Guelphs and Ghibellines

GhibellineGuelphGhibellinesGuelphsGuelfGuelph and GhibellineGuelfs and GhibellinesWars of the Guelphs and GhibellinesGuelph partyGhibellini
The Guelphs and Ghibellines (, also ; guelfi e ghibellini ) were factions supporting the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, respectively, in the Italian city-states of central and northern Italy.wikipedia
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Kingdom of Italy (Holy Roman Empire)

ItalyKingdom of ItalyItalian
During the 12th and 13th centuries, rivalry between these two parties formed a particularly important aspect of the internal politics of medieval Italy.
The resulting wars between Guelphs and Ghibellines, the anti-imperialist and imperialist factions, respectively, were characteristic of Italian politics in the 12th–14th centuries.

Interregnum (Holy Roman Empire)

Great InterregnumInterregnum Imperial ''interregnum
The division between the Guelphs and Ghibellines in Italy, fuelled by the imperial Great Interregnum, persisted until the 15th century.
After 1257, the crown was contested between Richard of Cornwall, who was supported by the Guelph party, and Alfonso X of Castile, who was recognized by the Hohenstaufen party but never set foot on German soil.

Waiblingen

WeiblingenGibbelinsNeustadt
The Welfs were said to have used the name as a rallying cry during the Siege of Weinsberg in 1140, in which the rival Hohenstaufens of Swabia (led by Conrad III of Germany) used "Wibellingen", the name of a castle today known as Waiblingen, as their cry; "Wibellingen" subsequently became Ghibellino in Italian.
It is assumed that the Italian name of the Hohenstaufen party, Ghibelline, is derived from "Waiblingen".

Battle of Montaperti

MontapertiMontaperti in 1260
Smaller cities tended to be Ghibelline if the larger city nearby was Guelph, as Guelph Republic of Florence and Ghibelline Republic of Siena faced off at the Battle of Montaperti, 1260.
The Battle of Montaperti was fought on 4 September 1260 between Florence and Siena in Tuscany as part of the conflict between the Guelphs and Ghibellines.

Battle of Legnano

Legnanobattles of Legnanodefeat at Legnano
The Lombard League defeated Frederick at the Battle of Legnano in 1176.
The clash between the municipalities of Northern Italy and imperial power originated in the struggle for investitures, or in that conflict which involved, between the XI and the XII century, the Papacy, the Holy Roman Empire and the respective factions, the so-called "Guelphs and Ghibellines".

Hohenstaufen

House of HohenstaufenStauferStaufen
The Welfs were said to have used the name as a rallying cry during the Siege of Weinsberg in 1140, in which the rival Hohenstaufens of Swabia (led by Conrad III of Germany) used "Wibellingen", the name of a castle today known as Waiblingen, as their cry; "Wibellingen" subsequently became Ghibellino in Italian.
The pro-imperial Ghibelline faction of the Italian civic rivalries of the 13th and 14th centuries took its name from Waiblingen.

Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor

Frederick BarbarossaFrederick I BarbarossaFrederick I
The names were likely introduced to Italy during the reign of Frederick Barbarossa.
The Hohenstaufens were often called Ghibellines, which derives from the Italianized name for Waiblingen castle, the family seat in Swabia; the Welfs, in a similar Italianization, were called Guelfs.

Republic of Florence

FlorenceFlorentineFlorentine Republic
Smaller cities tended to be Ghibelline if the larger city nearby was Guelph, as Guelph Republic of Florence and Ghibelline Republic of Siena faced off at the Battle of Montaperti, 1260.
The precarious peace that existed at the beginning of the century was destroyed in 1216 when two factions, known as the Guelphs and the Ghibellines, began to war.

Republic of Siena

SienaSieneseSienese Republic
Smaller cities tended to be Ghibelline if the larger city nearby was Guelph, as Guelph Republic of Florence and Ghibelline Republic of Siena faced off at the Battle of Montaperti, 1260.
In the 13th century, Siena was predominantly Ghibelline, in opposition to Florence's Guelph position (this conflict formed the backdrop for some of Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy, completed in 1320).

Republic of Genoa

GenoeseGenoaGenoan
Pisa maintained a staunch Ghibelline stance against her fiercest rivals, the Guelph Republic of Genoa and Florence.
Between 1218–1220 Genoa was served by the Guelph podestà Rambertino Buvalelli, who probably introduced Occitan literature to the city, which was soon to boast such troubadours as Jacme Grils, Lanfranc Cigala, and Bonifaci Calvo.

Enzo of Sardinia

Enzio of SardiniaEnzoEnzio
He was then excommunicated by the Pope, and in response expelled the friars from Lombardy and placed his son Enzo as Imperial vicar in Italy, he quickly annexed Romagna, Marche, and the Duchy of Spoleto as well as part of the Papal States.
He played a major role in the wars between Guelphs and Ghibellines in the Imperial kingdom of Italy, and was captured by his enemies in 1249.

Holy Roman Empire

ImperialHoly Roman EmperorGermany
The struggle for power between the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire had arisen with the Investiture Controversy, which began in 1075 and ended with the Concordat of Worms in 1122.
After 1257, the crown was contested between Richard of Cornwall, who was supported by the Guelph party, and Alfonso X of Castile, who was recognized by the Hohenstaufen party but never set foot on German soil.

Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor

Frederick IIEmperor Frederick IIFrederick II of Hohenstaufen
Philip's heir, Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, was an enemy of both Otto and the Papacy, and during Frederick's reign the Guelphs became more strictly associated with the Papacy while the Ghibellines became supporters of the Empire, and of Frederick in particular.
In the region of northern Germany, the center of Guelph power, Otto continued to hold the reins of royal and imperial power despite his excommunication.

Papal States

Papal StatePapalPapal Army
He was then excommunicated by the Pope, and in response expelled the friars from Lombardy and placed his son Enzo as Imperial vicar in Italy, he quickly annexed Romagna, Marche, and the Duchy of Spoleto as well as part of the Papal States. Guelph cities tended to be in areas where the Emperor was more of a threat to local interests than the Pope, and Ghibelline cities tended to be in areas where the enlargement of the Papal States was the more immediate threat.
In response to the struggle between the Guelphs and Ghibellines, the Treaty of Venice made official the independence of Papal States from the Holy Roman Empire in 1177.

Ferrara

Ferrara, ItalyFerraresePontelagoscuro
Soon however the Ghibelline city of Ferrara fell and Frederick once more marched into Italy capturing Ravenna and Faenza.
During the 12th century the history of the town was marked by the wrestling for power between two preeminent families, the Guelph Adelardi and the Ghibelline Salinguerra; however, at this point, the powerful Imperial House of Este had thrown his decisive weight behind the Salinguerra and eventually reaped the benefits of victory for themselves.

Tuscany

TuscanToscanaTuscany, Italy
Contemporaries did not use the terms Guelph and Ghibellines much until about 1250, and then only in Tuscany (where they originated), with the names "church party" and "imperial party" preferred in some areas.
The conflict between the Guelphs and Ghibellines, factions supporting the Papacy or the Holy Roman Empire in central and northern Italy during the 12th and 13th centuries, split the Tuscan people.

Pisa

Pisa, ItalyPisanPisans
Pisa maintained a staunch Ghibelline stance against her fiercest rivals, the Guelph Republic of Genoa and Florence.
In the following years, Pisa was one of the staunchest supporters of the Ghibelline party.

Battle of Cortenuova

battle in Cortenuovabattle of Cortenovabattlefield at Cortenuova
Frederick defeated the Lombard League in the Battle of Cortenuova and refused any Peace treaty with any of the Guelph States.
He arrived at Valeggio, near Verona, and, with the help of Ezzelino III da Romano and other Ghibelline leaders, sacked the city of Vicenza.

Battle of Fossalta

Things became worse for the imperial party as the Ghibellines were defeated in the Battle of Fossalta by the Bolognese, at which Enzo was captured and imprisoned until his death.
The Battle of Fossalta was an episode of the War of the Guelphs and Ghibellines in Northern Italy.

Conrad III of Germany

Conrad IIIConrad of HohenstaufenKing Conrad III
The Welfs were said to have used the name as a rallying cry during the Siege of Weinsberg in 1140, in which the rival Hohenstaufens of Swabia (led by Conrad III of Germany) used "Wibellingen", the name of a castle today known as Waiblingen, as their cry; "Wibellingen" subsequently became Ghibellino in Italian.
The civil war that broke out is considered the first act of the struggle between Guelphs and Ghibellines, which later extended southwards to Italy.

Battle of Parma

ParmaSiege of Parmabattle of Parma, Italy
However the imperial camp was ambushed by the Guelphs and in the ensuing Battle of Parma the imperial party was routed, losing much of their treasury.
The Battle of Parma was fought on 18 February 1248 between the forces of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II and the Guelphs.

House of Grimaldi

GrimaldiGrimaldi familyMonegasque princely family
Genoese families like Fieschi and Grimaldi conventionally sided with the Guelph party, in contrast with the Doria and some branches of the Spinola families.
The Grimaldi dynasty is a princely house originating in Genoa, founded by the Genoese leader of the Guelphs, Francesco Grimaldi, who in 1297 took the lordship of Monaco along with his soldiers dressed as Franciscans.

Viterbo

San Martino al CiminoSan MartinoViterbe
When the City of Viterbo rebelled, the pope backed the Guelphs.
Frederick II drew Viterbo to the Ghibelline side in 1240, but when the citizens expelled his turbulent German troops in 1243 he returned and besieged the city, but in vain.

Battle of Campaldino

Campaldinodefeat at Campaldino
After the Tuscan Guelphs finally defeated the Ghibellines in 1289 at the Battle of Campaldino and at Vicopisano, the Guelphs began infighting.
The Battle of Campaldino was a battle between the Guelphs and Ghibellines on 11 June 1289.

Charles I of Anjou

Charles of AnjouCharles I of NaplesCharles I of Sicily
After the death of Frederick II in 1250 the Ghibellines were supported by Conrad IV of Germany and later Manfred, King of Sicily, while the Guelphs were supported by Charles I of Naples.
Charles's victories secured his undisputed leadership among the popes' Italian partisans (known as Guelphs), but his influence on papal elections and his strong military presence in Italy disturbed the popes.