A report on Gulf of Tonkin incident

Photo taken from USS Maddox during August 2 encounter, showing three North Vietnamese
motor torpedo boats.
The Geneva Conference
Norwegian MTB Nasty
USS Maddox
Chart showing the track of the USS Maddox, July 31 – August 2, 1964 (date of first incident)
P-4 torpedo boat, similar to those used by the North Vietnamese military
F-8 Crusader
A North Vietnamese P-4 engaging USS Maddox, August 2, 1964
A sonar console
US President Lyndon Johnson in 1964
Wayne Morse
William Bundy
Johnson as he signs the resolution on August 10, 1964
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
Map in the U.S. Navy All Hands magazine
Võ Nguyên Giáp

International confrontation that led to the United States engaging more directly in the Vietnam War.

- Gulf of Tonkin incident
Photo taken from USS Maddox during August 2 encounter, showing three North Vietnamese
motor torpedo boats.

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Clockwise from top left: U.S. combat operations in Ia Đrăng

ARVN Rangers defending Saigon during the 1968 Tết Offensive

Two A-4C Skyhawks after the Gulf of Tonkin incident

ARVN recapture Quảng Trị during the 1972 Easter Offensive

Civilians fleeing the 1972 Battle of Quảng Trị

Burial of 300 victims of the 1968 Huế Massacre

Vietnam War

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Conflict in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.

Conflict in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.

