Gulf of Tonkin incident

Tonkin Gulf IncidentGulf of Tonkin1964 Gulf of Tonkin incidentattackedattacked US destroyersattacks on the American destroyersclash in the Tonkin Gulfengaged American destroyers in the Gulf of TonkinGulf of Tongkin incidentGulf of Tonkin memo
The Gulf of Tonkin incident (Sự kiện Vịnh Bắc Bộ), also known as the USS Maddox incident, was an international confrontation that led to the United States engaging more directly in the Vietnam War.wikipedia
315 Related Articles

Vietnam War

Vietnamwar in VietnamSecond Indochina War
The Gulf of Tonkin incident (Sự kiện Vịnh Bắc Bộ), also known as the USS Maddox incident, was an international confrontation that led to the United States engaging more directly in the Vietnam War.
In August, the Gulf of Tonkin incident occurred, in which a U.S. destroyer was alleged to have clashed with North Vietnamese fast attack craft.

Robert McNamara

Robert S. McNamaraRobert MacNamaraMcNamara
The original American report blamed North Vietnam for both incidents, but the Pentagon Papers, the memoirs of Robert McNamara, and NSA publications from 2005, proved material misrepresentation by the US government to justify a war against Vietnam.
After the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident, the number of US soldiers in Vietnam escalated dramatically.

National Security Agency

NSAArmed Forces Security AgencyNational Computer Security Center
The original American report blamed North Vietnam for both incidents, but the Pentagon Papers, the memoirs of Robert McNamara, and NSA publications from 2005, proved material misrepresentation by the US government to justify a war against Vietnam.
In the 1960s, the NSA played a key role in expanding U.S. commitment to the Vietnam War by providing evidence of a North Vietnamese attack on the American destroyer during the Gulf of Tonkin incident.

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

Tonkin Gulf Resolutiontotal involvementa resolution
The outcome of these two incidents was the passage by Congress of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which granted US President Lyndon B. Johnson the authority to assist any Southeast Asian country whose government was considered to be jeopardized by "communist aggression".
The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution or the Southeast Asia Resolution, was a joint resolution that the United States Congress passed on August 7, 1964, in response to the Gulf of Tonkin incident.

Pentagon Papers

The Pentagon PapersDocuments releasedUnited States – Vietnam Relations, 1945–1967: A Study Prepared by the Department of Defense
The original American report blamed North Vietnam for both incidents, but the Pentagon Papers, the memoirs of Robert McNamara, and NSA publications from 2005, proved material misrepresentation by the US government to justify a war against Vietnam.

Military Assistance Command, Vietnam – Studies and Observations Group

MACV-SOGStudies and Observations GroupMilitary Assistance Command, Vietnam Studies and Observations Group
In 1964 the program was transferred to the Defense Department and conducted by the Military Assistance Command, Vietnam Studies and Observations Group (MACV-SOG).
The unit participated in most of the significant campaigns of the Vietnam War, including the Gulf of Tonkin incident which precipitated increased American involvement, Operation Steel Tiger, Operation Tiger Hound, the Tet Offensive, Operation Commando Hunt, the Cambodian Campaign, Operation Lam Son 719, and the Easter Offensive.

The Fog of War

The Fog of War: Eleven Lessons from the Life of Robert S. McNamaraFog of WarFog of War, The: Eleven Lessons from the Life of Robert S. McNamara
In the 2003 documentary The Fog of War, the former United States Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara admitted that the August 2 USS Maddox attack happened with no Defense Department response, but the August 4 Gulf of Tonkin attack never happened.
McNamara's affirmation (of Morris's relation) of lesson 7 to the Gulf of Tonkin incident:,"We see what we want to believe."

Gulf of Tonkin

Tonkin GulfBeibu GulfBeibu Bay
It involved one real and one falsely claimed confrontation between ships of North Vietnam and the United States in the waters of the Gulf of Tonkin.
Known today as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident, this event spawned the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution of 7 August 1964, ultimately leading to open war between North Vietnam and the United States.

George Stephen Morrison

Captain George Stephen Morrison was in command of local American forces from his flagship.
Morrison was commander of the U.S. naval forces in the Gulf of Tonkin during the Gulf of Tonkin Incident of August 1964, which sparked an escalation of American involvement in the Vietnam War.

DESOTO patrol

DESOTO
On August 2, 1964, the destroyer, while performing a signals intelligence patrol as part of DESOTO operations, was monitored by three North Vietnamese Navy torpedo boats of the 135th Torpedo Squadron. Daniel Ellsberg, who was on duty in the Pentagon the night of August 4, receiving messages from the ship, reported that the ship was on a secret electronic warfare support measures mission (codenamed "DESOTO") near Northern Vietnamese territorial waters. A highly classified program of covert actions against North Vietnam known as Operation Plan 34-Alpha, in conjunction with the DESOTO operations, had begun under the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in 1961.
SIGAD USN-467N specifically designates the DSU aboard during the patrol involved with the Gulf of Tonkin incident.

Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon JohnsonJohnsonLyndon Baines Johnson
The outcome of these two incidents was the passage by Congress of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which granted US President Lyndon B. Johnson the authority to assist any Southeast Asian country whose government was considered to be jeopardized by "communist aggression".
He expanded the numbers and roles of the American military following the Gulf of Tonkin Incident.

