A report on Gulf War and Iran–Iraq War

Clockwise from top: USAF F-15Es, F-16s, and an F-15C flying over burning Kuwaiti oil wells; British troops from the Staffordshire Regiment in Operation Granby; camera view from a Lockheed AC-130; the Highway of Death; M728 Combat Engineer Vehicle
Top-left to bottom-right: Iranian child soldier on the frontlines

Iranian soldier in a trench wearing a gas mask to guard against Iraqi chemical attacks

Port quarter view of the USS Stark listing to port after being mistakenly struck by an Iraqi warplane

Pro-Iraq MEK forces killed during Iran's Operation Mersad

Iraqi prisoners of war after the recapture of Khorramshahr by Iranian forces

ZU-23-2 anti-aircraft gun being used by the Iranian Army
Donald Rumsfeld, US special envoy to the Middle East, meets Saddam Hussein on 19–20 December 1983.
Meeting of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Houari Boumédiène and Saddam Hussein (left to right) during the Algiers Agreement in 1975.
Map of Kuwait
Ruhollah Khomeini rose to power after the Iranian Revolution.
Kuwaiti Armed Forces Chieftain main battle tanks
Location of Khuzestan Province in Iran which Iraq planned to annex
Kuwait Air Force McDonnell Douglas A-4KU Skyhawk ground-attack aircraft
Iranian President Abolhassan Banisadr, who was also commander-in-chief, on a Jeep-mounted 106mm recoilless anti-tank gun. Banisadr was impeached in June 1981.
Lion of Babylon main battle tanks, common Iraqi battle tank used in the Gulf War by the Iraqi Army.
The Shatt al-Arab on the Iran–Iraq border
An Iraqi Air Force Bell 214ST transport helicopter, after being captured by a US Marine Corps unit at the start of the ground phase of Operation Desert Storm
Destroyed Iranian C-47 Skytrain
Kuwaiti Armed Forces M-84 main battle tanks
Iranian F-14A Tomcats equipped with AIM-54A, AIM-7 and AIM-9 missiles.
President Bush visiting American troops in Saudi Arabia on Thanksgiving Day, 1990
Resistance of the outnumbered and outgunned Iranians in Khorramshahr slowed the Iraqis for a month.
American F-15Es parked in Saudi Arabia during Operation Desert Shield
Iranian president Abulhassan Banisadr on the battlefront
US Army soldiers from the 11th Air Defense Artillery Brigade during the Gulf War
Iraqi President Saddam Hussein and Massoud Rajavi, the leader of MEK and the National Resistance Council of Iran (NCRI) in 1988.
Countries that deployed coalition forces or provided support (On behalf of Afghanistan, 300 Mujaheddin joined the coalition on 11 February 1991. Niger contributed 480 troops to guard shrines in Mecca and Medina on 15 January 1991.)
The surprise attack on H-3 airbase is considered to be one of the most sophisticated air operations of the war.
General Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr. and President George Bush visit US troops in Saudi Arabia on Thanksgiving Day, 1990.
Iranian soldier holding an IV bag during the Iran–Iraq War
Dick Cheney meets with Prince Sultan, Minister of Defence and Aviation in Saudi Arabia to discuss how to handle the invasion of Kuwait.
Iranian Northrop F-5 aircraft during Iran-Iraq war
Gen. Colin Powell (left), Gen. Norman Schwarzkopf Jr., and Paul Wolfowitz (right) listen as Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney addresses reporters regarding the 1991 Gulf War.
Iraqi T-62 tank wreckage in Khuzestan Province, Iran
The USAF F-117 Nighthawk, one of the key aircraft used in Operation Desert Storm
Iraqi soldiers surrendering after the Liberation of Khorramshahr
Aftermath of Amiriyah shelter bombing by U.S. Air Force, which killed at least 408 civilians in Baghdad
Saddam Hussein in 1982
An Iraqi T-54A or Type 59 tank lies destroyed after a coalition bombing attack during Operation Desert Storm.
An admonitory declaration issued from the Iraqi government in order to warn Iranian troops in the Iran–Iraq War. The statement says: "Hey Iranians! No one has been downtrodden in the country where Ali ibn Abi Ṭālib, Husayn ibn Ali and Abbas ibn Ali are buried. Iraq has undoubtedly been an honorable country. All refugees are precious. Anyone who wants to live in exile can choose Iraq freely. We, the Sons of Iraq, have been ambushing foreign aggressors. The enemies who plan to assault Iraq will be disfavoured by God in this world and the hereafter. Be careful of attacking Iraq and Ali ibn Abi Ṭālib! If you surrender, you might be in peace."
Scud Transporter Erector Launcher (TEL) with missile in upright position
95,000 Iranian child soldiers were made casualties during the Iran–Iraq War, mostly between the ages of 16 and 17, with a few younger.
Aftermath of an Iraq Armed Forces strike on US barracks
Furthest ground gains
Military operations during Khafji's liberation
Iranian POWs in 1983 near Tikrit, Iraq
Marine Artillery played a huge factor in disrupting Iraqi counterattacks during the 1st Gulf War, February 1991.
Iranian child soldier
Iraqi tanks destroyed by Task Force 1-41 Infantry, February 1991
Iraqi POW who was shot by Iranian troops after they conquered the Iraqi Majnoon oil field in October 1984
Soldiers of 2nd Platoon, Company C, 1st Battalion, 41st Infantry Regiment pose with a captured Iraqi tank, February 1991
