Guild

guildscraft guildtrade guildmerchant guildguild systemcraft guildstrade guildsgildZunftGuild Church
A guild is an association of artisans or merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area.wikipedia
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Guildhall

Guild Hallguild housecommon hall
A lasting legacy of traditional guilds are the guildhalls constructed and used as guild meeting-places.
A guildhall is either a town hall, or a building historically used by guilds for meetings and other purposes, in which sense it can also be spelled as "guild hall" and may also be called a "guild house".

Master craftsman

mastercraftsmancraftsmen
Usually the founders were free independent master craftsmen who hired apprentices. Where guilds were in control, they shaped labor, production and trade; they had strong controls over instructional capital, and the modern concepts of a lifetime progression of apprentice to craftsman, and then from journeyman eventually to widely recognized master and grandmaster began to emerge.
A master craftsman or master tradesman (sometimes called only master or grandmaster) was a member of a guild.

University

universitiescollegecomprehensive university
An important result of the guild framework was the emergence of universities at Bologna (established in 1088), Oxford (at least since 1096) and Paris (c.
At the time of the emergence of urban town life and medieval guilds, specialized "associations of students and teachers with collective legal rights usually guaranteed by charters issued by princes, prelates, or the towns in which they were located" came to be denominated by this general term.

Associations in ancient Rome

Voluntary associationsRoman craft organisations
In the Early Middle Ages, most of the Roman craft organisations, originally formed as religious confraternities, had disappeared, with the apparent exceptions of stonecutters and perhaps glassmakers, mostly the people that had local skills.
Sodalitates for religious purposes are mentioned in the XII Tables, and collegia opificum, or trade guilds, were believed to have been instituted by Numa Pompilius, which probably means that they were regulated by the jus divinum as being associated with particular cults.

Confraternity

confraternitiesCofradíafraternity
In the Early Middle Ages, most of the Roman craft organisations, originally formed as religious confraternities, had disappeared, with the apparent exceptions of stonecutters and perhaps glassmakers, mostly the people that had local skills. The earliest types of guild formed as a confraternities of tradesmen, normally operating in a single city and covering a single trade.
The medieval French term puy designated a confraternity dedicated to artistic performance in music, song and poetry; the German meistersingers were similar, though typically imitating trade guilds in form.

Worshipful Company of Tax Advisers

Tax AdvisersThe Worshipful Company of Tax Advisers
Other groups, such as the Worshipful Company of Tax Advisers, have been formed far more recently.
It was established in December 1995 as a guild by members of the Chartered Institute of Taxation and became a company without livery status in December 2000.

Livery company

Livery CompaniesLiverymanliverymen
In England, specifically in the City of London Corporation, more than 110 guilds, referred to as livery companies, survive today, with the oldest more than a thousand years old. As the guild system of the City of London declined during the 17th century, the Livery Companies transformed into mutual assistance fraternities along such lines.
The livery companies of the City of London, currently 110 in number, comprise London's ancient and modern trade associations and guilds, almost all of which are styled the 'Worshipful Company of...' their respective craft, trade or profession.

Apprenticeship

apprenticeapprenticedapprenticeships
Where guilds were in control, they shaped labor, production and trade; they had strong controls over instructional capital, and the modern concepts of a lifetime progression of apprentice to craftsman, and then from journeyman eventually to widely recognized master and grandmaster began to emerge.
Although the formal boundaries and terminology of the apprentice/journeyman/master system often do not extend outside guilds and trade unions, the concept of on-the-job training leading to competence over a period of years is found in any field of skilled labor.

Journeyman

journeymenjourneypersonGesellenprüfung
Where guilds were in control, they shaped labor, production and trade; they had strong controls over instructional capital, and the modern concepts of a lifetime progression of apprentice to craftsman, and then from journeyman eventually to widely recognized master and grandmaster began to emerge.
The term "journeyman" was originally used in the medieval trade guilds.

Journeyman years

Wanderjahrewanderjahrjourneyman
In order to become a master, a journeyman would have to go on a three-year voyage called journeyman years.
In the Middle Ages and Renaissance, when the guild system still controlled professions in the visual arts, the wanderjahre was taken by painters, mason-architects and goldsmiths, and was highly important for the transmission of artistic style around Europe.

Merchant

merchantstraderstrader
A guild is an association of artisans or merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area.
Merchant guilds began to form during the Medieval period.

Professional association

professional organizationprofessional bodyprofessional society
They were organized in a manner something between a professional association, a trade union, a cartel, and a secret society.

