salvador to the southeast and the Pacific Ocean to the south.
It runs 1000 km along the coasts of Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, and Honduras.

1954 Guatemalan coup d'état

Operation PBSUCCESSGuatemalacoup
A U.S.-backed military coup in 1954 ended the revolution and installed a dictatorship.
It installed the military dictatorship of Carlos Castillo Armas, the first in a series of U.S.-backed authoritarian rulers in Guatemala.

New Spain

Viceroyalty of New SpainSpanishNueva España
Most of the country was conquered by the Spanish in the 16th century, becoming part of the viceroyalty of New Spain.
It included what is now Mexico plus the current U.S. states of California, Nevada, Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, Arizona, Texas, Oregon, Washington, Florida and parts of Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Kansas, Oklahoma, Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana; as well as the southwestern part of British Columbia of present-day Canada; plus the Captaincy General of Guatemala (which included the current countries of Guatemala, the Mexican state of Chiapas, Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua); the Captaincy General of Cuba (current Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and Trinidad and Tobago); and the Captaincy General of the Philippines (including the Philippines, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, the Caroline Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, the Marshall Islands and the short lived Spanish Formosa in modern-day northern Taiwan, as well as during a century the island of Tidore and the briefly occupied Sultanate of Ternate, both in modern-day Indonesia).

Guatemalan Revolution

October Revolutioncoup of 1954decade-long revolution
In 1944, authoritarian leader Jorge Ubico was overthrown by a pro-democratic military coup, initiating a decade-long revolution that led to sweeping social and economic reforms.
This period has also been called the Ten Years of Spring, highlighting the only years of representative democracy in Guatemala from 1930 until the end of the civil war in 1996, which saw the implementation of a program of social, political, and especially agrarian reform that was enormously influential across Latin America.

Petén Basin

PeténPetenPetén region
Pollen samples from Petén and the Pacific coast indicate that maize cultivation had developed by 3500 BC.
The Petén Basin is a geographical subregion of Mesoamerica, primarily located in northern Guatemala within the Department of El Petén, and into Campeche state in southeastern Mexico.

Pedro de Alvarado

AlvaradoPedro of AlvaradoDon Pedro de Alvarado
This was the name the Tlaxcaltecan soldiers who accompanied Pedro de Alvarado during the Spanish Conquest gave to this territory.
1485 – Guadalajara, New Spain, 4 July 1541) was a Spanish conquistador and governor of Guatemala.

Quiché Department

El QuichéQuichéEl Quiche
Sites dating back to 6500 BC have been found in the Quiché region in the Highlands, and Sipacate and Escuintla on the central Pacific coast.
Quiché is a department of Guatemala.

Escuintla

Escuintla, Escuintla Department
Sites dating back to 6500 BC have been found in the Quiché region in the Highlands, and Sipacate and Escuintla on the central Pacific coast.
Escuintla is a municipality and city in south central Guatemala.

San Marcos Department

San MarcosSan MárcosDepartment of San Marcos
However, this notion has been challenged by recent discoveries of monumental architecture from that period, such as an altar in La Blanca, San Marcos, from 1000 BC; ceremonial sites at Miraflores and Naranjo from 801 BC; the earliest monumental masks; and the Mirador Basin cities of Nakbé, Xulnal, El Tintal, Wakná and El Mirador.
San Marcos is a department in northwestern Guatemala, on the Pacific Ocean and along the western Guatemala-Mexico border.

Mesoamerica

MesoamericanMeso-AmericanMeso-America
The territory of modern Guatemala once formed the core of the Maya civilization, which extended across Mesoamerica.
It extends from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within this region pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

Jorge Ubico

Jorge Ubico CastañedaArturo Ubico UrruelaJorge Ubico y Castañeda
In 1944, authoritarian leader Jorge Ubico was overthrown by a pro-democratic military coup, initiating a decade-long revolution that led to sweeping social and economic reforms.
Jorge Ubico was privately tutored, and attended some of Guatemala's most prestigious schools, as well as receiving further education in the United States and Europe.

Itza

ItzáItza peopleItza Maya
The Post-Classic period is represented by regional kingdoms, such as the Itza, Kowoj, Yalain and Kejache in Petén, and the Mam, Ki'che', Kackchiquel, Chajoma, Tz'utujil, Poqomchi', Q'eqchi' and Ch'orti' in the highlands.
They inhabit the Petén department of Guatemala in and around the city of Flores on Lake Petén Itzá.

El Tintal

However, this notion has been challenged by recent discoveries of monumental architecture from that period, such as an altar in La Blanca, San Marcos, from 1000 BC; ceremonial sites at Miraflores and Naranjo from 801 BC; the earliest monumental masks; and the Mirador Basin cities of Nakbé, Xulnal, El Tintal, Wakná and El Mirador.
El Tintal is a Maya archaeological site in the northern Petén region of Guatemala, about 25 km northeast of the modern-day settlement of Carmelita, with settlement dating to the Preclassic and Classic periods.

United Fruit Company

United FruitUnited Fruit Co.International Railways of Central America
Beginning in the early 20th century, it was ruled by a series of dictators backed by the United Fruit Company and the United States government.
In 1901, the government of Guatemala hired the United Fruit Company to manage the country's postal service and in 1913 the United Fruit Company created the Tropical Radio and Telegraph Company.

Tikal

Tikal National ParkMutulTikal ruins
Unlike previous assumptions, thanks to the new findings, archaeologists believe that 7-11 million Maya people inhabited in northern Guatemala during the late classical period from 650 to 800 A.D. Lidar technology digitally removed the tree canopy to reveal ancient remains and showed that Maya cities like Tikal were bigger than previously assumed.
It is located in the archaeological region of the Petén Basin in what is now northern Guatemala.

Naranjo

El NaranjoNaranjo, Guatemala
However, this notion has been challenged by recent discoveries of monumental architecture from that period, such as an altar in La Blanca, San Marcos, from 1000 BC; ceremonial sites at Miraflores and Naranjo from 801 BC; the earliest monumental masks; and the Mirador Basin cities of Nakbé, Xulnal, El Tintal, Wakná and El Mirador.
Naranjo is a Pre-Columbian Maya city in the Petén Basin region of Guatemala.

El Mirador

Mirador
However, this notion has been challenged by recent discoveries of monumental architecture from that period, such as an altar in La Blanca, San Marcos, from 1000 BC; ceremonial sites at Miraflores and Naranjo from 801 BC; the earliest monumental masks; and the Mirador Basin cities of Nakbé, Xulnal, El Tintal, Wakná and El Mirador.
El Mirador (which translates as "the lookout", "the viewpoint", or "the belvedere") is a large pre-Columbian Maya settlement, located in the north of the modern department of El Petén, Guatemala.

Qʼeqchiʼ

Q'eqchiKekchiQ'eqchi' people
The Post-Classic period is represented by regional kingdoms, such as the Itza, Kowoj, Yalain and Kejache in Petén, and the Mam, Ki'che', Kackchiquel, Chajoma, Tz'utujil, Poqomchi', Q'eqchi' and Ch'orti' in the highlands.
Qʼeqchiʼ (Kʼekchiʼ in the former orthography, or simply Kekchi in many English-language contexts, such as in Belize) are a Maya people of Guatemala and Belize.