Iranian troops fire 152 mm D-20 howitzer
An Iraqi Republican Guard T-55 tank destroyed by Task Force 1–41 Infantry, February 1991
Battle of the Marshes Iran front 1983 rest after exchange of fire 152 mm D-20 H
American AH-64 Apache helicopters proved to be very effective weapons during the 1991 Gulf War.
Operation Earnest Will: Tanker convoy No. 12 under US Navy escort (21 October 1987)
4th Battalion of the 3rd Field Artillery Regiment, 2nd Armored Division (FWD) conducts artillery strikes on Iraqi positions during the 1st Gulf War. 4-3 FA was the primary fire support battalion for Task Force 1-41 during the 1st Gulf War, February 1991.
A map indicating the attacks on civilian areas of Iran, Iraq, and Kuwait targeted during the "War of the Cities".
Battery C, 4th Battalion of the 3rd Field Artillery Regiment, 2nd Armored Division (FWD) moves into position to conduct fire missions during the Battle of Norfolk, February 1991.
Iraqi commanders discussing strategy on the battlefront (1986)
U. S. M1A1 Abrams tanks move out on a mission during Desert Storm in 1991. A Bradley IFV and logistics convoy can be seen in the background.
Iranian President Ali Khamenei on the battlefront during the Iran–Iraq War
A M109A2 howitzer belonging to Battery C, 4th Battalion of the 3rd Field Artillery Regiment, 2nd Armored Division (FWD) during the Gulf War, February 1991.
Operation Dawn 8 during which Iran captured the Faw Peninsula.
A M60A1 tank with a Track Width Mine Plow, Desert Storm February 1991
Iranian soldier killed during the Iran–Iraq War with Rouhollah Khomeini's photo on his uniform
British Challenger 1 tanks during the 1st Gulf War. The British Challenger tank was the most efficient tank of the Gulf war suffering no losses while destroying approximately 300 Iraqi tanks during combat operations.
The People's Mujahedin of Iran, supported by Saddam, started a ten-day operation after both the Iranian and Iraqi governments accepted UN Resolution 598. Casualty estimates range from 2,000 to 10,000.
A destroyed Iraqi Army T-55 tank lies among the wreckage of many other Iraqi vehicles, such as trucks, cars and buses, somewhere along the Highway of Death in April 1991.
Adnan Khairallah, Iraqi Defense Minister, meeting with Iraqi soldiers during the war
US M1A1 Abrams tanks from the 3rd Armored Division along the Line of Departure
IRGC navy speedboats using swarm tactics
Two Iraqi T-55 tanks lie abandoned near Kuwait City on 26 February 1991.
An Iranian soldier wearing a gas mask during the Iran–Iraq War.
The oil fires caused were a result of the scorched earth policy of Iraqi military forces retreating from Kuwait.
The Iranian frigate IS Sahand burns after being hit by 20 U.S. air launched missiles and bombs, killing a third of the crew, April 1988
Ground troop movements 24–28 February 1991 during Operation Desert Storm
Iranian soldiers captured during Iraq's 1988 offensives
Iraqi T-62 knocked out by 3rd Armored Division fire
USS Vincennes in 1987 a year before it shot down Iran Air Flight 655
Destroyed LAV-25
MEK Soldiers killed in Operation Mersad in 1988
Aerial view of destroyed Iraqi T-72 tank, BMP-1 and Type 63 armored personnel carriers and trucks on Highway 8 in March 1991
Al-Shaheed Monument in Baghdad was erected to commemorate the fallen Iraqi soldiers during the war.
Iraqi 'Saddam' main battle tank destroyed during Operation Desert Storm
Iranian Martyr Cemetery in Isfahan
Remains of a downed F-16C
Iranian Martyrs Museum in Tehran
A Bradley IFV burns after being hit by Iraqi T-72 fire.
An Iranian soldier's funeral in Mashhad, 2013
Civilians and coalition military forces wave Kuwaiti and Saudi Arabian flags as they celebrate the retreat of Iraqi forces from Kuwait.
An Iraqi Mil Mi-24 on display at the military museum of Sa'dabad Palace in Iran
Coalition troops from Egypt, Syria, Oman, France, and Kuwait during Operation Desert Storm
President Ronald Reagan and Vice President George H. W. Bush work in the Oval Office of the White House, 20 July 1984.
HMAS Sydney in the Persian Gulf in 1991
USS Stark (FFG-31) listing following two hits by Exocet missiles.
Argentine Navy Alouette III helicopter on board, February 1991
Victims of the 1987 chemical attack on Sardasht, West Azerbaijan, Iran
Canadian CF-18 Hornets participated in combat during the Gulf War.
Damage to a mosque in Khoramshahr, Iran, the city that was invaded by Iraq in September 1980
French and American soldiers inspecting an Iraqi Type 69 tank destroyed by the French Division Daguet during Operation Desert Storm
One of the Italian tornadoes used in the operation
British Army Challenger 1 main battle tank during Operation Desert Storm
Iraqi Kurds fleeing to Turkey shortly after the war
Sailors from a US Navy honor guard carry Navy pilot Scott Speicher's remains.
Approximate area and major clashes in which DU rounds were used
Destroyed Iraqi civilian and military vehicles on the Highway of Death
An armored bulldozer similar to the ones used in the attack
Oil well fires rage outside Kuwait City in 1991.
USS Missouri launching a Tomahawk missile. The Gulf War was the last conflict in which battleships were deployed in a combat role.
Military personnel examine the remains of a Scud.

