HD-4

HD-4 hydrofoil at the Alexander Graham Bell museum

Early research hydrofoil watercraft developed by the scientist Alexander Graham Bell.

- HD-4

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Hydrofoil

Lifting surface, or foil, that operates in water.

The Italian hydrofoil Gianni M, the largest hydrofoil in the world.
The two types of hydrofoils: surface-piercing and fully submerged
Forlanini's hydrofoil over Lake Maggiore, 1906
Alexander Graham Bell's HD-4 on a test run, c. 1919
A schematic illustration of self-stabilizing systems for fully submerged hydrofoils. Its computer gathers data for the boom position and current water level to determine the required flap position.
A Project 206M "Shtorm" patrol fast attack craft hydrofoil of the Cuban Navy.
Aerial port beam view of the Italian Sparviero class hydrofoil-missile NIBBIO P-421 underway.
USS Aquila, a military hydrofoil. The T-shaped foils are visible just below the water.
HMCS Bras d'Or, a military concept hydrofoil.
Team New Zealand's AC72 at the 2013 America's Cup, San Francisco Bay.
Ukrainian-built Voskhod on the North Sea Canal, the Netherlands
TurboJET's Urzela JetFoil on West Lamma Channel, Hong Kong
TurboJET's Barca Foilcat
Flying Poseidon (built 1982 ) had just berthed at Rhodes from Fethiye when the sister Kometas hydrofoil from Bodrum also arrived from Turkey in 2011.
The first Kometa 120M, named Chaika (Seagull) after Valentina Tereshkova's callsign, moored in Sevastopol
Hydrofoil high-speed boat Meteor on a Lake Ladoga, Russia.
Passenger hydrofoil Flying Dolphin Zeus moving at high speed near Piraeus, Greece.
Voskhod
Meteor
Raketa
Polesye
Kometa

On returning to Bell's large laboratory at his Beinn Bhreagh estate near Baddeck, Nova Scotia, they experimented with a number of designs, culminating in Bell's HD-4.

Water speed record

Officially recognised fastest speed achieved by a water-borne vehicle, irrespective of propulsion method.

The actual Spirit of Australia in which Ken Warby set the world water speed record in 1978 on Blowering Dam, New South Wales, Australia, on display in the Australian Maritime Museum in Sydney
William Cogswell's steam yacht Feiseen, which set a new world speed record on 25 August 1893 of 50.8 km/h
Slo-Mo-Shun IV on display at Seattle's Museum of History and Industry
The Allison V-1710 aircraft engine that powered Slo-Mo-Shun IV
Lee Taylor of the United States reached 285.22 mph in Hustler on Lake Guntersville on 30 June 1967.

In 1919, with Baldwin piloting their HD-4 hydrofoil, a new world water speed record of 70.86 mi/h was set on Bras d'Or Lake at Baddeck, Nova Scotia.

Frederick Walker Baldwin

Hydrofoil and aviation pioneer and partner of the famous inventor Alexander Graham Bell.

"Casey" Baldwin at Ridley College, circa 1900
Aerial Experiment Association. Casey (second from right), Bell (centre), McCurdy, Curtis, and Selfridge

While the project was temporarily shelved, in 1919 Baldwin built the HD-4 hydrofoil that set a world water speed record of 70.86 mph on Bras d'Or Lake.

Beinn Bhreagh

Name of the former estate of Alexander Graham Bell, in Victoria County, Nova Scotia.

The second and larger home, Beinn Bhreagh Hall (known locally as "The Point") was built in 1893 on the Beinn Bhreagh Estate of Alexander Graham & Mabel Bell at Baddeck, Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia.
{{lang|gd|Beinn Bhreagh|italic=no}}'s little harbor offered the Bells opportunities for recreation, and later a shelter area for experiments in aviation and hydrofoils.
Alexander Graham Bell relaxing on {{lang|gd|Beinn Bhreagh|italic=no}} with three of his granddaughters.
Mabel and Alexander Graham Bell were depicted in a postcard walking in front of their home, {{lang|gd|Beinn Bhreagh|italic=no}} Hall.
Red Head Point and the peninsula of {{lang|gd|Beinn Bhreagh|italic=no}} can be seen across the bay from the town of Baddeck, Nova Scotia in a 1906 postcard.
The town of Baddeck can be seen from one of the lookouts on {{lang|gd|Beinn Bhreagh|italic=no}} in a postcard from the 1920s.

