Gymnosperm

gymnospermsconifersGolosjemenjačeGymnosperm Gardengymnosporesnon-floweringseed plants
The gymnosperms, also known as Acrogymnospermae, are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and gnetophytes.wikipedia
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Flowering plant

Angiospermsflowering plantsangiosperm
The non-encased condition of their seeds stands in contrast to the seeds and ovules of flowering plants (angiosperms), which are enclosed within an ovary.
Like gymnosperms, angiosperms are seed-producing plants.

Welwitschia

Welwitschia mirabilisNamibian national symboltumboa
By far the largest group of living gymnosperms are the conifers (pines, cypresses, and relatives), followed by cycads, gnetophytes (Gnetum, Ephedra and Welwitschia), and Ginkgo biloba (a single living species).
Welwitschia is a monotypic gymnosperm genus, comprising solely the distinctive Welwitschia mirabilis.

Ovule

ovulesperispermnucellus
The name is based on the unenclosed condition of their seeds (called ovules in their unfertilized state).
In gymnosperms such as conifers, ovules are borne on the surface of an ovuliferous (ovule-bearing) scale, usually within an ovulate cone (also called megastrobilus).

Ginkgo biloba

ginkgoginkgo treeginkgos
By far the largest group of living gymnosperms are the conifers (pines, cypresses, and relatives), followed by cycads, gnetophytes (Gnetum, Ephedra and Welwitschia), and Ginkgo biloba (a single living species).
Since its seeds are not protected by an ovary wall, it can morphologically be considered a gymnosperm.

Ginkgoaceae

ginkgophytes
Family Ginkgoaceae: Ginkgo
The Ginkgoaceae is a family of gymnosperms which appeared during the Mesozoic Era, of which the only extant representative is Ginkgo biloba, which is for this reason sometimes regarded as a living fossil.

Gnetum

GnetaceaeGnetalesgnetale
By far the largest group of living gymnosperms are the conifers (pines, cypresses, and relatives), followed by cycads, gnetophytes (Gnetum, Ephedra and Welwitschia), and Ginkgo biloba (a single living species).
Gnetum is a genus of gymnosperms, the sole genus in the family Gnetaceae and order Gnetales. They are tropical evergreen trees, shrubs and lianas.

Ephedra (plant)

EphedraMormon teamá huáng
By far the largest group of living gymnosperms are the conifers (pines, cypresses, and relatives), followed by cycads, gnetophytes (Gnetum, Ephedra and Welwitschia), and Ginkgo biloba (a single living species).
Ephedra is a genus of gymnosperm shrubs, the only genus in its family, Ephedraceae, and order, Ephedrales. The various species of Ephedra are widespread in many lands, native to southwestern North America, southern Europe, northern Africa, southwest and central Asia, northern China and western South America.

Cycadales

cicadicycadaleans
Order Cycadales
Cycads are gymnosperms (naked seeded), meaning their unfertilized seeds are open to the air to be directly fertilized by pollination, as contrasted with angiosperms, which have enclosed seeds with more complex fertilization arrangements.

Ginkgo

gingkoginkgosGinkgo biloba
The gymnosperms, also known as Acrogymnospermae, are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and gnetophytes. Cycads and Ginkgo have motile sperm that swim directly to the egg inside the ovule, whereas conifers and gnetophytes have sperm with no flagella that are moved along a pollen tube to the egg.
The two most common are that Ginkgo is a sister to a clade composed of conifers and gnetophytes or that Ginkgo and cycads form a clade within the gymnosperms.

Progymnosperm

progymnospermsprecursorprogymnosperms.
Early characteristics of seed plants were evident in fossil progymnosperms of the late Devonian period around 383 million years ago.
The progymnosperms are an extinct group of woody, spore-bearing plants that is presumed to have evolved from the trimerophytes, and eventually gave rise to the gymnosperms.

Fern

fernspteridologistpteridology
The fossil record of gymnosperms includes many distinctive taxa that do not belong to the four modern groups, including seed-bearing trees that have a somewhat fern-like vegetative morphology (the so-called "seed ferns" or pteridosperms).
They differ from seed plants (gymnosperms and angiosperms) in reproducing by means of spores and they lack flowers and seeds.

Welwitschiaceae

Order Welwitschiales
Most recent systems place the Welwitschiaceae in the gymnosperm order Gnetales.

Pinophyta

coniferconiferousconifers
The gymnosperms, also known as Acrogymnospermae, are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and gnetophytes.
They are gymnosperms, cone-bearing seed plants.

