A report on GuatemalaMexico and Mesoamerica

Mesoamerica and its cultural areas
Ballgame court at Monte Albán
Maya city of Tikal
Depiction of the founding myth of Mexico-Tenochtitlan from the Codex Mendoza. The eagle perched on a cactus has been incorporated into the Mexican flag since its independence, and was a motif in colonial-era art.
A pair of swinging Remojadas figurines, Classic Veracruz culture, 300 to 900 CE.
Page 9 of the Dresden Codex (from the 1880 Förstermann edition)
The Conquistador Pedro de Alvarado led the initial Spanish efforts to conquer Guatemala.
View of the Pyramid of the Sun of Teotihuacan with first human establishment in the area dating back to 600 BCE
El Mirador flourished from 600 BCE to 100 CE, and may have had a population of over 100,000.
Criollos rejoice upon learning about the declaration of independence from Spain on 15 September 1821.
Cultivation of maize, shown in the Florentine Codex (1576) drawn by an indigenous scribe, with text in Nahuatl on this folio
Landscape of the Mesoamerican highlands
The Federal Republic of Central America (1823–1838) with its capital in Guatemala City.
1945 mural by Diego Rivera depicting the view from the Tlatelolco markets into Mexico-Tenochtitlan, the largest city in the Americas at the time
Yojoa Lake in Honduras.
Proclamation Coin 1847 of the independent Republic of Guatemala
Hernán Cortés and his multilingual cultural translator, Doña Marina ("Malinche"), meeting Moctezuma II from the Lienzo de Tlaxcala, a document created ca. 1550 by the Tlaxcalans to remind the Spanish of their loyalty and the importance of Tlaxcala during the conquest of the Aztec Empire.
Tikal is one of the largest archaeological sites, urban centers, and tourist attractions of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. It is located in the archaeological region of the Petén Basin in what is now northern Guatemala.
Captain General Rafael Carrera after being appointed president for Life in 1854.
Smallpox depicted by an indigenous artist in the 1576 Florentine Codex
Olmec Colossal Head No. 3 1200–900 BCE
Vicente Cerna y Cerna was the president of Guatemala from 1865 to 1871.
View of the Plaza Mayor (today Zócalo) in Mexico City (ca. 1695) by Cristóbal de Villalpando
Pyramid of the Moon viewed from atop of the Pyramid of the Sun.
Manuel Estrada Cabrera ruled Guatemala between 1898 and 1920.
New Spain was essential to the Spanish global trading system. White represents the route of the Spanish Manila Galleons in the Pacific and the Spanish convoys in the Atlantic. (Blue represents Portuguese routes.)
Xochicalco, Temple of the Feathered Serpent, 650–900 CE
Guatemala's democratically elected president Jacobo Árbenz was overthrown in a coup planned by the CIA, The United Fruit Company had lobbied the U.S. to overthrow him.
Silver peso mined and minted in colonial Mexico, which became a global currency
Detail of the Nunnery Quadrangle at Uxmal, 10th century
Memorial to the victims of the Río Negro massacres
Viceroyalty of New Spain following the signing of the 1819 Adams-Onís Treaty
Mesoamerica and Central America in the 16th century before Spanish arrival
An outdoor market in Chichicastenango, 2009
Luis de Mena, Virgin of Guadalupe and castas, showing race mixture and hierarchy as well as fruits of the realm, ca. 1750
Examples of the diversity of maize
Guatemala City is the capital and largest city of Guatemala and the most populous urban area in Central America.
Father Hidalgo used this banner of the Virgin of Guadalupe as their emblem
The Aztec Empire in 1512
A map of Guatemala.
Siege of the Alhondiga de Granaditas, Guanajuato, 28 Sept. 1810.
K'inich Kan B'alam II, the Classic period ruler of Palenque, as depicted on a stele
Köppen climate types of Guatemala
Flag of the Army of the Three Guarantees, the force formed by ex-royalist Iturbide and insurgent Vicente Guerrero in February 1821
Illustration that recreates the structures of the archaeological site of Yarumela or El Chircal in Honduras, this place reflects the Olmec influence that existed in Central America in the pre-classic period.
The highlands of Quetzaltenango.
Flag of the First Mexican Empire under Agustín I, 1822-23, with the eagle wearing a crown
"Head Variant" or "Patron Gods" glyphs for Maya days
A town along the Pan-American Highway within a volcanic crater.
Flag of the First Republic of Mexico, with the eagle without a crown, signaling the new republic
The emblem glyph of Tikal (Mutal)
The Congress of the Republic of Guatemala.
General Antonio López de Santa Anna
One of the earliest examples of the Mesoamerican writing systems, the Epi-Olmec script on the La Mojarra Stela 1 dated to around 150 CE. Mesoamerica is one of the five places in the world where writing has developed independently.
Historical GDP per capita development of El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras
Portrait of Liberal President Benito Juárez
The xoloitzcuintle is one of the naguales of the god Quetzalcoatl. In this form, it helps the dead cross the Chicnahuapan, a river that separates the world of the living from the dead.