City of London Corporation

Corporation of LondonCorporation of the City of LondonCity of London
In England, specifically in the City of London Corporation, more than 110 guilds, referred to as livery companies, survive today, with the oldest more than a thousand years old.
The companies originated as guilds or trade associations.

City of London

CityLondonthe City
As the guild system of the City of London declined during the 17th century, the Livery Companies transformed into mutual assistance fraternities along such lines.
The City is a ceremonial county which has a Commission of Lieutenancy headed by the Lord Mayor instead of a Lord-Lieutenant and has two Sheriffs instead of a High Sheriff (see list of Sheriffs of London), quasi-judicial offices appointed by the Livery Companies, an ancient political system based on the representation and protection of trades (Guilds).

Piece work

pieceworkpiece ratepiece-rate
The civil struggles that characterize the 14th-century towns and cities were struggles in part between the greater guilds and the lesser artisanal guilds, which depended on piecework.
As a term and as a common form of labor, 'piece work' had its origins in the guild system of work during the Commercial Revolution and before the Industrial Revolution.

Cartel

cartelsprice fixing cartelTrusts
They were organized in a manner something between a professional association, a trade union, a cartel, and a secret society.
Later, there was the guilds in the European middle ages—associations of craftsmen or merchants of the same trade.

Masterpiece

magnum opusopus magnumchef d'œuvre
This would typically require the approval of all masters of a guild, a donation of money and other goods (often omitted for sons of existing members), and the production of a so-called "masterpiece,' which would illustrate the abilities of the aspiring master craftsman; this was often retained by the guild.
Originally, the term masterpiece referred to a piece of work produced by an apprentice or journeyman aspiring to become a master craftsman in the old European guild system.

Freemasonry

FreemasonFreemasonsMasonic
Some ritual traditions of the guilds were preserved in order organisations such as the Freemasons, allegedly deriving from the Masons Guild, and the Oddfellows, allegedly derived from various smaller guilds.
The degrees of Freemasonry retain the three grades of medieval craft guilds, those of Apprentice, Journeyman or fellow (now called Fellowcraft), and Master Mason.

Putting-out system

cottage industrycottage industriesdomestic system
In the countryside, where guild rules did not operate, there was freedom for the entrepreneur with capital to organize cottage industry, a network of cottagers who spun and wove in their own premises on his account, provided with their raw materials, perhaps even their looms, by the capitalist who took a share of the profits.
It served as a way for capitalists and workers to bypass the guild system, which was thought to be cumbersome and inflexible, and to access a rural labour force.

Artisan

craftsmenartisanscraftsmanship
Where guilds were in control, they shaped labor, production and trade; they had strong controls over instructional capital, and the modern concepts of a lifetime progression of apprentice to craftsman, and then from journeyman eventually to widely recognized master and grandmaster began to emerge. A guild is an association of artisans or merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area.

Le Chapelier Law 1791

Le Chapelier LawLoi Le ChapelierThe Chapelier Law
The Le Chapelier Law of 1791 abolished the guilds in France.
The Le Chapelier Law (Loi Le Chapelier) was a piece of legislation passed by the National Assembly during the first phase of the French Revolution (14 June 1791), banning guilds as the early version of trade unions, as well as compagnonnage (by organizations such as the Compagnons du Tour de France) and the right to strike, and proclaiming free enterprise as the norm.

Competition law

antitrustantitrust lawanti-trust
Modern antitrust law could be said to derive in some ways from the original statutes by which the guilds were abolished in Europe.
The business practices of market traders, guilds and governments have always been subject to scrutiny, and sometimes severe sanctions.

Corporatism

corporatistcorporativecorporativism
Fascism in Italy (among other countries) implemented corporatism, operating at the national rather than city level, to try to imitate the corporatism of the Middle Ages.
In Italy, various function-based groups and institutions were created, including universities, guilds for artisans and craftspeople and other professional associations.The creation of the guild system is a particularly important aspect of the history of corporatism because it involved the allocation of power to regulate trade and prices to guilds, which is an important aspect of corporatist economic models of economic management and class collaboration.

High Middle Ages

high medievalHighhigh medieval period
Guilds arose beginning in the High Middle Ages as craftsmen united to protect their common interests.
Economic and political changes in the High Middle Ages led to the formation of guilds and the growth of towns, and this would lead to significant changes for theatre starting in this time and continuing into the Late Middle Ages.

Corporation

corporatecorporationsincorporated
In part due to their own inability to control unruly corporate behavior, the tide of public opinion turned against the guilds.
Early guilds and livery companies were also often involved in the regulation of competition between traders.