Different speculations have been made regarding the true intents behind the invasion, including Iraq's inability to pay Kuwait the more than US$14 billion that it had borrowed to finance its military efforts during the Iran–Iraq War, and Kuwait's surge in petroleum production levels which kept revenues down for Iraq.

- Gulf War

The Iran–Iraq War was originally referred to as the Persian Gulf War until the Persian Gulf War of 1990 and 1991, after which the previous war was dubbed the First Persian Gulf War.

- Iran–Iraq War
Clockwise from top: USAF F-15Es, F-16s, and an F-15C flying over burning Kuwaiti oil wells; British troops from the Staffordshire Regiment in Operation Granby; camera view from a Lockheed AC-130; the Highway of Death; M728 Combat Engineer Vehicle

30 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Saddam in August 1998, preparing to deliver a speech for the 10th anniversary of the end of the Iran–Iraq War

Saddam Hussein

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Iraqi politician who served as the fifth president of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.

Iraqi politician who served as the fifth president of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.

Saddam in August 1998, preparing to deliver a speech for the 10th anniversary of the end of the Iran–Iraq War
Saddam in August 1998, preparing to deliver a speech for the 10th anniversary of the end of the Iran–Iraq War
Saddam in his youth as a shepherd in his village, near Tikrit
Saddam Hussein and the Ba'ath Party student cell, Cairo, in the period 1959–1963
Promoting women's literacy and education in the 1970s
Saddam in 1974
Saddam talking to Michel Aflaq, the founder of Ba'athist thought, in 1988
Alexei Kosygin (left) and Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr signing the Iraqi–Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Co-Operation in 1972
Propaganda art to glorify Saddam after Iran–Iraq War, 1988.
Saddam Hussein and al-Bakr, de jure president of Iraq alongside Hafez al-Assad of Syria at an Arab Summit in Baghdad in November 1978
Saddam greeting Carlos Cardoen, a Chilean businessman who provided Iraq with weapons during the war in the 1980s
U.S. Ambassador to Iraq April Glaspie meets Saddam for an emergency meeting
Iraqi stamp about the Arab Cooperation Council (ACC), founded 1989 by Saleh of (North) Yemen, king Hussein of Jordan, Saddam Hussein and Hosni Mubarak of Egypt
Saddam in duty uniform
Saddam addresses state television, in January 2001
Saddam Hussein in 1996
Statue of Saddam being toppled in Firdos Square after the invasion
Saddam is discovered and interrogated by American soldiers, December 2003
Saddam Hussein shortly after capture
Hussein after being captured and shaven to confirm his identity
Saddam speaks in court
Saddam Hussein's family, mid-late 1980s
Saddam Hussein's sons Qusay and Uday were killed in a gun battle in Mosul on 22 July 2003.

He suppressed several movements, particularly Shi'a and Kurdish movements which sought to overthrow the government or gain independence, respectively, and maintained power during the Iran–Iraq War and the Gulf War.

Ba'athist Iraq

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Ba'athist Iraq, formally the Iraqi Republic until 6 January 1992 and the Republic of Iraq thereafter, covers the national history of Iraq between 1968 and 2003 under the rule of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party.

Ba'athist Iraq, formally the Iraqi Republic until 6 January 1992 and the Republic of Iraq thereafter, covers the national history of Iraq between 1968 and 2003 under the rule of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party.

Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr was de jure leader of Iraq from 1968 to 1979.
Adnan Khairallah, Iraqi Defense Minister, meeting with Iraqi soldiers during the Iran-Iraq war.
Retreating Iraqi forces sabotaged Kuwaiti oil wells, causing massive fires across Kuwait's oil fields.
Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr (left), the Regional Secretary of the Iraqi Ba'ath, shaking hands with Michel Aflaq, principal founder of Ba'athist thought, in 1968.
Saddam Hussein (right) talking with founder of Ba'athism and Ba'ath Party leader Michel Aflaq in 1988.
Kurdish peshmerga (opposition forces) in northern Iraq during the Iran–Iraq War.
Saddam Hussein (left) talking with Michel Aflaq in 1979.
Alexei Kosygin (left) and Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr signing the Iraqi–Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Co-operation in 1972.
GNP per capita in Iraq from 1950 to 2008.
28 February 2003: Iraqi soldiers ride an MT-LB armored vehicle on an Iraqi highway, one month before the start of the Iraq War.
Saddam Hussein and female students. Ba'athism promoted greater participation of women in Iraqi society.
Flag (1963–1991)
Flag (1991–2004)
Coat of arms (1965–1991)
Coat of arms (1991–2004)

Rapidly deteriorating relations eventually led to the Iran–Iraq War by 1980, which began following the Iraqi invasion of Iran in September 1980.

The resulting international response by a United States-led coalition led to the Persian Gulf War, which Iraq lost.

Kuwait

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Country in Western Asia.

Country in Western Asia.

Ancient coins found on Failaka Island.
Marine Museum in Kuwait City. Demonstrates the founding of Kuwait as a sea port for merchants.
The Basra Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire in 1897. After the Anglo-Ottoman Convention of 1913, Kuwait was established as an autonomous kaza, or district, of the Ottoman Empire and a de facto protectorate of Great Britain
Unofficial map of Kuwait in 1803 according to Scottish geographer and cartographer Alexander Keith Johnston
The Kuwait Red Fort in Al Jahra
Celebration at Seif Palace in 1944
HMS Victorious taking part in Operation Vantage in July 1961
Kuwaiti oil fires set by retreating Iraqi forces in 1991.
Kuwait Towers
A satellite image of Kuwait reveals its desert topography.
Kuwait shares land borders with Iraq and Saudi Arabia, and maritime borders with Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Iran.
The Kuwait National Assembly is the unicameral legislature of Kuwait.
The Seif Palace, the original seat of the Government of Kuwait.
Kuwait's then Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Defense Sheikh Mohammad Al Khalid Al Sabah with then US Defense Secretary Jim Mattis in 2017.
Al Hamra Tower is the tallest sculpted tower in the world.
A proportional representation of Kuwait exports, 2019
Prototype of the Kuwait Space Rocket
A highway in Kuwait City.
Kuwaiti youth celebrating Kuwait's independence and liberation, 2011.
Holy Family Co-Cathedral
A theatrical play titled "Fateh Masr" at Al Mubarikya school in the 1940s.
Machboos
Tareq Rajab Museum
The 372 m tall Kuwait Telecommunications Tower (left) is the main communication tower of Kuwait.
Spectators at a local football match.
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest territorial extent.
The Seleucid Empire at its greatest extent.

The Iraqi occupation of Kuwait came to an end on February 26,1991 after military intervention by a military coalition led by the United States and various other countries.

During the Iran–Iraq War, Kuwait supported Iraq.

Iraq

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Country in Western Asia.

Country in Western Asia.