U. S. Grant Sharp Jr.

U.S. Grant Sharp, Jr.Admiral SharpAdmiral Ulysses S. Grant Sharp, Jr.
Although the boats were crewed by South Vietnamese naval personnel, approval for each mission conducted under the plan came directly from Admiral U.S. Grant Sharp, Jr., CINCPAC in Honolulu, who received his orders from the White House.
He was PACOM commander during the Gulf of Tonkin Incident.

Operation Pierce Arrow

bombing the Democratic Republic of Vietnamfirst air strikes by the US during the conflictretaliatory air strikes
Within thirty minutes of August 4 incident, Johnson had decided on retaliatory attacks (dubbed "Operation Pierce Arrow").
In response to the Gulf of Tonkin Incident when the destroyers and of the United States Navy engaged North Vietnamese ships, sustaining light damage as they gathered electronic intelligence while in the international waters of the Gulf of Tonkin, U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson ordered Operation "Pierce Arrow" which was conducted on 5 August 1964.

Cold War

The Cold WarCold War eraCold-War
The Cold War policy of containment was to be applied to prevent the fall of Southeast Asia to communism under the precepts of the domino theory.
The war escalated further in 1964 following the controversial Gulf of Tonkin incident, in which a U.S. destroyer was alleged to have clashed with North Vietnamese fast attack craft.

Daniel Ellsberg

1973 trial of Daniel Ellsberg for releasing the Pentagon PapersDan EllsbergDaniel Ellsburg
Daniel Ellsberg, who was on duty in the Pentagon the night of August 4, receiving messages from the ship, reported that the ship was on a secret electronic warfare support measures mission (codenamed "DESOTO") near Northern Vietnamese territorial waters.
During the runup to the 2003 invasion of Iraq he warned of a possible "Tonkin Gulf scenario" that could be used to justify going to war, and called on government "insiders" to go public with information to counter the Bush administration's pro-war propaganda campaign, praising Scott Ritter for his efforts in that regard.

James Stockdale

James B. StockdaleJames Bond StockdaleAdmiral Stockdale
Squadron Commander James Stockdale was one of the U.S. pilots flying overhead during the second alleged attack.
He had led aerial attacks from the carrier during the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident.

Operation 34A

OPLAN 34Acovert missionOperation 34-Alpha
A highly classified program of covert actions against North Vietnam known as Operation Plan 34-Alpha, in conjunction with the DESOTO operations, had begun under the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in 1961.
These attacks, and the ensuing naval actions, known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident, were seized upon by President Lyndon Johnson to secure passage by the U.S. Congress of the Southeast Asia Resolution (better known as the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution) on 7 August 1964, leading to a dramatic escalation of the Vietnam War.

Joint warfare in South Vietnam, 1963–1969

entry into the Vietnam warAmericanization of the Vietnam WarEscalating the scale of American intervention
In the Vietnam War, after the assassinations of Ngo Dinh Diem and John F. Kennedy in late 1963 and the Gulf of Tonkin incident in 1964 and the continuing political instability in the South, the United States made a policy commitment to begin joint warfare in South Vietnam, a period of gradual escalation and Americanization, involving the commitment of large-scale combat forces from the United States and allied countries.

Ray McGovern

Raymond McGovern
According to Raymond McGovern, a retired CIA officer (CIA analyst from 1963 to 1990, and in the 1980s, chairman of the National Intelligence Estimates), the CIA, "not to mention President Lyndon Johnson, Defense Secretary Robert McNamara and National Security Adviser McGeorge Bundy all knew full well that the evidence of any armed attack on the evening of Aug. 4, 1964, the so-called 'second' Tonkin Gulf incident, was highly dubious. ... During the summer of 1964, President Johnson and the Joint Chiefs of Staff were eager to widen the war in Vietnam. They stepped up sabotage and hit-and-run attacks on the coast of North Vietnam."
The CIA knew about the flimsy evidence of a second attack in the Gulf of Tongkin incident.

War Powers Clause

war powerspower to declare warconstitutionality
Thus in light of the speculation concerning the Gulf of Tonkin Incident and the possible abuse of the authorization that followed, in 1973 Congress passed the War Powers Resolution, which requires the President to obtain either a declaration of war or a resolution authorizing the use of force from Congress within 60 days of initiating hostilities with a full disclosure of facts in the process.

John J. Herrick

John Jerome Herrick (June 23, 1920 – August 2, 1997) was an officer in the United States Navy who was commander of the U.S.S. Maddox during the Gulf of Tonkin Incident in August 1964.

S. Eugene Poteat

In the fall of 1999, retired Senior CIA Engineering Executive S. Eugene Poteat wrote that he was asked in early August 1964 to determine if the radar operator's report showed a real torpedo boat attack or an imagined one.
He was a participant in the Gulf of Tonkin Incident.

Võ Nguyên Giáp

General GiapGiápGeneral Giáp
In 1995, McNamara met with former Vietnam People's Army General Võ Nguyên Giáp to ask what happened on August 4, 1964, in the second Gulf of Tonkin Incident.
In 1995, former U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara met Giáp to ask what happened on 4 August 1964 in the second Gulf of Tonkin Incident.

North Vietnam

Democratic Republic of VietnamNorth VietnameseNorth
It involved one real and one falsely claimed confrontation between ships of North Vietnam and the United States in the waters of the Gulf of Tonkin.