A report on HER2/neu

Her2 and Her3 distribution on a breast cell, (3D Dual Colour Super Resolution Microscopy SPDMphymod / LIMON, marked with Alexa 488 and 568)
Her 2 staining on patient breast cancer tissue identified as stage 3
The staining is seen as a cell membrane with continuous brown color.

Protein that in humans is encoded by the ERBB2 gene.

- HER2/neu
Her2 and Her3 distribution on a breast cell, (3D Dual Colour Super Resolution Microscopy SPDMphymod / LIMON, marked with Alexa 488 and 568)

27 related topics with Alpha

Overall

EGFR signaling cascades

Epidermal growth factor receptor

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Transmembrane protein that is a receptor for members of the epidermal growth factor family (EGF family) of extracellular protein ligands.

Transmembrane protein that is a receptor for members of the epidermal growth factor family (EGF family) of extracellular protein ligands.

EGFR signaling cascades

The epidermal growth factor receptor is a member of the ErbB family of receptors, a subfamily of four closely related receptor tyrosine kinases: EGFR (ErbB-1), HER2/neu (ErbB-2), Her 3 (ErbB-3) and Her 4 (ErbB-4).

Comparison of ErbB extracellular domain structures

ErbB

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The ErbB family of proteins contains four receptor tyrosine kinases, structurally related to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), its first discovered member.

The ErbB family of proteins contains four receptor tyrosine kinases, structurally related to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), its first discovered member.

Comparison of ErbB extracellular domain structures
A superposition of similar interfaces observed in crystal structures of the ERBB kinases, including EGFR, ERBB2 (HER2) and ERBB4 (HER4). The protein chains are colored from blue to red from N to C terminus. The kinase at the top of each dimer (as shown) activates the kinase at the bottom of each dimer (Zhang et al., Cell v. 125, pp. 1137–1149, 2008). The cluster was identified with the ProtCID database. The image was made with PyMOL.

In humans, the family includes Her1 (EGFR, ErbB1), Her2 (Neu, ErbB2), Her3 (ErbB3), and Her4 (ErbB4).

An illustration of breast cancer

Breast cancer

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Cancer that develops from breast tissue.

Cancer that develops from breast tissue.

An illustration of breast cancer
Breast cancer showing an inverted nipple, lump, and skin dimpling
Early signs of possible breast cancer
Tumor in the breast visualized by Breast-Computertomography (Breast-CT)
All types of alcoholic beverages, including beer, wine, or liquor, cause breast cancer.
Ducts and lobules, the main locations of breast cancers
Overview of signal transduction pathways involved in programmed cell death. Mutations leading to loss of this ability can lead to cancer formation.
Histopathologic types of breast cancer, with relative incidences and prognoses
A mobile breast cancer screening unit in New Zealand
Chest after right breast mastectomy
Internal radiotherapy for breast cancer
Breasts after double mastectomy followed by nipple-sparing reconstruction with implants
An extreme example of an advanced recurrent breast cancer with an ulcerating axillary mass
Breast cancer surgery in 18th century
Radical mastectomy, Halsted's surgical papers
The pink ribbon is a symbol to show support for breast cancer awareness.
MRI showing breast cancer
Excised human breast tissue, showing an irregular, dense, white stellate area of cancer 2cm in diameter, within yellow fatty tissue
High-grade invasive ductal carcinoma, with minimal tubule formation, marked pleomorphism, and prominent mitoses, 40x field
Micrograph showing a lymph node invaded by ductal breast carcinoma, with an extension of the tumor beyond the lymph node
Neuropilin-2 expression in normal breast and breast carcinoma tissue
F-18 FDG PET/CT: A breast cancer metastasis to the right scapula
Needle breast biopsy
Elastography shows stiff cancer tissue on ultrasound imaging.
Ultrasound image shows irregularly shaped mass of breast cancer.
Infiltrating (invasive) breast carcinoma
Mammograms showing a normal breast (left) and a breast with cancer (right)
Stage T1 breast cancer
Stage T2 breast cancer
Stage T3 breast cancer
Metastatic or stage 4 breast cancer
Stage 1A breast cancer
Stage 1B breast cancer
Stage 2A breast cancer
Stage 2A breast cancer
Stage 2B breast cancer
Stage 2B breast cancer
Stage 2B breast cancer
Stage 3A breast cancer
Stage 3A breast cancer
Stage 3A breast cancer
Stage 3B breast cancer
Stage 3B breast cancer
Stage 4 breast cancer

New or potentially new markers for breast cancer include BRCA1 and BRCA2 to identify people at high risk of developing breast cancer, HER-2, and SCD1, for predicting response to therapeutic regimens, and urokinase plasminogen activator, PA1-1 and SCD1 for assessing prognosis.