A proportional representation of Guatemala exports, 2019
The Execution of Emperor Maximilian, 19 June 1867. Gen. Tomás Mejía, left, Maximiian, center, Gen. Miguel Miramón, right. Painting by Édouard Manet 1868.
Zapotec mask of the Bat God.
Fields in Quetzaltenango.
President Porfirio Díaz linking himself to independence hero Hidalgo and liberal hero Juárez September 1910.
Ritual human sacrifice portrayed in Codex Laud
Guatemala's population (1950–2010).
Francisco I. Madero, who challenged Díaz in the fraudulent 1910 election and was elected president when Díaz was forced to resign in May 1911.
A small ceremonial ballcourt at Uaxactun.
Population pyramid in 2020
Revolutionary Generals Pancho Villa (left) and Emiliano Zapata (right)
Ballgame marker from the classic Lowland Maya site of Chinkultic, Mexico depicting a ballplayer in full gear
Tz'utujil men in Santiago Atitlán.
General Álvaro Obregón (far left) shown with a cigar in his left hand and his right arm missing, center with the white beard is First Chief Venustiano Carranza
The Avenue of the Dead in Teotihuacan, an example of a Mesoamerican settlement planned according to concepts of directionality
Indigenous Guatemalan women in Antigua Guatemala.
Logo of the Institutional Revolutionary Party, which incorporates the colors of the Mexican flag
Art with ideological and political meaning: depiction of an Aztec tzompantli (skull-rack) from the Ramirez Codex
Language map of Guatemala. The "Castilian" areas represent Spanish.
Pemex, the national oil company created in 1938 for reasons of economic nationalism; it continues to provide major revenues for the government
Holy Spirit Grotto
The Catedral Metropolitana, Guatemala City.
NAFTA signing ceremony, October 1992. From left to right: (standing) President Carlos Salinas de Gortari (Mexico), President George H. W. Bush (U.S.), and Prime Minister Brian Mulroney (Canada)
Joya de Cerén
A church in San Andrés Xecul.
Zapatista leader Comandanta Ramona
Tazumal
A Guatemalan woman selling souvenirs.
Vicente Fox and his opposition National Action Party won the 2000 general election, ending one-party rule.
Casa Blanca
Author Rigoberta Menchú
Topographic map of Mexico
San Andres
Famous singer Ricardo Arjona
Mexico map of Köppen climate classification
Cihuatán
Black and red tamales in Guatemala
Mexican wolf
Sculpture of "The Acrobat" from Tlatilco
Estadio Doroteo Guamuch Flores in Guatemala City.
Gray whale
Pyramid of the archaeological site of La Venta 1000-400 BCE
The National Palace on the east side of Plaza de la Constitución or Zócalo, the main square of Mexico City; it was the residence of viceroys and Presidents of Mexico and now the seat of the Mexican government.
Cuicuilco 800–600 BCE
Andrés Manuel López Obrador President of Mexico
The partly excavated main structure of San José Mogote 1500–500 BCE
Alfonso García Robles diplomat who received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1982
Monte Albán, Building J in the foreground. 200 BCE – 200 CE
A Mexican Navy Eurocopter
Great Goddess of Teotihuacan 200–500 CE
Demonstration on 26 September 2015, in the first anniversary of the disappearance of the 43 students in the Mexican town of Iguala
A reconstruction of Guachimontones, flourished from 200 to 400 CE
The territorial evolution of Mexico after independence: secession of Central America (purple), Chiapas annexed from Guatemala (blue), losses to the U.S. (red, white and orange) and the reannexation of the Republic of Yucatán (red)
Temple of the Owl, Dzibanche 200–600 CE
A proportional representation of Mexico's exports. The country has the most complex economy in Latin America.
Acanceh, 200–300 CE<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.mesoweb.com/features/acanceh/history.html|title=Mesoweb Articles|work=mesoweb.com}}</ref>
Historical GDP per capita development of Mexico
Mask located on the "Temple of the Masks" Kohunlich c. 500 CE
Mexican Stock Exchange building
Main palace of Palenque, 7th century AD
Telmex Tower, Mexico City.
K'inich Janaab Pakal I of Palenque 603–683 AD
The Central Eólica Sureste I, Fase II in Oaxaca. The Isthmus of Tehuantepec is the region of Mexico with the highest capacity for wind energy. (see Tehuantepecer, a strong wind that affects the region)
Copan Stela H commissioned by Uaxaclajuun Ubʼaah Kʼawiil 695–738 AD
Guillermo Haro Observatory in Cananea, Sonora.
Jaina Island type figure (Maya) 650–800 AD
Cancun and the Riviera Maya is the most visited region in Latin America
Cacaxtla, Mural depicting the Bird Man 650–900 AD
The Baluarte Bridge is the highest cable-stayed bridge in the world, the fifth-highest bridge overall and the highest bridge in the Americas.
Chichen Itza, Temple of the Jaguars 900–1000 AD
El Cajon Dam
Governor's Palace rear view and details, 10th century CE, Uxmal
Mexican states by population density
Codz Poop, 7th–10th centuries CE Kabah
Las castas. Casta painting showing 16 racial groupings. Anonymous, 18th century, oil on canvas, 148×104 cm, Museo Nacional del Virreinato, Tepotzotlán, Mexico.
