A report on Venezuela and Guyana

The German Welser Armada exploring Venezuela.
Kaieteur Falls is the world's largest single-drop waterfall by volume.
El Libertador, Simón Bolívar.
Rupununi Savannah
Revolution of 19 April 1810, the beginning of Venezuela's independence, by Martín Tovar y Tovar
Satellite image of Guyana from 2004
The signing of Venezuela's independence, by Martín Tovar y Tovar.
Anomaloglossus beebei (Kaieteur), specific to the Guianas
Flag of Venezuela between 1954 and 2006.
The hoatzin is the national bird of Guyana.
Rómulo Betancourt (president 1945–1948 / 1959–1964), one of the major democracy leaders of Venezuela.
A tractor in a rice field on Guyana's coastal plain
Table where the Puntofijo Pact was signed on 31 October 1958
A proportional representation of Guyana exports, 2019
Sabana Grande district, Caracas (1973)
Thatched roof houses in Guyana
President Carlos Andrés Pérez was impeached on corruption charges in 1993.
Guyana's population density in 2005 (people per km2)
Chávez with fellow South American presidents Néstor Kirchner of Argentina and Lula da Silva of Brazil
A graph showing the population of Guyana from 1961 to 2003. The population decline in the 1980s can be clearly seen.
Nicolás Maduro with Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff at the 48th Mercosur Summit in Brazil in 2015.
The State House, Guyana's presidential residence
Maduro was inaugurated for a contested and controversial second term on 10 January 2019.
The Supreme Court of Guyana
Topographic map of Venezuela
Guyana's parliament building since 1834
Venezuela map of Köppen climate classification
Map of Guyana, showing the Essequibo River and (shaded dark) the river's drainage basin. Venezuela claims territory up to the western bank of the river. The historical claim by the UK included the river basin well into current-day Venezuela.
The national animal of Venezuela is the troupial (Icterus icterus),
Cross-border bridge from Guyana to Brazil near Lethem
Valencia Lake, formerly praised by Alexander von Humboldt for its beauty, is massively polluted due to the countless sewage systems pouring residuals.
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St George's Cathedral, Georgetown
Bolívar Peak, the highest mountain in Venezuela
Providence Stadium as seen from the East Bank Highway
Los Llanos, Apure state
Valle de Mifafí, Mérida State
Médanos de Coro National Park, Falcón State
National Assembly of Venezuela building
Protests in Altamira, Caracas (2014)
The Guayana Esequiba claim area is a territory administered by Guyana and historically claimed by Venezuela.
President Maduro among other Latin American leaders participating in a 2017 ALBA gathering
A Sukhoi Su-30MKV of the Venezuelan Air Force
Map of the Venezuelan federation
A proportional representation of Venezuela exports, 2019
Líder Mall, one of the main shopping centers in Caracas
Ángel falls one of Venezuela's top tourist attractions, the world highest waterfall
Empty shelves in a store in Venezuela due to shortages in 2014
Venezuela's exports of crude oil from January 2018 to December 2019
A map of world oil reserves according to OPEC, 2013. Venezuela has the world's largest oil reserves.
Caracas Metro in Los Jardines Station
The Venezuelan Academy of Language studies the development of the Spanish in the country.
University Hospital, Central University of Venezuela
Illiteracy rate in Venezuela based on data from UNESCO and the Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE) of Venezuela
The joropo, as depicted in a 1912 drawing by Eloy Palacios
Antonio Herrera Toro, self portrait 1880
The Guanaguanare dance, a popular dance in Portuguesa State
Venezuela national baseball team in 2015
Venezuela national football team, popularly known as the "Vinotinto"
Venezuelan diaspora in the world
Venezuela
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The continental territory is bordered on the north by the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Colombia, Brazil on the south, Trinidad and Tobago to the north-east and on the east by Guyana.

- Venezuela

Guyana is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the north, Brazil to the south and southwest, Venezuela to the west, and Suriname to the east.

- Guyana

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Brazil

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Largest country in both South America and Latin America.

Largest country in both South America and Latin America.

