Habesha peoples

AbyssinianHabeshaAbyssiniansHabesha peopleAbyssinian peopleHabshatHabashatJabal Hubaysh, YemenAbashAbesha
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Horn of Africa

HornSomali peninsulanortheastern Africa
Members' cultural, linguistic, and in certain cases, ancestral origins trace back to the Kingdom of Dʿmt, the Kingdom of Aksum, among other kingdoms that either preceded or constituted the Ethiopian Empire in the Horn of Africa. It is also possible that the Land of Punt covered both the Horn of Africa and Southern Arabia.
Referred to in ancient and medieval times as the land of the Barbara and Habesha, the Horn of Africa denotes the region containing the countries of Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Somalia.

Amhara people

AmharaAmharasAmhara ethnic people
Some Scholars have classified the Tigrayans and the Amhara as Abyssinians proper under an ultra-neo-conservative theory postulated by a few scholars and political parties but not widely accepted by the general public or by most indigenous scholars of the region. Under a conservative definition of Abyssinian people, Abyssinian people (Habesha) includes the ethnic groups: Amhara, Gurage, Agawa, Tigrayans (Tigray-Tigrinya), Harari, and Tigre which either speak an Ethiosemitic-language and/or traditionally inhabited the Northern Ethiopian-Eritrean Highlands while still being Cushitic-speakers (like the Agawa-speaking Agawa people who inhabit the Ethiopian Highlands).
Amharas (አማራ, Āmara;, ʾÄməḥära) are a Habesha Ethiosemitic-speaking ethnic group traditionally inhabiting parts of the northern and central Highlands of Ethiopia, particularly in Addis Ababa and the Amhara Region.

Gurage people

GurageGuragesGuraghe
Under a conservative definition of Abyssinian people, Abyssinian people (Habesha) includes the ethnic groups: Amhara, Gurage, Agawa, Tigrayans (Tigray-Tigrinya), Harari, and Tigre which either speak an Ethiosemitic-language and/or traditionally inhabited the Northern Ethiopian-Eritrean Highlands while still being Cushitic-speakers (like the Agawa-speaking Agawa people who inhabit the Ethiopian Highlands).
The Gurage people are an Habesha Ethiosemitic-speaking ethnic group inhabiting Ethiopia.

Agaw people

AgawAgewAgaw-Hamyra
Under a conservative definition of Abyssinian people, Abyssinian people (Habesha) includes the ethnic groups: Amhara, Gurage, Agawa, Tigrayans (Tigray-Tigrinya), Harari, and Tigre which either speak an Ethiosemitic-language and/or traditionally inhabited the Northern Ethiopian-Eritrean Highlands while still being Cushitic-speakers (like the Agawa-speaking Agawa people who inhabit the Ethiopian Highlands).
The Agaw ( Agäw, modern Agew) are a habesha ethnic group inhabiting Ethiopia and neighboring Eritrea.

Cushitic peoples

CushiticCushiteCushites
Habesha peoples: /Habesha/ or /Abesha/ ((rarely Habeshat: ), or rarely used exonyms like "Abyssinian people," "Aithiops: Αἰθίοψ," "Athtiu-abu: Ancient Egyptian: Āthtiu-ábu ~ 'robbers of hearts' ~," or "al-Ḥabaš/al-Ḥabaši (al-Habash/al-Habashi): Mehri in Arabic script: الهباش / الحبشي‎ ~ ‘incense gatherers’ ~”. Habesha ) is a common pan-ethnic and meta-ethnic term used to refer to both Ethiopians and Eritreans as a whole. Certain definitions considered the Ethiosemitic-speaking and Agwa-speaking Cushitic peoples inhabiting the highlands of Ethiopia and Eritrea as the core ethnic groups that historically constituted the pan-ethnic group Habesha peoples, while this notion is only partially accepted.
Interestingly the term Habesha (also known as 'Abyssinian people') was used historically (before Abyssinian Ethiopian adaption) to refer to all the populations in the Horn of Africa by Arab travelers and geographers.

