H2S (radar)

H2S radarH2SFishpondan upgrade the H2S setASV radarCentimetric radarground mapping radarground-mapping radarH2S (which was the first airborne, ground scanning radar system)H2S airborne radar system
H2S was the first airborne, ground scanning radar system.wikipedia
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RAF Bomber Command

Bomber CommandRoyal Air Force Bomber CommandBomber
It was developed for the Royal Air Force's Bomber Command during World War II to identify targets on the ground for night and all-weather bombing.
(In 1938, E. G. "Taffy" Bowen proposed using ASV radar for navigation, only to have Bomber Command disclaim need for it, saying the sextant was sufficient.

ASV Mark III radar

ASV Mark IIIASV Mk. III radar ASV Mark III
II''', as well as ASV Mark III. In March, it was decided that both H2S and a new centimetric Air-Surface-Vessel radar (ASV) radar, ASV Mk. III, would be built using the same components, simplifying production.
It was a slightly modified version of the H2S radar used by RAF Bomber Command, with minor changes to the antenna to make it more useful for the anti-submarine role.

Oboe (navigation)

Oboeblind bombingOboe blind bombing system
This allowed attacks outside the range of the various radio navigation aids like Gee or Oboe, which were limited to about 350 km.
For the campaign against Berlin Bomber Command was forced to rely on H2S instead, which never was able to provide the consistent accuracy of Oboe.

H2X

H2X radarAN/APS-15APS-15
After it was found the resolution of the early sets was too low to be useful over large cities like Berlin, in 1943 work started on a version operating in the X band at 3 cm (10 GHz), almost contemporaneously with the introduction of its American equivalent, the 10 GHz H2X radar in October of that year.
It was a development of the British H2S radar, the first ground mapping radar to be used in combat.

Naxos radar detector

NaxosFuG 350 ''NaxosNaxos'' radar detector
This led to the introduction of the FuG 350 Naxos radar detector in late 1943, which enabled Luftwaffe night fighters to home on the transmissions of H2S.
Two versions were widely used, the FuG 350 Naxos Z that allowed night fighters to home in on H2S radars carried by RAF Bomber Command aircraft, and the FuMB 7 Naxos U for U-boats, offering early warning of the approach of RAF Coastal Command patrol aircraft equipped with ASV Mark III radar.

English Electric Canberra

CanberraCanberrasCanberra bomber
IX''' that equipped the V bomber fleet and the English Electric Canberra.
The changes included the installation of a glazed nose to accommodate a bomb-aimer, due to the advanced H2S Mk9 bombing radar unavailable for production, the turbojet engines were replaced by more powerful Rolls-Royce Avon R.A.3s, and distinctive teardrop-shaped fuel tanks were fitted under the wingtips.

Airborne ground surveillance

ground scanning radar systemover ground targetsair-to-ground radar
H2S was the first airborne, ground scanning radar system.
The earliest Airborne ground surveillance system was the H2S (radar).

Alan Blumlein

Alan Dower BlumleinBlumleinA. D. Blumlein
One of the dead was Alan Blumlein, and his loss was a huge blow to the programme.
He died during World War II on 7 June 1942, aged 38, during the secret trial of an H2S airborne radar system then under development, when all on board the Halifax bomber he was flying in were killed when it crashed at Welsh Bicknor in Herefordshire.

Nash & Thompson

Frazer-NashNash and ThompsonFN 7.62 mm
The rotating scanner mounting was designed and manufactured by Nash & Thompson.
As part of Parnall Aircraft it was also an important manufacturer of hydraulic-powered radar scanners used on radar systems such as H2S and AI Mark VIII.

Avro Vulcan

VulcanVulcan bomberAvro Vulcan B.2
In this form, H2S was last used in anger during the Falklands War in 1982 on the Avro Vulcan.
The navigation and bombing system (NBS) comprised an H2S Mk9 radar and a navigation bombing computer (NBC) Mk1.

Night fighter

night-fighternight fightersnightfighter
This led to the introduction of the FuG 350 Naxos radar detector in late 1943, which enabled Luftwaffe night fighters to home on the transmissions of H2S.
Messerschmitt Bf 109G variants had G6N and similar models fitted with FuG 350 Naxos "Z" radar receivers for homing in on the 3-gigahertz band H2S emissions of RAF bombers — the April 1944 combat debut of the American-designed H2X bomb-aiming radar, operating at a higher 10 GHz frequency for both RAF Pathfinder Mosquitos and USAAF B-24 Liberators that premiered their use over Europe, deployed a bombing radar that could not be detected by the German Naxos equipment.