Clockwise from top left: U.S. combat operations in Ia Đrăng

ARVN Rangers defending Saigon during the 1968 Tết Offensive

Two A-4C Skyhawks after the Gulf of Tonkin incident

ARVN recapture Quảng Trị during the 1972 Easter Offensive

Civilians fleeing the 1972 Battle of Quảng Trị

Burial of 300 victims of the 1968 Huế Massacre
The Geneva Conference, 1954
Ba Cut in Can Tho Military Court 1956, commander of religious movement the Hòa Hảo, which had fought against the Việt Minh, Vietnamese National Army and Cao Dai movement throughout the first war
Map of insurgency and "disturbances", 1957 to 1960
U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Secretary of State John Foster Dulles greet President Ngô Đình Diệm of South Vietnam in Washington, 8 May 1957
The Ho Chi Minh trail, known as the Truong Son Road by the North Vietnamese, cuts through Laos. This would develop into a complex logistical system which would allow the North Vietnamese to maintain the war effort despite the largest aerial bombardment campaign in history
The Ho Chi Minh trail required, on average, four months of rough-terrain travel for combatants from North Vietnam destined for the Southern battlefields.
President Kennedy's news conference of 23 March 1961
South Vietnam, Military Regions, 1967
Kennedy and McNamara
ARVN forces capture a Viet Cong
Ngô Đình Diệm after being shot and killed in a coup on 2 November 1963
Viet Cong fighters crossing a river
A U.S. B-66 Destroyer and four F-105 Thunderchiefs dropping bombs on North Vietnam during Operation Rolling Thunder
ARVN Forces and a US Advisor inspect a downed helicopter, Battle of Dong Xoai, June 1965
A Marine from 1st Battalion, 3rd Marines, moves a suspected Viet Cong during a search and clear operation held by the battalion 15 mi west of Da Nang Air Base, 1965.
Peasants suspected of being Viet Cong under detention of U.S. Army, 1966
Heavily bandaged woman burned by napalm, with a tag attached to her arm which reads "VNC Female" meaning Vietnamese civilian
A US "tunnel rat" soldier prepares to enter a Viet Cong tunnel.
Viet Cong soldier crouches in a bunker with an SKS rifle
ARVN forces assault a stronghold in the Mekong Delta.
Viet Cong before departing to participate in the Tet Offensive around Saigon-Gia Dinh
North Vietnamese regular army forces
The ruins of a section of Saigon, in the Cholon neighborhood, following fierce fighting between ARVN forces and Viet Cong Main Force battalions
Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin with U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson at the Glassboro Summit Conference where the two representatives discussed the possibilities of a peace settlement
Propaganda leaflet urging the defection of Viet Cong and North Vietnamese to the side of the Republic of Vietnam
ARVN and US Special Forces, September 1968
An alleged Viet Cong captured during an attack on an American outpost near the Cambodian border is interrogated.
Pathet Lao soldiers in Vientiane, 1972
Soviet advisers inspecting the debris of a B-52 downed in the vicinity of Hanoi
American POWs recently released from North Vietnamese prison camps, 1973
Civilians in a NVA/Viet Cong controlled zone. Civilians were required to show appropriate flags, during the War of the flags
Memorial commemorating the 1974 Buon Me Thuot campaign, depicting a Montagnard of the Central Highlands, a NVA soldier and a T-54 tank
The capture of Hue, March 1975
Victorious PAVN troops at the Presidential Palace, Saigon
Anti-war demonstration in the US, 1967
Ho Chi Minh from the Việt Minh independence movement and Việt Cộng with East German sailors in Stralsund harbour, 1957
Leonid Brezhnev (left) was the Soviet Union's leader during the Vietnam War.
Soviet anti-air instructors and North Vietnamese crewmen in the spring of 1965 at an anti-aircraft training center in Vietnam
Vietnam People's Air Force pilots walk by their aircraft, the MiG-17. The development of the North Vietnamese Vietnam People's Air Force (VPAF) during the war was assisted by Warsaw Pact nations throughout the war. Between 1966 and 1972 a total of 17 flying aces was credited by the VPAF against US fighters.
Fidel Castro meeting with Võ Nguyên Giáp at the Vietnam Military History Museum
East German solidarity stamp depicting a Vietnamese mother and child with the text "Unconquerable Vietnam"
The Thai Queen's Cobra battalion in Phuoc Tho
An Australian soldier in Vietnam
Victims of the My Lai massacre
Napalm burn victims during the war being treated at the 67th Combat Support Hospital
Interment of victims of the Huế Massacre
Da Nang, South Vietnam, 1968
A nurse treats a Vietnamese child, 1967
Female Viet Cong guerrilla in combat
Master-Sergeant and pharmacist Do Thi Trinh, part of the WAFC, supplying medication to ARVN dependents
Memorial temple to Nguyễn Thị Định and the female volunteers of the Viet Cong whom she commanded. They came to call themselves the "Long-Haired Army".
A wounded African-American soldier being carried away, 1968
Guerrillas assemble shells and rockets delivered along the Ho Chi Minh Trail.
UH-1D helicopters airlift members of a U.S. infantry regiment, 1966
North Vietnamese SAM crew in front of SA-2 launcher. The Soviet Union provided North Vietnam with considerable anti-air defence around installations.
Bombs being dropped by the B-52 Stratofortress long-range strategic bomber.
B-52 wreckage in Huu Tiep Lake, Hanoi. Downed during Operation Linebacker II, its remains have turned into a war monument.
Vietnamese refugees fleeing Vietnam, 1984
A bombed Buddha statue in Laos. U.S. bombing campaigns made Vietnam the single most bombed country in history.
Captured U.S.-supplied armored vehicles and artillery pieces
A young Marine private waits on the beach during the Marine landing, Da Nang, 3 August 1965
A marine gets his wounds treated during operations in Huế City, in 1968
Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara and General Westmoreland talk with General Tee on conditions of the war in Vietnam.
U.S. helicopter spraying chemical defoliants in the Mekong Delta, South Vietnam, 1969
Handicapped children in Vietnam, most of them victims of Agent Orange, 2004
Cemetery for ten unmarried girls who volunteered for logistical activities, who died in a B-52 raid at Đồng Lộc Junction, a strategic junction along the Ho Chi Minh trail
Stone plaque with photo of the "Thương tiếc" (Mourning Soldier) statue, originally, installed at the Republic of Vietnam National Military Cemetery. The original statue was demolished in April 1975.
The Ho Chi Minh trail required, on average, four months of rough-terrain travel for combatants from North Vietnam destined for the Southern battlefields.

In the Gulf of Tonkin incident in August 1964, a U.S. destroyer clashed with North Vietnamese fast attack craft.

President Johnson as he signs the resolution on 10 August 1964

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

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President Johnson as he signs the resolution on 10 August 1964
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The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution or the Southeast Asia Resolution,, was a joint resolution that the United States Congress passed on August 7, 1964, in response to the Gulf of Tonkin incident.

Turner Joy, retired and docked in Bremerton, 2006.

USS Turner Joy

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One of 18 s of the United States Navy.

One of 18 s of the United States Navy.

Turner Joy, retired and docked in Bremerton, 2006.

She participated extensively in the Vietnam War, and was one of the principal ships involved in the Gulf of Tonkin Incident.

Maddox underway in 1964

USS Maddox (DD-731)

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was named after Captain William A. T. Maddox of the United States Marine Corps.

was named after Captain William A. T. Maddox of the United States Marine Corps.

Maddox underway in 1964

During August she was involved in a skirmish with North Vietnamese torpedo boats, the Gulf of Tonkin Incident, which led to the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution and increased U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War.

