Political map of the Kashmir region, showing the Pir Panjal range and the Kashmir Valley or Vale of Kashmir
Pahalgam Valley, Kashmir
The Hill Fort of Maharaja Gulab Singh, 1846 drawing
Nanga Parbat in Kashmir, the ninth-highest mountain on Earth, is the western anchor of the Himalayas
A statue of Gulab Singh at Amar Mahal Palace, India
Map of India in 1823, showing the territories of the Sikh empire (northermost, in green) including the region of Kashmir
The palace of Maharaja Gulab Singh, on the banks of Tawi River, Jammu, mid-19th century
1909 Map of the Princely State of Kashmir and Jammu. The names of regions, important cities, rivers, and mountains are underlined in red.
Maharaja Gulab Singh rides a well decorated white stallion across a green field. Circa 1840-45.
The prevailing religions by district in the 1901 Census of the Indian Empire
Memorial shrines for Gulab Singh and Ranbir Singh, Jammu, India, ca.1875-ca.1940
A white border painted on a suspended bridge delineates Azad Kashmir from Jammu and Kashmir
500 paise postal stamp of Maharaja Gulab Singh released by Government of India on October 21, 2009
Topographic map of Kashmir
K2, a peak in the Karakoram range, is the second highest mountain in the world
The Indus River system
Large Kashmir Durbar Carpet (detail), 2021 photo. "Durbar", in this context, means Royal or Chiefly.
A Muslim shawl-making family shown in Cashmere shawl manufactory, 1867, chromolithograph, William Simpson
A group of Pandits, or Brahmin priests, in Kashmir, photographed by an unknown photographer in the 1890s
Brokpa women from Kargil, northern Ladakh, in local costumes

In 1846, after the Sikh defeat in the First Anglo-Sikh War, and upon the purchase of the region from the British under the Treaty of Amritsar, the Raja of Jammu, Gulab Singh, became the new ruler of Kashmir.

- Kashmir

. Ranjit Singh appointed a governor to administer the newly conquered area which was expanded in 1819 with the annexation of Kashmir by a Sikh force.

- Gulab Singh
Political map of the Kashmir region, showing the Pir Panjal range and the Kashmir Valley or Vale of Kashmir

2 related topics

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Topographical map of the Punjab; The Land of Five Rivers

First Anglo-Sikh War

Fought between the Sikh Empire and the British East India Company in 1845 and 1846 in and around the Ferozepur district of Punjab.

Fought between the Sikh Empire and the British East India Company in 1845 and 1846 in and around the Ferozepur district of Punjab.

Topographical map of the Punjab; The Land of Five Rivers
The Sikh trophy guns
Death of Jawahar Singh, Vizier of Lahore – Illustrated London News, 29 November 1845
Raja Lal Singh, who led Sikh forces against the British during the First Anglo-Sikh War, 1846
Outpost of Rhodawala
The Battle of Ferozeshah
The Battle of Aliwal
British troops crossing the Sutlej (Punjab) in boats. 10 February 1846
Maharaja Dalip Singh, entering his palace in Lahore, escorted by British troops after the First Anglo-Sikh War (1845–46)
Grand field day at Calcutta – arrival of the captured Sikh guns

Although the leaders and principal units of the army were Sikhs, there were also Punjabi, Pakhtun and Kashmiri infantry units.

In a later separate arrangement (the Treaty of Amritsar), the Raja of Jammu, Gulab Singh, purchased Kashmir from the East India Company for a payment of 7.5 million rupees and was granted the title Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir.

Sikh Empire

State originating in the Indian subcontinent, formed under the leadership of Ranjit Singh, who established an empire based in the Punjab.

State originating in the Indian subcontinent, formed under the leadership of Ranjit Singh, who established an empire based in the Punjab.

Sikh Empire in 1839 (shown on map with modern national borders)
Nawab Jassa Singh Ahluwalia
Nawab Baghel Singh
The expanding empire in 1809 CE. The Cis-Sutlej states are visible south of the Sutlej river
Ranjit Singh holding court in 1838 CE
Indian subcontinent in 1805 CE.
Nanakshahi coins of Sikh empire
The Samadhi of Ranjit Singh is located in Lahore, Pakistan, adjacent to the iconic Badshahi Mosque
Ranjit Singh, {{Circa|1830}}.<ref>Miniature painting from the photo album of princely families in the Sikh and Rajput territories by Colonel James Skinner (1778–1841)</ref>
{{center|1=Ranjit Singh listening to Guru Granth Sahib being recited near the Akal Takht and Golden Temple, Amritsar, Punjab, India.}}
Sikh warrior helmet with butted mail neckguard, 1820–1840, iron overlaid with gold with mail neckguard of iron and brass

At its peak in the 19th century, the Empire extended from the Khyber Pass in the west to western Tibet in the east, and from Mithankot in the south to Kashmir in the north.

Dhian Singh, the prime minister, was a Dogra, whose brothers Gulab Singh and Suchet Singh served in the high-ranking administrative and military posts, respectively.