HTTPS

secure websiteSsecure serverHTTP/Sport 443(S)443encryptedencryptionHTTP over SSL/TLS
Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) is an extension of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) for secure communication over a computer network, and is widely used on the Internet.wikipedia
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Website

web sitewebsitesonline
The principal motivation for HTTPS is authentication of the accessed website and protection of the privacy and integrity of the exchanged data while in transit.
Web pages are accessed and transported with the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which may optionally employ encryption (HTTP Secure, HTTPS) to provide security and privacy for the user.

Certificate authority

certificate authoritiesCAcertification authority
Web browsers know how to trust HTTPS websites based on certificate authorities that come pre-installed in their software.
One particularly common use for certificate authorities is to sign certificates used in HTTPS, the secure browsing protocol for the World Wide Web.

List of TCP and UDP port numbers

well-known portportwell-known
However, because host (website) addresses and port numbers are necessarily part of the underlying TCP/IP protocols, HTTPS cannot protect their disclosure. HTTPS URLs begin with "https://" and use port 443 by default, whereas HTTP URLs begin with "http://" and use port 80 by default.

Public key certificate

digital certificatecertificatedigital certificates
This is the case with HTTP transactions over the Internet, where typically only the server is authenticated (by the client examining the server's certificate).
TLS, sometimes called by its older name Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), is notable for being a part of HTTPS, a protocol for securely browsing the web.

Let's Encrypt

Let’s Encrypt
Certificate authorities (such as Let's Encrypt, Digicert, Comodo, GoDaddy and GlobalSign) are in this way being trusted by web browser creators to provide valid certificates.
On a Linux web server, execution of only two commands is sufficient to set up HTTPS encryption and acquire and install certificates.

World Wide Web

Webthe webweb-based
Historically, HTTPS connections were primarily used for payment transactions on the World Wide Web, e-mail and for sensitive transactions in corporate information systems.
Web resources are accessed using HTTP or HTTPS, which are application-level Internet protocols that use the Internet's transport protocols.

HTTP Strict Transport Security

limitationsStrict Transport SecurityStrict-Transport-Security
It is recommended to use HTTP Strict Transport Security (HSTS) with HTTPS to protect users from man-in-the-middle attacks, especially SSL stripping.
It allows web servers to declare that web browsers (or other complying user agents) should interact with it using only secure HTTPS connections, and never via the insecure HTTP protocol.

Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol

Secure HTTPHTTPS
HTTPS should not be confused with the little-used Secure HTTP (S-HTTP) specified in RFC 2660.
Secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol (S-HTTP) is an obsolete alternative to the HTTPS protocol for encrypting web communications carried over HTTP.

HTTPS Everywhere

This is one reason why the Electronic Frontier Foundation and the Tor project started the development of HTTPS Everywhere, which is included in the Tor Browser Bundle.
It automatically makes websites use a more secure HTTPS connection instead of HTTP, if they support it. The option "Block all HTTP requests" makes it possible to block and unblock all non-HTTPS browser connections with one click.

Information privacy

data protectiondata privacyprivacy
The principal motivation for HTTPS is authentication of the accessed website and protection of the privacy and integrity of the exchanged data while in transit.
On the internet many users give away a lot of information about themselves: unencrypted e-mails can be read by the administrators of an e-mail server, if the connection is not encrypted (no HTTPS), and also the internet service provider and other parties sniffing the network traffic of that connection are able to know the contents.

HTTP cookie

cookiescookiepersistent cookie
Similarly, cookies on a site served through HTTPS have to have the secure attribute enabled.
A secure cookie can only be transmitted over an encrypted connection (i.e. HTTPS).

Wi-Fi

WiFiwireless internetwireless
HTTPS is especially important over insecure networks (such as public Wi-Fi access points), as anyone on the same local network can packet-sniff and discover sensitive information not protected by HTTPS.
Such networks can only be secured by using other means of protection, such as a VPN or secure Hypertext Transfer Protocol over Transport Layer Security (HTTPS).

Online Certificate Status Protocol

OCSPOSCP
Newer versions of popular browsers such as Firefox, Opera, and Internet Explorer on Windows Vista implement the Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP) to verify that this is not the case.
Some web browsers use OCSP to validate HTTPS certificates.