Ethiopian Empire

EthiopiaAbyssiniaEthiopian
Members' cultural, linguistic, and in certain cases, ancestral origins trace back to the Kingdom of Dʿmt, the Kingdom of Aksum, among other kingdoms that either preceded or constituted the Ethiopian Empire in the Horn of Africa.
The eponymously named Solomonic dynasty was founded and ruled by the Abyssinians, from whom Abyssinia gets its name.

South Arabia

Southern ArabiaYemensouthern part
It is also possible that the Land of Punt covered both the Horn of Africa and Southern Arabia.
The use of the term "India" arise from the fact that the Persians called the Abyssinians whom they came into contact in South Arabia by the name of the dark-skinned people who lived next to them, i.e., Indians.

Al-Habash

Al-Habasha
It was not until long after Aksumite kingdom had ended that Gulf Arab travelers and geographers began to describe the Horn region as Al-Habash.
Situated in the northern highlands of modern-day Eritrea and Ethiopia, it was inhabited by the Habash or Abyssinians, who were the forebears of the Habesha people.

Zeila

AvalitesSaylacZaila
Ifat was governed from its capital at Zeila in northern Somalia and was the easternmost district of the former Shewa Sultanate.
Along with the neighboring Habash (Habesha or Abyssinians) of Al-Habash to the west, the Barbaroi or Berber (ancestral Somalis) who inhabited the area are recorded in the 1st century CE Greek document the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea as engaging in extensive commercial exchanges with Egypt and pre-Islamic Arabia.

Kingdom of Aksum

AksumiteAksumKingdom of Axum
Members' cultural, linguistic, and in certain cases, ancestral origins trace back to the Kingdom of Dʿmt, the Kingdom of Aksum, among other kingdoms that either preceded or constituted the Ethiopian Empire in the Horn of Africa.
The Aksumite population consisted of Semitic-speaking people (collectively known as Habeshas), Cushitic-speaking people, and Nilo-Saharan-speaking people (the Kunama and Nara).

Ethiopia

EthiopianAbyssiniaFederal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
Habesha peoples: /Habesha/ or /Abesha/ ((rarely Habeshat: ), or rarely used exonyms like "Abyssinian people," "Aithiops: Αἰθίοψ," "Athtiu-abu: Ancient Egyptian: Āthtiu-ábu ~ 'robbers of hearts' ~," or "al-Ḥabaš/al-Ḥabaši (al-Habash/al-Habashi): Mehri in Arabic script: الهباش / الحبشي‎ ~ ‘incense gatherers’ ~”. Habesha ) is a common pan-ethnic and meta-ethnic term used to refer to both Ethiopians and Eritreans as a whole. Certain definitions considered the Ethiosemitic-speaking and Agwa-speaking Cushitic peoples inhabiting the highlands of Ethiopia and Eritrea as the core ethnic groups that historically constituted the pan-ethnic group Habesha peoples, while this notion is only partially accepted.
Among these, Semitic speakers often collectively refer to themselves as the Habesha people.

GDRT

GadaratGadara
The earliest known use of the term dates to the second or third century Sabaean inscription recounting the defeat of the nəgus ("king") GDRT of Aksum and ḤBŠT.
c. 230), which detail at least one known clash with hbšt troops in Yemen after GDRT's reign.

Habesha kemis

Ethiopian coffee dress
The habesha kemis is the traditional attire of Habesha women.
The habesha kemis (ሐበሻ habesha, "Ethiopian" ቀሚስ kemis, dress) is the traditional attire of Habesha women.

Mecca

MakkahMecca, Saudi ArabiaMakka
Numerous Ethiopian Muslims perform the pilgrimage to Mecca every year.
Other regional powers such as the Abyssinian, Ghassan, and Lakhm were in decline leaving Meccan trade to be the primary binding force in Arabia in the late 6th century.

Ibb Governorate

IbbIbIbb State
Abasēnoi was located by Hermann von Wissman as a region in the Jabal Ḥubaysh mountain in Ibb Governorate, perhaps related in etymology with the ḥbš Semitic root).

The Weeknd

Abel TesfayeWeekndThe Weekend
He also said his high-flying vocal style was influenced by habesha singers like Aster Aweke.