Inside the Shanidar Cave, where the remains of eight adults and two infant Neanderthals, dating from around 65,000–35,000 years ago were found.
Map of the Akkadian Empire and the directions in which military campaigns were conducted (yellow arrows). The Akkadian Empire was the first ancient empire of Mesopotamia after the long-lived civilization of Sumer
Bronze head of an Akkadian ruler from Nineveh, presumably depicting either Sargon of Akkad, or Sargon's grandson Naram-Sin
Hammurabi, depicted as receiving his royal insignia from Shamash. Relief on the upper part of the stele of Hammurabi's code of laws.
Map of the Neo-Assyrian Empire under Shalmaneser III (dark green) and Esarhaddon (light green)
Jehu, king of Israel, bows before Shalmaneser III of Assyria, 825 BC.
Lamassu from the Assyrian gallery at the Iraq Museum, Baghdad
The Neo-Babylonian Empire under Nabonidus (r. 626–539 BC)
A partial view of the ruins of Babylon.
Roman amphitheater in Sulaymaniyah.
Al-Hariri of Basra was a poet, high government official and scholar of the Arabic language, He is known for his Maqamat al-Hariri (‘'Assemblies of Hariri'’), a collection of some 50 stories written in the Maqama style. Al-Hariri's best known work, Maqamat has been regarded as the greatest treasure in Arabic literature.
The siege of Baghdad by the Mongols.
Conquest of Mosul (Nineveh) by Mustafa Pasha in 1631, a Turkish soldier in the foreground holding a severed head. L., C. (Stecher) 1631 -1650
Crowning of King Faisal II of Iraq in the Council of Representatives, 1953
Nuri Said (1888 - 1958), contributed to the establishment of the Kingdom of Iraq and the armed forces while also served as the Prime minister of the state.
Iraq state emblem under nationalist Qasim was mostly based on Mesopotamian symbol of Shamash, and avoided pan-Arab symbolism by incorporating elements of Socialist heraldry.
The April 2003 toppling of Saddam Hussein's statue by US Army troops in Firdos Square in Baghdad shortly after the US-led invasion.
Destroyed Lion of Babylon tank on Highway 9 outside Najaf during US-led invasion in 2003.
An Iraqi Army Aviation Command aerial gunner prepares to test fire his M240 machine gun, Near Baghdad International Airport, 2011
Combined Air and Space Operations Center (CAOC) at Al Udeid Air Base, Qatar, provides command and control of air power throughout Iraq and Syria.
Pro-independence rally in Iraqi Kurdistan in 2017. The Kurdistan Regional Government announced it would respect the Supreme Federal Court's ruling that no Iraqi province is allowed to secede.
Protest in Baghdad in November 2019. The protests were the largest incident of civil unrest Iraq has experienced since the 2003 invasion.
Cheekha Dar, highest point in Iraq.
Iraq Köppen climate classification map.
The Asiatic lion has remained a prominent symbol of the country throughout history.
Baghdad Convention Center, the current meeting place of the Council of Representatives of Iraq.
View over Green Zone, which contains governmental headquarters and the army, in addition to containing the headquarters of the American embassy and the headquarters of foreign organizations and agencies for other countries.
US President Donald Trump with Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi in 2017.
Administrative districts of Iraq
Historical GDP per capita development
Agriculture is the main occupation of the people.
Mosul Museum is the second largest museum in Iraq after the Iraq Museum in Baghdad. It contains ancient Mesopotamian artifacts.
Supertankers at the Basra Oil Terminal
Mosul Dam Lake
Lake Dukan
Children in a village in Sulaymaniyah.
Imam Hussein Shrine in Karbala
Mor Mattai Monastery (Dayro d-Mor Mattai) in, Bartella, Nineveh, Iraq. It is recognized as one of the oldest Christian monasteries in existence and is famous for its magnificent library and considerable collection of Syriac Christian manuscripts
Saddam Hussein Promoting women's literacy and education in the 1970s
University students in Iraq, 2016
Al-Mutanabi, regarded as one of the greatest, most prominent and influential poets in the Arabic language, much of his work has been translated into over 20 languages worldwide
Wasiti's illustrations served as an inspiration for the modern Baghdad art movement in the 20th-century.
Zaha Hadid (1950–2016), an acclaimed architect.
Facade of Temple at Hatra, declared World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1985.
The Queen's gold lyre from the Royal Cemetery at Ur. Iraq Museum, Baghdad.
Masgouf, a popular Iraqi dish.
Madina Stadium in Baghdad is Iraq's first-ever stadium solar power plant, and the second in the Middle East of its kind.
Iraq wall det 2003.
A partial view of the ruins of Babylon.
The siege of Baghdad by the Mongols.
Sunni Arabs
Shiite Arabs
Sunni Kurds
Assyrians
Yazidis
Turkmen

In 1980, Iraq invaded Iran, sparking a protracted war which would last for almost eight years, and end in a stalemate with devastating losses for both countries.

This subsequently led to military intervention by United States-led forces in the First Gulf War.

Saudi Arabia

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Country on the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.

Country on the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.

