HIV/AIDS

AIDSHIVacquired immune deficiency syndromeHIV infectionacquired immunodeficiency syndromeHIV and AIDSHIV-AIDSAIDS/HIVHIV positiveHIV AIDS
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).wikipedia
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Tuberculosis

consumptionpulmonary tuberculosisTB
As the infection progresses, it interferes more with the immune system, increasing the risk of developing common infections such as tuberculosis, as well as other opportunistic infections, and tumors that rarely affect people who have uncompromised immune systems.
Active infection occurs more often in people with HIV/AIDS and in those who smoke.

Cachexia

wasting syndromecachecticcancer cachexia
This stage is often also associated with unintended weight loss. The most common initial conditions that alert to the presence of AIDS are pneumocystis pneumonia (40%), cachexia in the form of HIV wasting syndrome (20%), and esophageal candidiasis.
A range of diseases can cause cachexia, most commonly cancer, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease and AIDS.

Safe sex

safer sexunprotected sexunsafe sex
HIV is spread primarily by unprotected sex (including anal and oral sex), contaminated blood transfusions, hypodermic needles, and from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding. Methods of prevention include safe sex, needle exchange programs, treating those who are infected, pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis, and male circumcision.
Safe sex is sexual activity using methods or devices (such as condoms) to reduce the risk of transmitting or acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs), especially HIV.

HIV and pregnancy

pregnancyHIV in Pregnancy issuesHIV transmission to their children
HIV is spread primarily by unprotected sex (including anal and oral sex), contaminated blood transfusions, hypodermic needles, and from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding.
HIV in pregnancy is of concern because women with HIV/AIDS may transmit the infection to their child during pregnancy, childbirth and while breastfeeding.

Immune system

immuneimmune responseimmune function
As the infection progresses, it interferes more with the immune system, increasing the risk of developing common infections such as tuberculosis, as well as other opportunistic infections, and tumors that rarely affect people who have uncompromised immune systems.
In humans, immunodeficiency can either be the result of a genetic disease such as severe combined immunodeficiency, acquired conditions such as HIV/AIDS, or the use of immunosuppressive medication.

Treatment as prevention

undetectabletreating those who are infected
Methods of prevention include safe sex, needle exchange programs, treating those who are infected, pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis, and male circumcision.
The term is often used to talk about treating people that are currently living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) to prevent illness, death and transmission.

Religion and HIV/AIDS

Religion and AIDScontroversies involving religionHIV/AIDS
The disease has become subject to many controversies involving religion, including the Catholic Church's position not to support condom use as prevention.
The relationship between religion and HIV/AIDS is complicated, and often controversial.

Pandemic

plaguepandemicsplagues
HIV/AIDS is considered a pandemic—a disease outbreak which is present over a large area and is actively spreading.
AIDS is currently a pandemic, with infection rates as high as 25% in southern and eastern Africa.

Catholic Church and HIV/AIDS

Catholic Church and AIDSAIDSCatholic Church's efforts to care for AIDS victims
The disease has become subject to many controversies involving religion, including the Catholic Church's position not to support condom use as prevention.
The Catholic Church's position on HIV/AIDS prevention has attracted controversy due to its opposition to condom use.

Economic impact of HIV/AIDS

Economic impact of AIDSeconomic impacts
The disease also has large economic impacts.
HIV and AIDS affects economic growth by reducing the availability of human capital.

Condom

condomscollection condomrubber
The disease has become subject to many controversies involving religion, including the Catholic Church's position not to support condom use as prevention.
Their use greatly decreases the risk of gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, hepatitis B, and HIV/AIDS.

Post-exposure prophylaxis

PEPpost exposure prophylaxisPostexposure prophylaxis
Methods of prevention include safe sex, needle exchange programs, treating those who are infected, pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis, and male circumcision.
AZT was approved as a treatment for AIDS in 1987.

Persistent generalized lymphadenopathy

Between 50% and 70% of people also develop persistent generalized lymphadenopathy, characterized by unexplained, non-painful enlargement of more than one group of lymph nodes (other than in the groin) for over three to six months.
This condition occurs frequently in people in the latency period of HIV/AIDS.

Discrimination against people with HIV/AIDS

discriminationAIDS discriminationstigma
HIV/AIDS has had a large impact on society, both as an illness and as a source of discrimination.
Discrimination against people with HIV/AIDS or serophobia is the prejudice, fear, rejection and discrimination against people afflicted with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV; people living with HIV/AIDS).