Depiction of Pedro Álvares Cabral landing in Porto Seguro in 1500, ushering in more than 300 years of Portuguese rule of Colonial Brazil.
Painting showing the arrest of Tiradentes; he was sentenced to death for his involvement in the best known movement for independence in Colonial Brazil. Painting of 1914.
The Acclamation of King João VI of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves in Rio de Janeiro, 6 February 1818
Declaration of the Brazilian independence by Prince Pedro (later Emperor Pedro I) on 7 September 1822.
Pedro II, Emperor of Brazil between 1831 and 1889.
Soldiers of the FEB, the only Latin American military force in World War II, in Massarosa, Italy, 1944.
Ulysses Guimarães holding the Constitution of 1988 in his hands
Coin of 1 real commemorating 25 years of Real Plan, which brought stability to the Brazilian economy after years of hyperinflation.
Topographic map of Brazil
Rock formations and the Dedo de Deus (God's Finger) peak in the background, Serra dos Órgãos National Park, Rio de Janeiro state
Brazil map of Köppen climate classification zones
Female pantanal jaguar in Piquirí River, Mato Grosso. Pantanal is the world's largest tropical wetland area.
The Amazon rainforest, the most biodiverse rainforest in the world
Palácio do Planalto, the official workplace of the President of Brazil.
National Congress, seat of the legislative branch.
Supreme Federal Court of Brazil serves primarily as the Constitutional Court of the country
Itamaraty Palace, the seat of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Field agents of the Federal Police's Tactical Operations Command.
A proportional representation of Brazil exports, 2019
SUS official symbol, the Brazilian publicly funded health care system
Historical building of the Federal University of Paraná, one of the oldest universities in Brazil, located in Curitiba.
Former President Dilma Rousseff at Jornal Nacional news program. Rede Globo is the world's second-largest commercial television network.
Population density of Brazilian municipalities
Immigration Museum of the State of São Paulo in the neighborhood of Mooca, in São Paulo city. The Italian Brazilians are 15% of the population and the largest Italian community outside Italy.
The Christ the Redeemer statue in Rio de Janeiro is one of the most famous religious statues worldwide
Museum of the Portuguese Language in São Paulo city, São Paulo.
Ocas of the Kuikuro people, Xingu Indigenous Park, Mato Grosso
Pomerode, Santa Catarina, is one of the municipalities with a cooficial language. In this region, Hunsrückisch and East Pomeranian, German dialects, are two of the minor languages (see Brazilian German).
Parade of Portela samba school at the Rio Carnival, the largest carnival in the world
Tom Jobim, one of the creators of bossa nova, and Chico Buarque, one of the leading names of MPB.
Machado de Assis, poet and novelist, founder of the Brazilian Academy of Letters.
Festival de Gramado, the biggest film festival in the country
São Paulo Municipal Theater, significant both for its architectural value as well as for its historical importance.
Candido Portinari in 1962, one of the most important Brazilian painters
Players at the podium with the first Olympic Gold of the Brazil national football team, won in the 2016 Summer Olympics. Football is the most popular sport in the country.
Brazil's tropical primary (old-growth) forest loss greatly exceeds that of other countries (compare rectangular areas), though its percentage loss is about the median among the ten countries with the greatest loss.
Rock art at Serra da Capivara National Park, one of the largest and oldest concentrations of prehistoric sites in the Americas.
Palácio do Planalto, the official workplace of the President of Brazil.
Declaration of the Brazilian independence by Prince Pedro (later Emperor Pedro I) on 7 September 1822.
The Cathedral of Brasilia, designed by Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer for the federal capital, an example of Modern architecture
Brazil's tropical primary (old-growth) forest loss greatly exceeds that of other countries
Feijoada is one of the main dishes of Brazilian cuisine
Augusto Boal presenting a workshop on the Theatre of the Oppressed at Riverside Church in New York City in 2008

Brazil occupies a large area along the eastern coast of South America and includes much of the continent's interior, sharing land borders with Uruguay to the south; Argentina and Paraguay to the southwest; Bolivia and Peru to the west; Colombia to the northwest; and Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname and France (French overseas region of French Guiana) to the north.

Caribbean

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Region of the Americas that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.

Region of the Americas that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.