Mecoptera

scorpionfliesscorpionflyscorpion fly
It has been suggested that during the mid-Mesozoic era, pollination of some extinct groups of gymnosperms was by extinct species of scorpionflies that had specialized proboscis for feeding on pollination drops.
Early Mecoptera may have played an important role in pollinating extinct species of gymnosperms before the evolution of other insect pollinators such as bees.

Carboniferous

Carboniferous PeriodCarbEarly Carboniferous
It is widely accepted that the gymnosperms originated in the late Carboniferous period, replacing the lycopsid rainforests of the tropical region.
The main Early Carboniferous plants were the Equisetales (horse-tails), Sphenophyllales (scrambling plants), Lycopodiales (club mosses), Lepidodendrales (scale trees), Filicales (ferns), Medullosales (informally included in the "seed ferns", an artificial assemblage of a number of early gymnosperm groups) and the Cordaitales.

Gnetophyta

gnetophyteGnetalesGnetophytes
The gymnosperms, also known as Acrogymnospermae, are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and gnetophytes. Cycads and Ginkgo have motile sperm that swim directly to the egg inside the ovule, whereas conifers and gnetophytes have sperm with no flagella that are moved along a pollen tube to the egg.
Gnetophyta is a division of plants, grouped within the gymnosperms (which also includes conifers, cycads, and ginkgos), that consists of some 70 species across the three relict genera: Gnetum (family Gnetaceae), Welwitschia (family Welwitschiaceae), and Ephedra (family Ephedraceae).

Podocarpaceae

podocarppodocarpsMaki
Family Podocarpaceae: Phyllocladus, Lepidothamnus, Prumnopitys, Sundacarpus, Halocarpus, Parasitaxus, Lagarostrobos, Manoao, Saxegothaea, Microcachrys, Pherosphaera, Acmopyle, Dacrycarpus, Dacrydium, Falcatifolium, Retrophyllum, Nageia, Afrocarpus, Podocarpus The leaves of many conifers are long, thin and needle-like, other species, including most Cupressaceae and some Podocarpaceae, have flat, triangular scale-like leaves.
Parasitaxus usta is unique as the only known parasitic gymnosperm.

Bennettitales

bennettitaleancycadeoidscycadeoid
When fossil gymnosperms such as these and the Bennettitales, glossopterids, and Caytonia are considered, it is clear that angiosperms are nested within a larger gymnospermae clade, although which group of gymnosperms is their closest relative remains unclear.
Recent evidence from examining phase-contrast X-rays of gymnosperm seeds suggested that the Euanthial hypothesis is supported.

Plant

plantsfloraplant kingdom
On one definition, plants form the clade Viridiplantae (Latin name for "green plants"), a group that includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns and their allies, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, but excludes the red and brown algae.

Leaf

leavesaxilfoliage
The leaves of many conifers are long, thin and needle-like, other species, including most Cupressaceae and some Podocarpaceae, have flat, triangular scale-like leaves.
This occurred independently in several separate lineages of vascular plants, in progymnosperms like Archaeopteris, in Sphenopsida, ferns and later in the gymnosperms and angiosperms.

Pollen tube

pollen tubespollen-tubepollen tube growth and guidance
Cycads and Ginkgo have motile sperm that swim directly to the egg inside the ovule, whereas conifers and gnetophytes have sperm with no flagella that are moved along a pollen tube to the egg.
It acts as a conduit to transport the male gamete cells from the pollen grain—either from the stigma (in flowering plants) to the ovules at the base of the pistil or directly through ovule tissue in some gymnosperms.

Picea abies

Norway sprucespruceNorway
The first published sequenced genome for any gymnosperm was the genome of Picea abies in 2013.
It was the first gymnosperm to have its genome sequenced, and one clone has been measured as 9,560 years old.

Ginkgoales

ginkgoaleanginkgophyteGinkgophytes
Order Ginkgoales
Ginkgoales or Ginkgophyte is a gymnosperm order containing only one extant species: Ginkgo biloba, the ginkgo tree.

Spermatophyte

seed plantseed plantsphanerogam
The gymnosperms, also known as Acrogymnospermae, are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and gnetophytes.
The extant spermatophytes form five divisions, the first four of which are traditionally grouped as gymnosperms, plants that have unenclosed, "naked seeds":

Embryophyte

land plantsland plantembryophytes
Living embryophytes therefore include hornworts, liverworts, mosses, ferns, lycophytes, gymnosperms and flowering plants.