Anthropomorphic stela (4th millennium BC), sandstone, 57x27 cm, from El-Maakir-Qaryat al-Kaafa (National Museum of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh)
The "Worshipping Servant" statue (2500 BC), above 1 m in height, is much taller than any possible Mesopotamian or Harappan models. Photo courtesy of the National Museum of Korea.
Qaṣr Al-Farīd, the largest of the 131 rock-cut monumental tombs built from the 1st century BC to the 1st century AD, with their elaborately ornamented façades, at the extensive ancient Nabatean archaeological site of Hegra located in the area of Al-'Ula within Al Madinah Region in the Hejaz. A UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2008.
Colossal statue from Al-'Ula in the Hejaz (6th–4th century BC), it followed the standardized artistic sculpting of the Lihyanite kingdom, the original statue was painted with white
At its greatest extent, the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750) covered 11100000 km2 and 62 million people (29 per cent of the world's population), making it one of the largest empires in history in both area and proportion of the world's population. It was also larger than any previous empire in history.
The Battle of Badr, 13 March 624 CE
Abdulaziz Ibn Saud, the founding father and first king of Saudi Arabia
Political map of Saudi Arabia
Map of Saudi Arabian administrative regions and roadways
Map of oil and gas pipelines in the Middle-East
King Fahd with US President Ronald Reagan and future US President Donald Trump in 1985. The US and Saudi Arabia supplied money and arms to the anti-Soviet mujahideen fighters in Afghanistan.
As many as 500 princes, government ministers, and business people, including Prince Fahd bin Abdullah, were arrested by Saudi Arabian authorities as part of the 2017 Saudi Arabian purge
Abdullah ibn Muhammad Al ash-Sheikh with Bogdan Borusewicz in the Polish Senate, 26 May 2014
Verses from the Quran. The Quran is the official constitution of the country and a primary source of law. Saudi Arabia is unique in enshrining a religious text as a political document.
U.S. President Donald Trump and First Lady Melania Trump with King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud and the President of Egypt, Abdel Fattah Al Sisi, 21 May 2017
U.S. President Barack Obama meets King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia, July 2014
Faisal Mosque in Islamabad is named after a Saudi king. The kingdom is a strong ally of Pakistan. WikiLeaks claimed that Saudis are "long accustomed to having a significant role in Pakistan's affairs".
Foreign Minister Adel al-Jubeir with then British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson (now Prime Minister) in London, 16 October 2016
Major Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy conflict locations
Flag of Al-Qaeda, a transnational terrorist group formed by Osama bin Laden, a Saudi Arabian national of Yemeni and Syrian extraction who was stripped of his Saudi passport in 1994.
"The Saudi pilots training in Italy 1935"—a scene from 'Our Eagles', one of four video wall shows made for the Royal Saudi Air Force Museum
Saudi soldiers from the First Airborne Brigade.
Deera Square, central Riyadh. It is a former site of public be-headings.
Saudi Arabia topography
Harrat Khaybar seen from the International Space Station. Saudi Arabia is home to more than 2000 dormant volcanoes. Lava fields in Hejaz, known locally by their Arabic name of harrat (the singular is harrah), form one of Earth's largest alkali basalt regions, covering some 180000 km2, an area greater than the state of Missouri.
A proportional representation of Saudi Arabia exports, 2019
Office of Saudi Aramco, the world's most valuable company and the main source of revenue for the state
The hajj is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims.
King Abdullah Financial Center is one of the largest investment centres in the Middle East, located in Riyadh
Al-Hasa is known for its palm trees and dates. Al-Hasa has over 30 million palm trees which produce over 100 thousand tons of dates every year.
Saudi Arabia population density (people per km2)
Laboratory buildings at KAUST
The Al-Yamamah Private University in Riyadh
UIS literacy rate Saudi Arabia population, 15 plus, 1990–2015
Historical development of life expectancy in Saudi Arabia
Supplicating pilgrim at Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque) in Mecca. The Kaaba is the cubic building in front of the pilgrim.
Non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the Islamic holy city of Mecca
Sarah Attar is a track and field athlete who competed at the 2012 Summer Olympics as one of the first two female Olympians representing Saudi Arabia.
The Masjid al-Haram is the holiest Islamic site, located in Mecca
The Mosque of the Prophet in Medina containing the tomb of Muhammad
King Abdullah practising falconry, a traditional pursuit in the country
Arabic coffee is a traditional beverage in Arabian cuisine
Uruguay – Saudi Arabia match at the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia
The 3000-year-old ancient historical city of Dumat al-Jandal in Al Jawf Province
The old city of Jeddah
Jabal Sawda ({{convert|3000|m|ft|abbr=on|disp=or}}) located in the 'Asir subrange of the Sarat Mountains
Abha City, located {{convert|2270|m|ft|abbr=on}} above sea level in the 'Asir Region
Beach promenade in Al-Wajh
Dhi 'ain village located in Al Bahah Province
The desert of Al-Rub' Al-Khali (The Empty Quarter)
Saad Khader from left and right Mohammad Al-Ali in 1979

In the 1980s, Saudi Arabia spent $25 billion in support of Saddam Hussein in the Iran–Iraq War; however, Saudi Arabia condemned the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in 1990 and asked the US to intervene.

The ulema have also been a key influence in major government decisions, for example the imposition of the oil embargo in 1973 and the invitation to foreign troops to Saudi Arabia in 1990.

Location of Iraq (green) and Kuwait (orange)

Iraqi invasion of Kuwait

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Operation conducted by Iraq on 2 August 1990, whereby it invaded the neighboring State of Kuwait, consequently resulting in a seven-month-long Iraqi military occupation of the country.

Operation conducted by Iraq on 2 August 1990, whereby it invaded the neighboring State of Kuwait, consequently resulting in a seven-month-long Iraqi military occupation of the country.