Map of Caribbean region, including dependencies
Map of the Caribbean
A Cuban PT-76 tank crew performing routine security duties in Angola during the Cuban intervention into the country
Tropical monsoon climate in San Andrés island, Caribbean, Colombia.
Köppen climate map of the islands of the Caribbean.
A field in Pinar del Rio planted with Cuban tobacco
Puerto Rico's south shore, from the mountains of Jayuya
Grand Anse beach, St. George's, Grenada
A church cemetery perched in the mountains of Guadeloupe
A view of Nevis island from the southeastern peninsula of Saint Kitts
Spanish Caribbean Islands in the American Viceroyalties 1600
Political evolution of Central America and the Caribbean from 1700 to present
The mostly Spanish-controlled Caribbean in the 16th century
Cayo de Agua, Los Roques Archipelago, Venezuela
Palancar Beach in Cozumel Island, Mexico
Guanaja Island, Bay Islands, Honduras
A linen market in Dominica in the 1770s
Agostino Brunias. Free Women of Color with Their Children and Servants in a Landscape Brooklyn Museum
Asian Indians in the late nineteenth century singing and dancing in Trinidad and Tobago
Street scene, Matanzas, Cuba
Carnival in Trinidad and Tobago
Havana Cathedral (Catholic) in Cuba completed in 1777
Holy Trinity Cathedral, an Anglican Christian cathedral in Trinidad and Tobago
Temple in the Sea, a Hindu mandir in Trinidad and Tobago
Muhammad Ali Jinnah Memorial Masjid, a Muslim masjid in Trinidad and Tobago
A Jewish synagogue in Suriname
A Haitian Vodou alter
Flag of the Caribbean Common Market and Community (CARICOM)
Doubles, one of the national dishes of Trinidad and Tobago
Arroz con gandules, one of the national dishes of Puerto Rico
thumb|Counter-attack by Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces supported by T-34 tanks near Playa Giron during the Bay of Pigs Invasion, 19 April 1961.
thumb|A Marine heavy machine gunner monitors a position along the international neutral corridor in Santo Domingo, 1965.
thumb|A Soviet-made BTR-60 armored personnel carrier seized by US forces during Operation Urgent Fury (1983)
thumb|US Army Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk, Bell AH-1 Cobra and Bell OH-58 Kiowa helicopters on deck of the US Navy aircraft carrier USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN-69) off Haiti, 1994.
Epiphytes (bromeliads, climbing palms) in the rainforest of Dominica.
A green and black poison frog, Dendrobates auratus
Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Guadeloupe.
Costus speciosus, a marsh plant, Guadeloupe.
An Atlantic ghost crab (Ocypode quadrata) in Martinique.
Crescentia cujete, or calabash fruit, Martinique.
Thalassoma bifasciatum (bluehead wrasse fish), over Bispira brunnea (social feather duster worms).
Two Stenopus hispidus (banded cleaner shrimp) on a Xestospongia muta (giant barrel sponge).
A pair of Cyphoma signatum (fingerprint cowry), off coastal Haiti.
The Martinique amazon, Amazona martinicana, is an extinct species of parrot in the family Psittacidae.
Anastrepha suspensa, a Caribbean fruit fly.
Hemidactylus mabouia, a tropical gecko, in Dominica Edited by: Taniya Brooks.
Precolombian languages of the Antilles.Ciboney Taíno, Classic Taíno, and Iñeri were Arawakan, Karina and Yao were Cariban. Macorix, Ciguayo and Guanahatabey are unclassified.
The Battle of the Saintes between British and French fleets in 1782, by Nicholas Pocock
The mostly Spanish-controlled Caribbean in the 18th century

On the mainland, Belize, Nicaragua, the Caribbean region of Colombia, Cozumel, the Yucatán Peninsula, Margarita Island, and the Guianas (Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Guayana Region in Venezuela, and Amapá in Brazil) are often included due to their political and cultural ties with the region.

The tropical rainforest climates include lowland areas near the Caribbean Sea from Costa Rica north to Belize, as well as the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, while the more seasonal dry tropical savanna climates are found in Cuba, northern Colombia and Venezuela, and southern Yucatán, Mexico.

British Guiana

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British colony, part of the mainland British West Indies, which resides on the northern coast of South America.

British colony, part of the mainland British West Indies, which resides on the northern coast of South America.

Map of British Guiana in 1908
Illustration of the Demerara rebellion of 1823
British Guiana and its boundary lines, 1896
Stamp with a portrait of King George VI, 1938

Since 1966 it has been known as the independent nation of Guyana.

In 1840, the British Government assigned Robert Hermann Schomburgk to survey and mark out the western boundary of British Guiana with newly independent Venezuela.

Kalina people

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Indigenous people native to the northern coastal areas of South America.

Indigenous people native to the northern coastal areas of South America.

Map indicating the current geographic distribution of the Kali'na population
Drawing of a Kali'na ritual.
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Kali'na man in Paris in 1892 holding a putu, or wooden club.
Portrait of the Kali'na exhibited at the Jardin d’Acclimatation in Paris in 1892.
Kali'na girls in Suriname in the village of Bigi Poika.
Kali'na village.
Kali'na boy in a dugout in Paris in 1892.