Some of his most notable accomplishments at Beinn Bhreagh included the first manned flight of an airplane in the British Commonwealth (by the AEA Silver Dart) in 1909, plus the HD-4, a hydrofoil boat designed by Frederick Walker Baldwin and Bell, and built at Beinn Bhreagh.

Alexander Graham Bell

Scottish-born inventor, scientist and engineer who is credited with patenting the first practical telephone.

Bell c. undefined 1917
Melville House, the Bells' first home in North America, now a National Historic Site of Canada
Bell, top right, providing pedagogical instruction to teachers at the Boston School for Deaf Mutes, 1871. Throughout his life, he referred to himself as "a teacher of the deaf".
Alexander Graham Bell's telephone patent drawing, March 7, 1876
The master telephone patent, 174465, March 7, 1876
An actor playing Bell in a 1926 film holds Bell's first telephone transmitter
Bell at the opening of the long-distance line from New York to Chicago in 1892
Alexander Graham Bell, his wife Mabel Gardiner Hubbard, and their daughters Elsie (left) and Marian ca. 1885
The Brodhead–Bell mansion, the Bell family residence in Washington, D.C., from 1882 to 1889
Alexander Graham Bell in his later years
Photophone receiver, one half of Bell's wireless optical communication system, ca. 1880
Bell's HD-4 on a test run ca. 1919
AEA Silver Dart ca. 1909
Bell statue by A. E. Cleeve Horne in front of the Bell Telephone Building of Brantford, Ontario, The Telephone City. (Brantford Heritage Inventory, City of Brantford)
A quote by Alexander Graham Bell engraved in the stone wall within the Peace Chapel of the International Peace Garden (in Manitoba Canada and North Dakota, USA).
The Bell Museum, Cape Breton, part of the Alexander Graham Bell National Historic Site
A.G. Bell issue of 1940
Bell, an alumnus of the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, receiving an honorary Doctor of Laws degree (LL.D.) at the university in 1906

The experimental boats were essentially proof-of-concept prototypes that culminated in the more substantial HD-4, powered by Renault engines.

Bell Boatyard

Boatbuilding facility which operated as part of Alexander Graham Bell's laboratories in Baddeck, Nova Scotia from 1885 to 1928.

Women workers building lifeboats at Dr. Alexander Graham Bell's laboratory at Beinn Bhreagh.

In order to build the experiments labelled HD 1, HD 2, HD 3, and HD 4, (HD standing for Hydrodrome) Dr. Bell and Casey used the laboratories and staff to construct the various pieces needed.

HMS Patriot (1916)

That served in the British Royal Navy.

In September 1921, Patriot assisted Alexander Graham Bell's hydrofoil research by towing his high speed experimental hydrofoil HD-4.

Mabel H. Grosvenor

Canadian-born American pediatrician, and a granddaughter and secretary to the scientist and telephone inventor Alexander Graham Bell.

Mabel Harlakenden Grosvenor (1931)
Mabel Grosvenor in 1912 at age 7
Grosvenor, front row, left, at the unveiling of the Bell Telephone Memorial in 1917. To the right is her name source and grandmother, Mabel Hubbard (Mrs. Alexander Graham Bell), and then her mother Elsie May Grosvenor. Alexander Graham Bell, her grandfather, is rear row, centre. (Courtesy: Bell Homestead National Historic Site)
Mabel Grosvenor (right) with her grandfather, Alexander Graham Bell, at Beinn Bhreagh in 1908.
Mabel Grosvenor explores the contents of a box with her grandmother, Mabel Hubbard Bell on the steps of their summer home in Baddeck Nova Scotia.

As a secretary and note taker to the scientist she took dictation as he explored genetics, genealogy, telecommunications and marine architecture in the form of the world's fastest boat, the HD-4, a hydrofoil propelled by two of the most powerful aircraft engines and propellers then available.

Timeline of transportation technology

Timeline of transportation technology and technological developments in the culture of transportation.

A traditional Polynesian catamaran
Dionysus riding on a small galley-like craft in a painting from the Dionysus cup by Exekias, from c. 530 BC
Horse collars and cart between 1350 and 1375
Late 19th century modes of transport, Japan, horsecar, bicycle etc.
First Zeppelin ascent, 1900
Early 20th Century modes of road transport in Dublin, 1929
A 0 series Shinkansen high-speed rail set in Tokyo, May 1967
Concorde 001 first flight in 1969
Space shuttle launch
C5 enthusiasts gather at the Brooklands Museum

1919 - HD-4 first hydroplane launched by Alexander Graham Bell.