Location of Iraq (green) and Kuwait (orange)
The Basra Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire in 1897. After the Anglo-Ottoman Convention of 1913, Kuwait was established as an autonomous kaza, or district, of the Ottoman Empire and a de facto protectorate of Great Britain.
April Glaspie's first meeting with Saddam Hussein
An Iraqi Type 69 tank on display at the site of the Al-Qurain Martyrdom
A Kuwait M-84 tank during Operation Desert Shield in 1990. Kuwait continues to maintain strong relations with the coalition of the Gulf War.
Ground troop movements from 24–28 February 1991 during Operation Desert Storm.
American tanks from the 3rd Armored Division during Operation Desert Storm.
More than 600 Kuwaiti oil wells were set on fire by retreating Iraqi forces, causing massive environmental and economic damage to Kuwait.
The oil fires caused were a result of the scorched earth policy of Iraqi military forces retreating from Kuwait
Aerial view of oil wells on fire
US troops in Kuwait, 2015

These events came to be known as the first Gulf War, eventually resulting in the forced expulsion of Iraqi troops from Kuwait and the Iraqis setting 600 Kuwaiti oil wells on fire during their retreat (see scorched earth strategy).

A variety of speculations have been made regarding the true intents behind the Iraqi move, including Iraq's inability to pay Kuwait more than US$14 billion that it had borrowed from Kuwait to finance the Iran–Iraq War, and Kuwait's surge in petroleum production levels which kept revenues down for Iraq.

Israel

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Country in Western Asia.

Country in Western Asia.

The Merneptah Stele (13th century BCE). The majority of biblical archeologists translate a set of hieroglyphs as "Israel," the first instance of the name in the record.
The Large Stone Structure, an archaeological site in Jerusalem
Map of Israel and Judah in the 9th century BCE
Portion of the Temple Scroll, one of the Dead Sea Scrolls, written during the Second Temple period
Kfar Bar'am, an ancient Jewish village, abandoned some time between the 7th–13th centuries CE.
The 13th-century Ramban Synagogue in Jerusalem
Jews at the Western Wall in the 1870s
The First Zionist Congress (1897) in Basel, Switzerland
UN Map, "Palestine plan of partition with economic union"
Territory held by Israel: The Sinai Peninsula was returned to Egypt in 1982.
Israel's 1980 law declared that "Jerusalem, complete and united, is the capital of Israel."
Shimon Peres (left) with Yitzhak Rabin (center) and King Hussein of Jordan (right), prior to signing the Israel–Jordan peace treaty in 1994.
The site of the 2001 Tel Aviv Dolphinarium discotheque massacre, in which 21 Israelis were killed.
Köppen climate classification map of Israel and the Golan Heights
Population pyramid of Israel
Immigration to Israel in the years 1948–2015. The two peaks were in 1949 and 1990.
Road sign in Hebrew, Arabic, and English
The Dome of the Rock and the Western Wall, Jerusalem.
Multidisciplinary Brain Research Center at Bar-Ilan University
Mount Scopus Campus of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem
The Knesset chamber, home to the Israeli parliament
Political system of state of Israel
Supreme Court of Israel, Givat Ram, Jerusalem
Map of Israel showing the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and the Golan Heights
Israeli West Bank barrier separating Israel and the West Bank
Area C of the West Bank, controlled by Israel under Oslo Accords, in blue and red, in December 2011
Yitzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat at the signing ceremony of the Oslo Accords with then US President Bill Clinton
Squad commanders exercise at Eliakim training base in 2012
Iron Dome is the world's first operational anti-artillery rocket defense system.
Change in per capita GDP of Israel since 1950. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International dollars.
The Diamond Exchange District in Ramat Gan
Tel Aviv Stock Exchange. Its building is optimized for computer trading, with systems located in an underground bunker to keep the exchange active during emergencies.
Matam high-tech park in Haifa
The world's largest solar parabolic dish at the Ben-Gurion National Solar Energy Center.
Ben Gurion International Airport
Ein Bokek resort on the shore of the Dead Sea
Shmuel Yosef Agnon, laureate of the Nobel Prize in Literature
Israel Philharmonic Orchestra conducted by Zubin Mehta
Shrine of the Book, repository of the Dead Sea Scrolls in Jerusalem
A meal including falafel, hummus, French fries and Israeli salad
Teddy Stadium of Jerusalem
Boris Gelfand, chess Grandmaster

On 7 June 1981, during the Iran–Iraq War, the Israeli air force destroyed Iraq's sole nuclear reactor under construction just outside Baghdad, in order to impede Iraq's nuclear weapons program.

During the 1991 Gulf War, the PLO supported Saddam Hussein and Iraqi Scud missile attacks against Israel.

Original M60 variant on display at the Fort Lewis Military Museum in 2016

M60 tank

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American second-generation main battle tank .

American second-generation main battle tank .