Sayil, three-story palace, 600–900 CE
Colonial caste painting of Mexican family in Viceroyalty of New Spain
Chichen Itza, "Temple of Three Dintels" 600–1000 CE
Octavio Paz was awarded the 1981 Miguel de Cervantes Prize, the 1982 Neustadt International Prize for Literature, and the 1990 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Palace of Mitla, Oaxaca 12th century
Our Lady of Guadalupe, patron saint of Mexico. This painting of her at the Basilica of Guadalupe is among her most notable depictions. Scientists debate if it should be dated 1531, the year of the first apparition was said to appear, or the 1550s.
The Calendar temple of Tlatelolco, 1200 CE
Cathedral of Zacatecas
Detail of page 20 from the Codex Zouche-Nuttall, 14–15th century
General Hospital of Mexico in Mexico City.
Pectoral mixtec, Shield of Yanhuitlan.
Central Library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico
Aztec sun stone, early 16th century
Olga Sánchez Cordero, Minister of the Interior (Gobernacion) in President López Obrador's cabinet
A small ceremonial ballcourt at Tikal.
Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts), with murals, other artwork, and a major performance space
Mexican Muralism. A cultural expression starting in the 1920s created by a group of Mexican painters after the Mexican Revolution.
Monument to Cuauhtémoc, Paseo de la Reforma, Mexico City (1887)
Teotihuacán, State of Mexico
The colonial-era Cathedral Mexico City dominates one side of the main square of the capital
Museo Soumaya in Mexico City building
David Alfaro Siqueiros by Héctor García Cobo at Lecumberri prison, Mexico City, 1960.
Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, "The Tenth Muse." Posthmous portrait Juan Cabrera
Actress Dolores del Río, Hollywood star in the 1920s and 1930s and prominent figure of the Golden Age of Mexican cinema in the 1940s and 1950s
Mole sauce, which has dozens of varieties across the Republic, is seen as a symbol of Mexicanidad and is considered Mexico's national dish.
Portrait of composer Carlos Chávez by Carl van Vechten
Azteca Stadium, Mexico City.
Logo for the 1968 Mexico Olympics
Plaque in Mexico City commemorating Lucha libre as an intangible cultural heritage
View of the Pyramid of the Sun of Teotihuacan, the first human establishment in the area dating back to 600 BCE
View of the Pyramid of the Sun in the ancient city-state of Teotihuacan, which was the 6th largest city in the world at its peak (1 AD to 500 AD)
Temple of Kukulcán (El Castillo) in the maya city of Chichen Itza
A proportional representation of Mexico's exports. The country has the most complex economy in Latin America.
Storming of the Teocalli by Cortez and his Troops (1848)
Telmex Tower, Mexico City.
New Spain was essential to the Spanish global trading system. White represents the route of the Spanish Manila Galleons in the Pacific and the Spanish convoys in the Atlantic. (Blue represents Portuguese routes.)
The Baluarte Bridge was the highest cable-stayed bridge in the world, the fifth-highest bridge overall and is the highest bridge in the Americas.
Map of the First Mexican Empire
Central Library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico
Students in a burned bus during the protests of 1968
Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo, two of the most famous mexican artists
Pico de Orizaba, the highest mountain in Mexico
Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts), with murals, other artwork, and a major performance space
Chamber of Deputies, the lower house of the Congress of Mexico
Alfonso Cuarón, the first mexican filmmaker to win the Academy Award for Best Director
Andrés Manuel López Obrador President of Mexico
Televisa headquarters in Mexico City
Headquarters of the Secretariat of Foreign Affairs
El Santo, one of the most iconic Mexican luchadores
Mexican Federal Police celebration.
Mexico City, the financial center of Mexico
Mexican Stock Exchange building
Large Millimeter Telescope in Puebla.
The Baluarte Bridge is the highest cable-stayed bridge in the world, the fifth-highest bridge overall and the highest bridge in the Americas.
Lake Chapala is Mexico's largest freshwater lake.
Regional variation of ancestry according to a study made by Ruiz-Linares in 2014, each dot represents a volunteer, with most coming from south Mexico and Mexico City.
Map for the year 2000 of the indigenous languages of Mexico having more than 100,000 speakers.
Mexico–United States barrier between San Diego's border patrol offices in California, USA (left) and Tijuana, Mexico (right)
Secretary of Health, Mexico City, Mexico.
Central Library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico
Frida Kahlo, the most famous woman artist in Mexican history.
Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts), with murals, other artwork, and a major performance space
Octavio Paz was awarded the 1990 Nobel Prize in Literature
Azteca Stadium, Mexico City.
El Santo, one of the most famous and iconic Mexican luchadores