Today, the Kalina live largely in villages on the rivers and coasts of Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, and Brazil.

Striped, the area claimed by Venezuela.

Guayana Esequiba

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Striped, the area claimed by Venezuela.
Guayana Esequiba in light green with the rest of Guyana in dark green; Venezuela shown in orange
A 1625 map by Hessel Gerritsz, showing Dutch territory (in yellow) ranging from the Orinoco River to the Amazon River
Ruins of Fort Kyk-Over-Al, constructed by the Dutch in 1616
A 1775 map of the Americas by Rigobert Bonne.
The map of Dutch colonies of Essequibo and Demerara in 1798.
An 1840 map of Gran Colombia including the Esequibo region.
1896 map detailing British Guiana and the disputes surrounding the Schomburgk Line
Official Map of the United States of Venezuela by L. Robelin 1890, which shows the Venezuelan historical claim to the region.
Punch cartoon after the conclusion of the Tribunal of Arbitration. PEACE AND PLENTY. Lord Salisbury (chuckling). "I like arbitration — In the PROPER PLACE!"
Map of Guyana, showing the Essequibo River and (shaded dark) the river's drainage basin. Venezuela claims territory up to the western bank of the river. The historical claim by the UK included the river basin well into current-day Venezuela.
Map of Venezuela, showing the maritime areas in blue and Guayana Esequiba in gray.

Guayana Esequiba, sometimes also called Esequibo or Essequibo, is a disputed territory of 159500 km2 west of the Essequibo River that is administered and controlled by Guyana but claimed by Venezuela.

Guiana Shield

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One of the three cratons of the South American Plate.

One of the three cratons of the South American Plate.

Cerros de Mavecure, Guainía department, Colombia
Devil's Canyon in the Canaima National Park, Venezuela
Map of the Guianas
Heliamphora chimantensis, endemic to the Chimantá Massif (a Venezuelan part of the Guiana Shield)

The Guiana Shield underlies Guyana (previously British Guiana), Suriname (previously Dutch Guiana) and French Guiana (or Guyane), much of southern Venezuela, as well as parts of Colombia, and Brazil.

Political map of The Guianas, including the Venezuelan (former Spanish Guayana) and the Brazilian (former Portuguese Guiana) Guianas

The Guianas

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Region in north-eastern South America which includes the following three territories:

Region in north-eastern South America which includes the following three territories:

Political map of The Guianas, including the Venezuelan (former Spanish Guayana) and the Brazilian (former Portuguese Guiana) Guianas
Parime Lacus on a map by Hessel Gerritsz (1625). Situated at the west coast of the lake, the so-called city Manoa or El Dorado
Map of the Guianas dated 1888.

Guyana, formerly known as British Guiana from 1831 until 1966, after the colonies of Berbice, Essequibo, and Demerara, taken from the Netherlands in 1814, were merged into a single colony

Guayana Region in eastern Venezuela (Amazonas, Bolívar, and Delta Amacuro states), formerly the Guayana Province, alternatively known as Spanish Guayana

Tepui

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The plateau of Mount Roraima – the peculiar rock formation is caused by erosion.
Mount Roraima
View of the Venezuelan Amazon from the top of a tepui
View of Kukenan tepui from top of Mt. Roraima
Devil's Canyon in the Canaima National Park
The steep rock wall of Mount Roraima

A tepui, or tepuy , is a table-top mountain or mesa found in South America, especially in Venezuela and western Guyana.

Pemon girl, Venezuela

Pemon

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Pemon girl, Venezuela
Three Pemon youths

The Pemon or Pemón (Pemong) are indigenous people living in areas of Venezuela, Brazil, and Guyana.

Essequibo River

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Hauling canoe up the headwaters of the Essequibo River
CushionCraft CC7 hovercraft in North Savannas of Guyana during the filming of "The World About Us: The Forbidden Route".
Leaving Gunns to the unexplored wilderness
The Expedition team at the source of Sipu river
close to the source area of Sipu river
The team at the furthest source of the Essequibo River aka the Sipu River

The Essequibo River (Spanish: Río Esequibo originally called by Alonso de Ojeda Río Dulce) is the largest river in Guyana, and the largest river between the Orinoco and Amazon.

Venezuela claims that the Essequibo is the true border between it and Guyana, claiming all territory west of it.