Web browser

browserweb browsersbrowsers
Most browsers display a warning if they receive an invalid certificate.
In the case of https: the communication between the browser and the web server is encrypted for the purposes of security and privacy.

Extended Validation Certificate

Extended ValidationEVExtended Validation certificates
Extended validation certificates turn the address bar green in newer browsers.
As the necessary attributes to identify the legal entity and jurisdiction are included inside the certificate, Extended Validation supports all web servers supporting HTTPS.

SPDY

SPDY v3
Deploying HTTPS also allows the use of HTTP/2 (or its predecessor, the now-deprecated protocol SPDY), that are new generations of HTTP, designed to reduce page load times, size and latency.
For use within HTTPS, SPDY needs the TLS extension Next Protocol Negotiation (NPN), thus browser and server support depends on the HTTPS library.

Server Name Indication

SNIRFC3546Server Name Indicator
A solution called Server Name Indication (SNI) exists, which sends the hostname to the server before encrypting the connection, although many old browsers do not support this extension.
This allows a server to present multiple certificates on the same IP address and TCP port number and hence allows multiple secure (HTTPS) websites (or any other service over TLS) to be served by the same IP address without requiring all those sites to use the same certificate.

Transport Layer Security

SSLTLSSSL/TLS
In HTTPS, the communication protocol is encrypted using Transport Layer Security (TLS), or, formerly, its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).
for adding the HTTPS protocol to their Navigator web browser.

Firefox

Mozilla FirefoxFirefox BrowserPhoenix
Newer versions of popular browsers such as Firefox, Opera, and Internet Explorer on Windows Vista implement the Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP) to verify that this is not the case. The Electronic Frontier Foundation, opining that "In an ideal world, every web request could be defaulted to HTTPS", has provided an add-on called HTTPS Everywhere for Mozilla Firefox that enables HTTPS by default for hundreds of frequently used websites.
It uses TLS to protect communications with web servers using strong cryptography when using the HTTPS protocol.

Web of trust

PGPTrust Agenttrust networks
While this can be more beneficial than verifying the identities via a web of trust, the 2013 mass surveillance disclosures drew attention to certificate authorities as a potential weak point allowing man-in-the-middle attacks.
To make sure that each users are getting the correct and trusted public-keys and signed-code/file, original dev/author or original-releaser must publish their updated public-keys on their own Keyserver and force HKPS encrypted connection usage, or publish their updated and full public-keys (and signed-code/file) on their own HTTPS encrypted webpage, under their own webserver, from their own primary domain website, (not-from any sub-domains which are located in external-servers, not-from any mirror, not-from any external/shared forum/wiki etc website servers, not-from any public or external/shared cloud or hosting service servers), and must have to be located and kept securely inside their own premises: own-home, own-home-office, or own-office.

URL

URLsweb addressuniform resource locator
HTTPS URLs begin with "https://" and use port 443 by default, whereas HTTP URLs begin with "http://" and use port 80 by default.
A web browser will usually dereference a URL by performing an HTTP request to the specified host, by default on port number 80. URLs using the scheme require that requests and responses will be made over a secure connection to the website.

X.509

X.509 certificatesX.509 v3certificate-based
X.509 certificates are used to authenticate the server (and sometimes the client as well).
TLS/SSL and HTTPS use the RFC 5280 profile of X.509, as do S/MIME (Secure Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) and the EAP-TLS method for WiFi authentication.

Curl-loader

curl-loader
curl-loader is capable of simulating application behavior of hundreds of thousands of HTTP/HTTPS and FTP/FTPS clients, each with its own source IP-address.

Internet Explorer

IEMicrosoft Internet ExplorerExplorer
Newer versions of popular browsers such as Firefox, Opera, and Internet Explorer on Windows Vista implement the Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP) to verify that this is not the case. Only 30% of Firefox, Opera, and Chromium Browser sessions use it, and nearly 0% of Apple's Safari and Microsoft Internet Explorer sessions.
WinInet.dll is the protocol handler for HTTP, HTTPS and FTP. It handles all network communication over these protocols.

Opera (web browser)

OperaOpera web browserOpera browser
Newer versions of popular browsers such as Firefox, Opera, and Internet Explorer on Windows Vista implement the Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP) to verify that this is not the case.
Opera Software claims that when the Opera Turbo mode is enabled, the compression servers compress requested web pages (except HTTPS pages) by up to 50%, depending upon the content, before sending them to the users.