It is bordered to the north and west by Mexico; to the northeast by Belize and the Caribbean; to the east by Honduras; to the southeast by El Salvador and to the south by the Pacific Ocean.

- Guatemala

It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico.

- Mexico

It extends from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica.

- Mesoamerica

The core of the Maya civilization, which extended across Mesoamerica, was historically based in the territory of modern Guatemala.

- Guatemala

In particular, the Mesoamerican region was home to many intertwined civilizations; including the Olmec, Maya, Zapotec, Teotihuacan, and Purepecha.

- Mexico

3 related topics with Alpha

Overall

The Maya area within Mesoamerica

Maya civilization

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The Maya area within Mesoamerica
Remains in Joya de Cerén, a Classic-era settlement in El Salvador buried under volcanic ash around 600 AD. Its preservation has greatly helped in the study of everyday life in a Maya farming community.
Maya area
Stela D from Quiriguá, representing king Kʼakʼ Tiliw Chan Yopaat
Calakmul was one of the most important Classic period cities.
Chichen Itza was the most important city in the northern Maya region.
Zaculeu was capital of the Postclassic Mam kingdom in the Guatemalan Highlands.
Mayapan was an important Postclassic city in the northern Yucatán Peninsula.
Page from the Lienzo de Tlaxcala showing the Spanish conquest of Iximche, known as Cuahtemallan in the Nahuatl language
Drawing by Frederick Catherwood of the Nunnery complex at Uxmal
1892 photograph of the Castillo at Chichen Itza, by Teoberto Maler
Stela from Toniná, representing the 6th-century king Bahlam Yaxuun Tihl
Classic period sculpture showing sajal Aj Chak Maax presenting captives before ruler Itzamnaaj Bʼalam III of Yaxchilan
Lintel 16 from Yaxchilán, depicting king Yaxun Bʼalam in warrior garb
The Puuc-style Labna gateway. The passage is formed by a corbel arch, a common element in Maya architecture.
Reconstruction of the urban core of Tikal in the 8th century AD
Fired bricks with animal designs from Comalcalco. Made from brick since there was a lack of readily available stone, it is unique among major Maya sites.
Terminal Classic palace complex at Sayil, in northern Yucatán
Temple I, at Tikal, was a funerary temple in honour of king Jasaw Chan Kʼawiil I.
Model of a triadic pyramid at Caracol, Belize
Map of Mayan language migration routes
Pages from the Postclassic period Paris Codex, one of the few surviving Maya books in existence
Maya script on Cancuén Panel 3 describes the installation of two vassals at Machaquilá by Cancuén king Taj Chan Ahk.
Ceramic vessel painted with Maya script in the Ethnologisches Museum, Berlin
Reading order of Maya hieroglyphic text
Representation of an astronomer from the Madrid Codex
Relief sculpture of a decapitated ballplayer, adorning the Great Ballcourt at Chichen Itza
Maize was a staple of the Maya diet.
The Museo Nacional de Arqueología y Etnología, in Guatemala City

The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its logosyllabic script—the most sophisticated and highly developed writing system in pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.