Oval Office photo, 1964

Lyndon B. Johnson

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American politician who served as the 36th president of the United States from 1963 to 1969.

American politician who served as the 36th president of the United States from 1963 to 1969.

Oval Office photo, 1964
Seven-year-old Johnson with his trademark cowboy hat, c. 1915.
Johnson's boyhood home in Johnson City, Texas
President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Governor James V. Allred of Texas, and Johnson, 1937. Johnson later used an edited version of this photo, with Allred airbrushed out, in his 1941 senatorial campaign.
LCDR Johnson, March 1942
Johnson as U.S. senator from Texas
Senate Desk X, used by all Democratic leaders, including Johnson, since Joseph Taylor Robinson
Johnson giving "The Treatment" to Senator Richard Russell in 1963, shortly after becoming president.
President Kennedy and Vice President Johnson outside the White House prior to a ceremony
Vice President Johnson and Attorney General Robert Kennedy meeting with civil rights leaders at the White House on June 22, 1963.
Opening Day of the 1961 baseball season. President Kennedy throws out the first ball at Griffith Stadium, the home field of the Washington Senators, as LBJ and Hubert Humphrey look on.
Vice President Johnson visiting Finland in September 1963; here seen with Mrs. Johnson, while Urho Kekkonen, the President of Finland, welcomes them.
LBJ is sworn in on Air Force One by Judge Sarah Hughes as Mrs. Johnson and Mrs. Kennedy look on.
Meeting with civil rights leaders Martin Luther King Jr. (left), Whitney Young, and James Farmer in the Oval Office in 1964
President Lyndon Johnson (left), alongside Illinois AFL-CIO President Reuben Soderstrom (center) and Vice President Stanley Johnson (right), speaks to the delegates of the 1964 Illinois AFL-CIO convention.
1964 presidential election results
President Lyndon B. Johnson, Martin Luther King Jr., and Rosa Parks at the signing of the Voting Rights Act on August 6, 1965
President Johnson signs the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 as Sen. Edward Kennedy, Sen. Robert Kennedy, and others look on
Former president Truman and wife Bess at Medicare Bill signing in 1965, as Lady Bird and Hubert Humphrey look on
Former President Lyndon B. Johnson (center left) and Vice President Spiro Agnew (center right) witness the liftoff of Apollo 11.
Aftermath from a race riot in Washington D.C., April 1968
Lady Bird Johnson and LBJ with Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos on September 12, 1966
Shah of Iran Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and Queen Farah Pahlavi with the Johnsons on their visit to the United States
Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara and General Westmoreland in Vietnam 1965
Awarding a medal to a U.S. soldier during a visit to Vietnam in 1966
Philippines President Marcos hosting the leaders of SEATO nations during the Manila Conference on the Vietnam War
Johnson greeting a crowd, 1966
Johnson talking with his Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara, 1967
Vietnam War protestors march at the Pentagon in Washington, D.C. on October 21, 1967. Support for the war was dropping and the anti-Vietnam War movement strengthened.
Walt Whitman Rostow shows President Lyndon B. Johnson a model of the Khe Sanh area in February 1968
Tens of thousands of civilians were killed during the American bombing of North Vietnam in Operation Rolling Thunder.
Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin (left) next to Johnson during the Glassboro Summit Conference
Countries visited by Johnson during his presidency
President Johnson meets with Republican candidate Richard Nixon in the White House, July 1968.
Johnson in the Oval Office in 1969, a few days before Richard Nixon's inauguration
With the appointment of Thurgood Marshall, Johnson placed the first African American on the Supreme Court.
Johnson with longer hair during an interview in August 1972, five months before his death
Johnson wearing a cowboy hat at his ranch in Texas, 1972
Johnson's grave
Johnson lying in state in the United States Capitol rotunda
Johnson's image as it appears in the National Portrait Gallery in Washington, D.C.
Johnson with his family in the Yellow Oval Room, Christmas 1968
Front view of the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum located on the campus of the University of Texas in Austin, Texas
Entrance to the Lyndon Baines Johnson Memorial Grove on the Potomac

Following a naval skirmish with North Vietnam, Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which granted Johnson the power to launch a full scale military intervention.

Never assigned an official crest or patch, SOG personnel adopted this unofficial self-designed insignia

Military Assistance Command, Vietnam – Studies and Observations Group

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Highly classified, multi-service United States special operations unit which conducted covert unconventional warfare operations prior to and during the Vietnam War.