Original M60 variant on display at the Fort Lewis Military Museum in 2016
A concept design #1 of the XM60 mounting the T123E6 main gun and British styled gun barrel, the newly designed full-vision cupola using the T95E6 turret as preferred by the Ordnance Department.
The M60 production pilot number 1 after completion by Chrysler on 2 July 1959. Note the use of a pedestal mounted M2HB machine gun on the cupola. The turret is traversed to the rear of the tank.
A M60 with AN/VSS-1(V)1 IR searchlight on display at Mississippi Armed Forces Museum, Camp Shelby, Mississippi
M60E1 pilot number 1 during preliminary tests at the Detroit Arsenal Test Center 19 May 1961. The machine guns are not installed.
A US Army M60A1 RISE Passive tank maneuvers through a narrow German village street while participating in REFORGER 1982.
A conceptual drawing of the XM66 with a Type C turret
A M60A1E2 tank prototype with a Type B turret.
An early version of the M60A2 at the AAF Museum
A US M60A3 on Display in Lake Charles, Louisiana in April 2005
Two M60A3 TTSs of the US Army near Giessen, West Germany 1985
A US Army crew aims its M60A3 TTS during NATO Exercise Certain Sentinel 1986. The canvas covered device attached to the main gun is a Hoffman simulator launcher for the MILES system.
General Dynamics Super M60 prototype, 1985
A Magach 7C in Yad la-Shiryon museum, Latrun.
A M60-2000/120S MBT prototype
A Leonardo M60A3 prototype, 2017
An M88 Recovery Vehicle towing an M60 tank for Exercise REFORGER 1978
A 401st TFW (P) M60 seen at Doha, Qatar during the Gulf War of 1991
Marines from Company D, 2nd Tank Battalion, M60A1 main battle tank during a breach exercise in Operation Desert Storm. The tank is fitted with reactive armor and an M9 bulldozer kit.
Excess M60 tanks at Fort Hood Texas, 1994. Note: All the turrets are traversed to the rear of the tank.
A XM1060 ROBAT circa 1982
A Panther MDCV equipped with an M1 MCRS prepares to lead a column of vehicles down a road near McGovern Base, in Bosnia and Herzegovina on May 16, 1996, during Operation Joint Endeavor.
A Turkish M60A1 tank upgraded by Israel Military Industries to M60T Sabra II, in Rishon LeZion, Israel, 2008
A map of M60 operators as of 2021 in blue with former operators in red

M60s delivered to Iran also served in the Iran–Iraq War.

The United States' largest deployment of M60s was in the 1991 Gulf War, where the US Marines equipped with M60A1s effectively defeated Iraqi armored forces, including T-72 tanks.

An American helicopter shadows the Russian oil tanker Volgoneft-147

Sanctions against Iraq

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The sanctions against Iraq were a comprehensive financial and trade embargo imposed by the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) on Iraq.

The sanctions against Iraq were a comprehensive financial and trade embargo imposed by the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) on Iraq.

An American helicopter shadows the Russian oil tanker Volgoneft-147
Protesters in Washington DC against sanctions and invasion of Iraq, 2002 or 2003

In April 1991, following Iraq's defeat in the Gulf War, Resolution 687 lifted the prohibition on foodstuffs, but sanctions remained in effect with revisions, including linkage to removal of weapons of mass destruction.

The Reagan administration generally supported Iraq during the Iran–Iraq War, despite Iraq's extensive use of chemical weapons against post-revolutionary Iran.

T-72A (1979) at the Patriot Park

T-72

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Family of Soviet/Russian main battle tanks that entered production in 1969.

Family of Soviet/Russian main battle tanks that entered production in 1969.

T-72A (1979) at the Patriot Park
Object 172 at the Kubinka Tank Museum.
Two T-72B tanks at the Chebarkul training ground, Russia, April 2017.
Czech T-72M4CZ firing.
T-72 monument in its production place, Nizhny Tagil.
Memorial of a T-72 with ERA. The tank was advancing on Azerbaijani positions in Askeran when it hit a mine and its Armenian crew was killed in the resulting explosion. The tank was restored after the war.
T-72 crew: 1-driver; 2-commander; 3-gunner; 4-auto-loading system.
T-72A top view. This model sports thick "Dolly Parton" composite armour on the turret front.
Indian T-72 with ERA.
Polish T-72 firing during training
T-72B3 of the Vietnamese team at the Army Games 2019 in Russia.
T-72B1V tanks of the Venezuelan Army during a parade in homage to the former president Hugo Chávez, March 2014.
T-72 operators in blue with former operators in red.
Armenian T-72B during the military parade in Yerevan.
Ukrainian T-72 during training, 2018.
Georgian Army T-72SIM1.
Iraqi T-72M in 2006.
Iraqi 'Saddam' main battle tank destroyed in a Coalition attack during Operation Desert Storm.

This vulnerability was first observed during the Gulf War.

At the beginning of the Iran–Iraq War, an Iraqi tank battalion, equipped with T-72s, in a battle near the town of Qasr-e Shirin completely defeated an Iranian tank battalion which consisted of Chieftain tanks, without incurring losses.