The location and development of endometrial cancer.

Endometrial cancer

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Cancer that arises from the endometrium .

Cancer that arises from the endometrium .

The location and development of endometrial cancer.
The location and development of endometrial cancer.
The autosomal dominant inheritance pattern seen in Lynch syndrome
Immunohistochemistry of endometrial endometrioid carcinoma with wild-type pattern of p53 expression, with variable proportion of tumor cell nuclei staining with variable intensity.
Vaginal ultrasonography with an endometrial fluid accumulation (darker area) in a postmenopausal uterus, a finding that is highly suspicious for endometrial cancer
Polypoidal endometrial carcinoma
Relative incidences of endometrial carcinomas by histopathology.
Endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma—very high magnification—H&E stain
A keyhole hysterectomy, one possible surgery to treat endometrial cancer
alt=A diagram of stage IA and IB endometrial cancer|Stage IA and IB endometrial cancer
alt=A diagram of stage II endometrial cancer|Stage II endometrial cancer
alt=A diagram of stage III endometrial cancer|Stage III endometrial cancer
alt=A diagram of stage IV endometrial cancer|Stage IV endometrial cancer

The Her2/neu oncogene, which indicates a poor prognosis, is expressed in 20% of endometrioid and serous carcinomas.

ERBB3

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Membrane bound protein that in humans is encoded by the ERBB3 gene.

Membrane bound protein that in humans is encoded by the ERBB3 gene.

The kinase-impaired ErbB3 is known to form active heterodimers with other members of the ErbB family, most notably the ligand binding-impaired ErbB2.

Nolvadex (tamoxifen) 20 mg tablets.

Tamoxifen

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Selective estrogen receptor modulator used to prevent breast cancer in women and treat breast cancer in women and men.

Selective estrogen receptor modulator used to prevent breast cancer in women and treat breast cancer in women and men.

Nolvadex (tamoxifen) 20 mg tablets.
Crystallographic structure of afimoxifene (carbon = white, oxygen = red, nitrogen = blue) complexed with ligand binding domain of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) (cyan ribbon).

Tamoxifen needs to block growth factor proteins such as ErbB2/HER2 because high levels of ErbB2 have been shown to occur in tamoxifen resistant cancers.

Trastuzumab

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Monoclonal antibody used to treat breast cancer and stomach cancer.

Monoclonal antibody used to treat breast cancer and stomach cancer.

It is specifically used for cancer that is HER2 receptor positive.

GRB2

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Adaptor protein involved in signal transduction/cell communication.

Adaptor protein involved in signal transduction/cell communication.

HER2/neu,

The structure of HER2 and pertuzumab

Pertuzumab

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The structure of HER2 and pertuzumab

Pertuzumab, sold under the brand name Perjeta, is a monoclonal antibody used in combination with trastuzumab and docetaxel for the treatment of metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer; it also used in the same combination as a neoadjuvant in early HER2-positive breast cancer.

Micrograph of a squamous carcinoma, a type of nonsmall-cell lung carcinoma, FNA specimen, Pap stain.

Non-small-cell lung carcinoma

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Any type of epithelial lung cancer other than small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC).

Any type of epithelial lung cancer other than small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC).

Micrograph of a squamous carcinoma, a type of nonsmall-cell lung carcinoma, FNA specimen, Pap stain.
Pie chart showing incidences of nonsmall-cell lung cancers as compared to small-cell carcinoma shown at right, with fractions of smokers versus nonsmokers shown for each type
Photograph of a squamous-cell carcinoma: The tumour is on the left, obstructing the bronchus (lung).
Beyond the tumour, the bronchus is inflamed and contains mucus.
Micrograph showing a PD-L1-positive NSCLC, PD-L1 immunostain
The main treatment arms of phase 3 clinical trials providing immunotherapy in the first line for patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells expressing programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) could interact with programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1) expressed on the surface of T cells, and result in decreased tumor cell kill by the immune system. Atezolizumab is an anti PD-L1 monoclonal antibody. Nivolumab and Pembrolizumab are anti PD-1 monoclonal antibodies. Ipilimumab is a monoclonal antibody that targets Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) on the surface of T cells. Bevacizumab is a monoclonal antibody that targets Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) in the circulation and functions as an angiogenesis inhibitor.
Overall survival in non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with protocols incorporating immunotherapy in the first line for advanced or metastatic disease. Nasser NJ, Gorenberg M, Agbarya A. Pharmaceuticals2020, 13(11), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13110373

Also, a number of additional genetic markers are known to be mutated within NSCLC and may impact treatment in the future, including BRAF, HER2/neu, and KRAS.