Primary central nervous system lymphoma

CNS lymphomacentral nervous system lymphomacerebral
People with AIDS have an increased risk of developing various viral-induced cancers, including Kaposi's sarcoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, primary central nervous system lymphoma, and cervical cancer.
A primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a primary intracranial tumor appearing mostly in patients with severe immunodeficiency (typically patients with AIDS).

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus

human herpesvirus 8KSHVHHV-8
Both these cancers are associated with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8).
This virus causes Kaposi's sarcoma, a cancer commonly occurring in AIDS patients, as well as primary effusion lymphoma, HHV-8-associated multicentric Castleman's disease and KSHV inflammatory cytokine syndrome.

Pneumocystis pneumonia

Pneumocystis'' pneumoniaPneumocystis carinii pneumoniaPneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia
The most common initial conditions that alert to the presence of AIDS are pneumocystis pneumonia (40%), cachexia in the form of HIV wasting syndrome (20%), and esophageal candidiasis.
PCP is especially seen in people with cancer undergoing chemotherapy, HIV/AIDS cases, and the use of medications that suppress the immune system.

Blood transfusion

transfusionblood transfusionstransfusions
HIV is spread primarily by unprotected sex (including anal and oral sex), contaminated blood transfusions, hypodermic needles, and from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding.
Since the advent of HIV testing of donor blood in the mid/later 1980s, ex. 1985's ELISA, the transmission of HIV during transfusion has dropped dramatically.

Kaposi's sarcoma

Kaposi sarcomaKaposi’s sarcomaAIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma
People with AIDS have an increased risk of developing various viral-induced cancers, including Kaposi's sarcoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, primary central nervous system lymphoma, and cervical cancer.
Epidemic KS occurs in people with AIDS and many parts of the body can be affected.

T helper cell

Th1Th2T helper cells
Although most HIV-1 infected individuals have a detectable viral load and in the absence of treatment will eventually progress to AIDS, a small proportion (about 5%) retain high levels of CD4+ T cells (T helper cells) without antiretroviral therapy for more than five years.
In the advanced stages of HIV infection, loss of functional CD4 + T cells leads to the symptomatic stage of infection known as the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

Infection

infectious diseaseinfectious diseasesinfections
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
For example, in the early 1980s, prior to the appearance of AZT for the treatment of AIDS, the course of the disease was closely followed by monitoring the composition of patient blood samples, even though the outcome would not offer the patient any further treatment options.

Influenza-like illness

flu-like symptomsacute respiratory infectionflu-like
Following initial infection a person may not notice any symptoms, or may experience a brief period of influenza-like illness.
Infectious diseases causing ILI include malaria, acute HIV/AIDS infection, herpes, hepatitis C, Lyme disease, rabies, myocarditis, Q fever, dengue fever, poliomyelitis, pneumonia, measles, and many others.

HIV/AIDS in Africa

AIDS in AfricaAfricaHIV/AIDS
Unsafe medical injections play a role in HIV spread in sub-Saharan Africa.
[[File:HIV in Africa 2011.svg|thumb|300px|Prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Africa, total (% of population ages 15–49), in 2011 (World Bank)HIV/AIDS is a major public health concern and cause of death in many parts of Africa. Although the continent is home to about 15.2 percent of the world's population, more than two-thirds of the total infected worldwide – some 35 million people – were Africans, of whom 15 million have already died. Sub-Saharan Africa alone accounted for an estimated 69 percent of all people living with HIV and 70 percent of all AIDS deaths in 2011. In the countries of sub-Saharan Africa most affected, AIDS has raised death rates and lowered life expectancy among adults between the ages of 20 and 49 by about twenty years. Furthermore, the life expectancy in many parts of Africa is declining, largely as a result of the HIV/AIDS epidemic with life-expectancy in some countries reaching as low as thirty-four years.

World Health Organization

WHOWorld Health OrganisationWorld Health Organization (WHO)
The World Health Organization estimates the risk of transmission as a result of a medical injection in Africa at 1.2%.
Its current priorities include communicable diseases, in particular HIV/AIDS, Ebola, malaria and tuberculosis; the mitigation of the effects of non-communicable diseases such as sexual and reproductive health, development, and aging; nutrition, food security and healthy eating; occupational health; substance abuse; and driving the development of reporting, publications, and networking.

HIV

human immunodeficiency virusHIV-positiveHIV positive
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
The human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) are two species of Lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).