Naming conventions in Ethiopia and Eritrea

Habesha nameEthiopian nameEritrean naming
Traditionally for the Abyssinian people, the lineage is traced paternally; legislation has been passed in Eritrea that allows for this to be done on the maternal side as well.

Egyptian language

EgyptianAncient EgyptianMiddle Egyptian
Habesha peoples: /Habesha/ or /Abesha/ ((rarely Habeshat: ), or rarely used exonyms like "Abyssinian people," "Aithiops: Αἰθίοψ," "Athtiu-abu: Ancient Egyptian: Āthtiu-ábu ~ 'robbers of hearts' ~," or "al-Ḥabaš/al-Ḥabaši (al-Habash/al-Habashi): Mehri in Arabic script: الهباش / الحبشي‎ ~ ‘incense gatherers’ ~”. Habesha ) is a common pan-ethnic and meta-ethnic term used to refer to both Ethiopians and Eritreans as a whole. Certain definitions considered the Ethiosemitic-speaking and Agwa-speaking Cushitic peoples inhabiting the highlands of Ethiopia and Eritrea as the core ethnic groups that historically constituted the pan-ethnic group Habesha peoples, while this notion is only partially accepted.

Mehri language

MehriMahri languagegdq
Habesha peoples: /Habesha/ or /Abesha/ ((rarely Habeshat: ), or rarely used exonyms like "Abyssinian people," "Aithiops: Αἰθίοψ," "Athtiu-abu: Ancient Egyptian: Āthtiu-ábu ~ 'robbers of hearts' ~," or "al-Ḥabaš/al-Ḥabaši (al-Habash/al-Habashi): Mehri in Arabic script: الهباش / الحبشي‎ ~ ‘incense gatherers’ ~”. Habesha ) is a common pan-ethnic and meta-ethnic term used to refer to both Ethiopians and Eritreans as a whole. Certain definitions considered the Ethiosemitic-speaking and Agwa-speaking Cushitic peoples inhabiting the highlands of Ethiopia and Eritrea as the core ethnic groups that historically constituted the pan-ethnic group Habesha peoples, while this notion is only partially accepted.

Panethnicity

panethnicpan-ethnicpan-ethnicity
Habesha peoples: /Habesha/ or /Abesha/ ((rarely Habeshat: ), or rarely used exonyms like "Abyssinian people," "Aithiops: Αἰθίοψ," "Athtiu-abu: Ancient Egyptian: Āthtiu-ábu ~ 'robbers of hearts' ~," or "al-Ḥabaš/al-Ḥabaši (al-Habash/al-Habashi): Mehri in Arabic script: الهباش / الحبشي‎ ~ ‘incense gatherers’ ~”. Habesha ) is a common pan-ethnic and meta-ethnic term used to refer to both Ethiopians and Eritreans as a whole. Certain definitions considered the Ethiosemitic-speaking and Agwa-speaking Cushitic peoples inhabiting the highlands of Ethiopia and Eritrea as the core ethnic groups that historically constituted the pan-ethnic group Habesha peoples, while this notion is only partially accepted.

Meta-ethnicity

metaethnicitymeta-ethnic
Habesha peoples: /Habesha/ or /Abesha/ ((rarely Habeshat: ), or rarely used exonyms like "Abyssinian people," "Aithiops: Αἰθίοψ," "Athtiu-abu: Ancient Egyptian: Āthtiu-ábu ~ 'robbers of hearts' ~," or "al-Ḥabaš/al-Ḥabaši (al-Habash/al-Habashi): Mehri in Arabic script: الهباش / الحبشي‎ ~ ‘incense gatherers’ ~”. Habesha ) is a common pan-ethnic and meta-ethnic term used to refer to both Ethiopians and Eritreans as a whole. Certain definitions considered the Ethiosemitic-speaking and Agwa-speaking Cushitic peoples inhabiting the highlands of Ethiopia and Eritrea as the core ethnic groups that historically constituted the pan-ethnic group Habesha peoples, while this notion is only partially accepted.