Bernard Lovell

Sir Bernard LovellAlfred Charles Bernard LovellA.C.B. Lovell
The commanders were impressed and, on 1 January 1942, the Telecommunications Research Establishment (TRE) set up a team under Bernard Lovell to develop an S-band airborne targeting radar based on AIS.
Lovell worked in the cosmic ray research team at the University of Manchester until the outbreak of the Second World War, during which he worked for the Telecommunications Research Establishment (TRE) developing radar systems to be installed in aircraft, among them H2S.

Gee (navigation)

GeeG-HGEE Mk3
This allowed attacks outside the range of the various radio navigation aids like Gee or Oboe, which were limited to about 350 km.
Gee was not the only solution being developed; it was soon joined by H2S radars and the Oboe system.

Navigation and Bombing System

IXA was tied into both the bombsight and navigation system to provide a complete long-range Navigation and Bombing System (NBS).
Inputs to the NBS system included late models of the H2S radar, the True Airspeed Unit, an astrocompass, the Green Satin radar, and a radio altimeter.

Airborne Interception radar

airborne interceptionAI.23air-to-air radar
In March 1941, experiments with an early Airborne Interception radar based on the 9.1 cm S band cavity magnetron revealed that different objects have very different radar signatures; water, open land and built-up areas of cities and towns all produced distinct returns. Taffy Bowen had noticed during his early Airborne Interception radar (AI) experiments before the war that the radar returns from fields, cities and other areas were different.
On 1 January 1942 Lovell was sent to work on the H2S radar project, and was replaced by Arthur Ernest Downing.

Handley Page Victor

VictorHandley Page Victor K.2Handley-Page Victor
IX units remained in service on the Handley Page Victor aircraft until 1993, providing fifty years of service.
These included the H2S radar, developed from the first airborne ground-scanning radar, and the Green Satin radar.

Air-to-Surface Vessel radar

ASVASV radarAir to Surface Vessel radar
In March, it was decided that both H2S and a new centimetric Air-Surface-Vessel radar (ASV) radar, ASV Mk. III, would be built using the same components, simplifying production.
Robert Hanbury Brown suggested a new ASV could be quickly introduced by making minor changes to the new H2S radar, mostly to the antenna.

Telecommunications Research Establishment

TREBawdsey Research Stationearly radar in the UK during World War II
The commanders were impressed and, on 1 January 1942, the Telecommunications Research Establishment (TRE) set up a team under Bernard Lovell to develop an S-band airborne targeting radar based on AIS.
The H2S radar used the newly developed cavity magnetron.

Plan position indicator

plan-position indicatorPPICAPPI
In January 1942, a new team was set up to combine the magnetron with a new scanning antenna and plan-position indicator display.
The first production PPI was devised at the Telecommunications Research Establishment, UK and was first introduced in the H2S radar blind-bombing system of World War II.

Bombing of Hamburg in World War II

Operation GomorrahHamburgbombing of Hamburg
On the night of 24 July, the RAF began Operation Gomorrah, a large attack on Hamburg.
Various other previously used techniques and devices were instrumental as well, such as area bombing, Pathfinders, and H2S radar, which came together to work with particular effectiveness.

Edward George Bowen

Taffy" BowenTaffy BowenE. G. "Taffy" Bowen
Taffy Bowen had noticed during his early Airborne Interception radar (AI) experiments before the war that the radar returns from fields, cities and other areas were different.
Centimetric contour mapping radars like H2S greatly improved the accuracy of Allied bombers in the strategic bombing campaign.

Handley Page Halifax

HalifaxHalifax bomberHalifaxes
H2S performed its first experimental flight on 23 April 1942, with the radar mounted in a Halifax bomber, V9977. On the night of 30 January 1943, thirteen Stirlings and Halifaxs of the "Pathfinder" force used H2S to drop incendiaries or flares on a target in Hamburg.

EMI

EMI MusicEMI RecordsEMI Music Canada
This led to a crash program at EMI to modify the prototype sets with a system to correct for this problem.
He was killed in 1942 whilst conducting flight trials on an experimental H2S radar set.

Pathfinder (RAF)

Pathfinder ForcePathfinderPathfinders
On the night of 30 January 1943, thirteen Stirlings and Halifaxs of the "Pathfinder" force used H2S to drop incendiaries or flares on a target in Hamburg.
The Pathfinders were normally the first to receive new blind bombing aids like Gee, Oboe and the H2S radar.

Butt Report

Although Bomber Command had reported good results from the raids, the Butt Report showed only one bomb in ten hit the target, half the bombs fell on open country and in some cases the bombing was seen to fall as far as 50 km from the target.
Electronic navigational instruments like GEE, Oboe, G-H and the ground-mapping radar codenamed H2S all helped to improve bombing accuracy.