Highly classified, multi-service United States special operations unit which conducted covert unconventional warfare operations prior to and during the Vietnam War.

Never assigned an official crest or patch, SOG personnel adopted this unofficial self-designed insignia
2 August 1964: A North Vietnamese P-4 under fire from Maddox.
Shining Brass/Prairie Fire Area of Operations, 1969
MACV–SOG Organization
North Vietnamese troops on the Ho Chi Minh trail in Laos, photographed by a hidden SOG recon team.

The unit participated in most of the significant campaigns of the Vietnam War, including the Gulf of Tonkin incident which precipitated increased American involvement, Operation Steel Tiger, Operation Tiger Hound, the Tet Offensive, Operation Commando Hunt, the Cambodian Campaign, Operation Lam Son 719, and the Easter Offensive.

National Security Agency

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National-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence (DNI).

National-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence (DNI).

Black Chamber cryptanalytic work sheet for solving Japanese diplomatic cipher, 1919
Protesters against NSA data mining in Berlin wearing Chelsea Manning and Edward Snowden masks
PRISM: a clandestine surveillance program under which the NSA collects user data from companies like Microsoft and Facebook.
Paul M. Nakasone, the director of the NSA.
Behind the Green Door – Secure communications room with separate computer terminals for access to SIPRNET, GWAN, NSANET, and JWICS
Headquarters at Fort Meade circa 1950s
National Security Agency headquarters in Fort Meade, 2013
Due to massive amounts of data processing, NSA is the largest electricity consumer in Maryland.
Buckley Space Force Base in Colorado
Utah Data Center
RAF Menwith Hill has the largest NSA presence in the United Kingdom.
FROSTBURG was the NSA's first supercomputer, used from 1991 to 1997
STU-III secure telephones on display at the National Cryptologic Museum
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National Cryptologic Memorial

In the 1960s, the NSA played a key role in expanding U.S. commitment to the Vietnam War by providing evidence of a North Vietnamese attack on the American destroyer USS Maddox (DD-731) during the Gulf of Tonkin incident.

Vietnam People's Navy

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Naval branch of the Vietnam People's Army and is responsible for the protection of the country's national waters, islands, and interests of the maritime economy, as well as for the co-ordination of maritime police, customs service and the border defence force.

Naval branch of the Vietnam People's Army and is responsible for the protection of the country's national waters, islands, and interests of the maritime economy, as well as for the co-ordination of maritime police, customs service and the border defence force.

A North Vietnamese P-4 engaging USS Maddox (DD-731) in Gulf of Tonkin incident 1964
VPN Naval Infantry in Spratly Islands
Gepard-class HQ 011 Đinh Tiên Hoàng
VPN's Naval regions
Vietnam Naval Academy's badge

However, on 2 August 1964, three North Vietnamese Swatow-class patrol boats attacked the destroyer USS Maddox (DD-731) in what became known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident.

South Vietnam

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Country in Southeast Asia that existed from 1955 to 1975, the period when the southern portion of Vietnam was a member of the Western Bloc during part of the Cold War.

Country in Southeast Asia that existed from 1955 to 1975, the period when the southern portion of Vietnam was a member of the Western Bloc during part of the Cold War.

About 1 million North Vietnamese refugees left the newly created communist North Vietnam during Operation "Passage to Freedom" (October 1954).
US President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Secretary of State John Foster Dulles greet President Ngô Đình Diệm of South Vietnam in Washington, 8 May 1957.
A woman casting her ballot in the 1967 elections in the Republic of Vietnam
Radio Vietnam broadcast hours cards, denoting times and frequencies of radio broadcasts in 1960 and 1962. Address: 3 Phan Dinh Phung St., Saigon
Map of South Vietnam

Meanwhile, the Gulf of Tonkin incident of 2 August 1964 led to a dramatic increase in direct American participation in the war, with nearly 200,000 troops deployed by the end of the year.

Targets of Operation Pierce Arrow

Operation Pierce Arrow

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U.S. bombing campaign at the beginning of the Vietnam War.

U.S. bombing campaign at the beginning of the Vietnam War.

Targets of Operation Pierce Arrow
VA-146 A-4Cs from USS Constellation (CV-64) a week after Operation Pierce Arrow.

In response to the Gulf of Tonkin Incident when the destroyers USS Maddox (DD-731) and USS Turner Joy (DD-951) of the United States Navy engaged North Vietnamese ships, sustaining light damage as they gathered electronic intelligence while in the international waters of the Gulf of Tonkin, U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson ordered Operation "Pierce Arrow" which was conducted on 5 August 1964.