People of Ethiopia

EthiopiansEthiopianEthiopia
Habesha peoples: /Habesha/ or /Abesha/ ((rarely Habeshat: ), or rarely used exonyms like "Abyssinian people," "Aithiops: Αἰθίοψ," "Athtiu-abu: Ancient Egyptian: Āthtiu-ábu ~ 'robbers of hearts' ~," or "al-Ḥabaš/al-Ḥabaši (al-Habash/al-Habashi): Mehri in Arabic script: الهباش / الحبشي‎ ~ ‘incense gatherers’ ~”. Habesha ) is a common pan-ethnic and meta-ethnic term used to refer to both Ethiopians and Eritreans as a whole. Certain definitions considered the Ethiosemitic-speaking and Agwa-speaking Cushitic peoples inhabiting the highlands of Ethiopia and Eritrea as the core ethnic groups that historically constituted the pan-ethnic group Habesha peoples, while this notion is only partially accepted.

Demographics of Eritrea

EritreansEritreanEritrea
Habesha peoples: /Habesha/ or /Abesha/ ((rarely Habeshat: ), or rarely used exonyms like "Abyssinian people," "Aithiops: Αἰθίοψ," "Athtiu-abu: Ancient Egyptian: Āthtiu-ábu ~ 'robbers of hearts' ~," or "al-Ḥabaš/al-Ḥabaši (al-Habash/al-Habashi): Mehri in Arabic script: الهباش / الحبشي‎ ~ ‘incense gatherers’ ~”. Habesha ) is a common pan-ethnic and meta-ethnic term used to refer to both Ethiopians and Eritreans as a whole. Certain definitions considered the Ethiosemitic-speaking and Agwa-speaking Cushitic peoples inhabiting the highlands of Ethiopia and Eritrea as the core ethnic groups that historically constituted the pan-ethnic group Habesha peoples, while this notion is only partially accepted.

Ethiopian Semitic languages

Ethiopian SemiticEthiopicEthiosemitic
Habesha peoples: /Habesha/ or /Abesha/ ((rarely Habeshat: ), or rarely used exonyms like "Abyssinian people," "Aithiops: Αἰθίοψ," "Athtiu-abu: Ancient Egyptian: Āthtiu-ábu ~ 'robbers of hearts' ~," or "al-Ḥabaš/al-Ḥabaši (al-Habash/al-Habashi): Mehri in Arabic script: الهباش / الحبشي‎ ~ ‘incense gatherers’ ~”. Habesha ) is a common pan-ethnic and meta-ethnic term used to refer to both Ethiopians and Eritreans as a whole. Certain definitions considered the Ethiosemitic-speaking and Agwa-speaking Cushitic peoples inhabiting the highlands of Ethiopia and Eritrea as the core ethnic groups that historically constituted the pan-ethnic group Habesha peoples, while this notion is only partially accepted.

Agaw languages

AgawCentral CushiticAgaw dialects
Under a conservative definition of Abyssinian people, Abyssinian people (Habesha) includes the ethnic groups: Amhara, Gurage, Agawa, Tigrayans (Tigray-Tigrinya), Harari, and Tigre which either speak an Ethiosemitic-language and/or traditionally inhabited the Northern Ethiopian-Eritrean Highlands while still being Cushitic-speakers (like the Agawa-speaking Agawa people who inhabit the Ethiopian Highlands). Habesha peoples: /Habesha/ or /Abesha/ ((rarely Habeshat: ), or rarely used exonyms like "Abyssinian people," "Aithiops: Αἰθίοψ," "Athtiu-abu: Ancient Egyptian: Āthtiu-ábu ~ 'robbers of hearts' ~," or "al-Ḥabaš/al-Ḥabaši (al-Habash/al-Habashi): Mehri in Arabic script: الهباش / الحبشي‎ ~ ‘incense gatherers’ ~”. Habesha ) is a common pan-ethnic and meta-ethnic term used to refer to both Ethiopians and Eritreans as a whole. Certain definitions considered the Ethiosemitic-speaking and Agwa-speaking Cushitic peoples inhabiting the highlands of Ethiopia and Eritrea as the core ethnic groups that historically constituted the pan-ethnic group Habesha peoples, while this notion is only partially accepted.