The Maya civilization developed in the area that today comprises southeastern Mexico, all of Guatemala and Belize, and the western portions of Honduras and El Salvador.

Central America

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Region of North America.

Region of North America.

Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama and Belize are historically the seven nations in Central America politically, geographically and culturally.
The seven countries of Central America and their capitals
Central America geography
El Chorreron in El Salvador
One of the hanging bridges of the skywalk at the Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve in Monteverde, Costa Rica disappearing into the clouds
Central America and the Caribbean Plate
Linguistic variations of classic Central American Spanish.
Central America map of indigenous people before European contact
Coat of Arms of the Central American Parliament
Federal Republic of Central America, 4 Escudos (1835). Struck in the San Jose, Costa Rica mint (697 were minted)
Secretariat of Central American Economic Integration
The Great Blue Hole off the coast of Belize is a prime ecotourism destination. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Semuc Champey, Guatemala.
The city rail in La Ceiba, Honduras is one of the few remaining passenger train services in Central America
Ancient footprints of Acahualinca, Nicaragua
Stone spheres of Costa Rica
Tazumal, El Salvador
Tikal, Guatemala
Copan, Honduras
Altun Ha, Belize
The United Provinces of Central America
Federal Republic of Central America
National Representation of Central America
Greater Republic of Central America
Guatemala
El Salvador
Honduras
Nicaragua
Costa Rica
Panama
Belize
Belize
Montecristo National Park, El Salvador
Maderas forest, Nicaragua
Texiguat Wildlife Refuge Honduras
Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve, Costa Rica.
Parque Internacional la Amistad, Panama
Petén–Veracruz moist forests, Guatemala
Lycaste skinneri, Guatemala
Yucca gigantea, El Salvador
Rhyncholaelia digbyana, Honduras
Plumeria, Nicaragua
Guarianthe skinneri, Costa Rica
Peristeria elata, Panama
Prosthechea cochleata, Belize
Resplendent quetzal, Guatemala
Turquoise-browed motmot, El Salvador and Nicaragua
Keel-billed toucan, Belize
Scarlet macaw, Honduras
Clay-colored thrush, Costa Rica
Harpy eagle, Panama
Coatepeque Caldera, El Salvador
Lake Atitlán, Guatemala
Mombacho, Nicaragua
Arenal Volcano, Costa Rica
Guatemalan textiles
Mola (art form), Panama
El Salvador La Plama art form
Playa Blanca Guatemala
Jiquilisco Bay, El Salvador
Roatán, Honduras
Pink Pearl Island Nicaragua
Tamarindo, Costa Rica
Cayos Zapatilla, Panama
Corozal Beach, Belize

It is bordered by Mexico to the north, Colombia to the south, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

Central America consists of seven countries: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama.

It is also a part of the Mesoamerican biodiversity hotspot, which extends from northern Guatemala to central Panama.

Nahuatl

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Language or, by some definitions, a group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family.

Language or, by some definitions, a group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family.

Tree diagram of the relation between the Nahuan languages and the rest of the Uto-Aztecan language family, based on the internal classification of Nahuan given by Terrence
Page 51 of Book IX from the Florentine Codex. The text is in Nahuatl written in the Latin alphabet.
Map showing the areas of Mexico where Nahuatl is spoken today
The Aztecs called (red) tomatoes xitōmatl, whereas the green tomatillo was called tōmatl; the latter is the source for the English word tomato.
The place names Mapachtepec ('Raccoon Hill'), Mazatlan ('Deer Place') and Huitztlan ('Thorn Place') written in the Aztec writing system, from the Codex Mendoza
Page of Book IV from the Florentine Codex. The text is in Nahuatl written in the Latin alphabet.
Illustrated alphabet of the Nahuatl, Aztec or Mexicano language.

Varieties of Nahuatl are spoken by about 1.7 million Nahua peoples, most of whom live mainly in Central Mexico and have smaller population in the United States.

Starting in the 1970s, scholars of Mesoamerican ethnohistory have analyzed local-level texts in Nahuatl and other indigenous languages to gain insight into cultural change in the colonial era via linguistic changes, known at present as the New Philology.

Many well known toponyms also come from Nahuatl, including Mexico (from the Nahuatl word for the Aztec capital Mexihko) and Guatemala (from the word Kwahtemallan).