Hail

hailstormhailstoneshailstonehailstormshail stormhail stormshail damagehail squallshail stonehail-producing
Hail is a form of solid precipitation.wikipedia
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Precipitation

rainfallhydrometeorannual precipitation
Hail is a form of solid precipitation.
The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, rain, sleet, snow, graupel and hail.

Ice pellets

sleetice pelletrefreezed snow
It is distinct from ice pellets (American English "sleet"), though the two are often confused. Unlike other forms of water ice such as graupel, which is made of rime, and ice pellets, which are smaller and translucent, hailstones usually measure between and in diameter.
Ice pellets are smaller than hailstones which form in thunderstorms rather than in winter, and are different from graupel ("soft hail") which is made of frosty white rime, and from a mixture of rain and snow which is a slushy liquid or semisolid.

Thunderstorm

thunderstormssevere thunderstormelectrical storm
Hail is possible within most thunderstorms as it is produced by cumulonimbus, and within of the parent storm.
They are usually accompanied by strong winds, and often produce heavy rain and sometimes snow, sleet, or hail, but some thunderstorms produce little precipitation or no precipitation at all.

Weather radar

Doppler weather radarradarDoppler radar
There are methods available to detect hail-producing thunderstorms using weather satellites and weather radar imagery.
Weather radar, also called weather surveillance radar (WSR) and Doppler weather radar, is a type of radar used to locate precipitation, calculate its motion, and estimate its type (rain, snow, hail etc.).

Graupel

Snow pelletssmall hailsoft hail
Unlike other forms of water ice such as graupel, which is made of rime, and ice pellets, which are smaller and translucent, hailstones usually measure between and in diameter.
Graupel is distinct from hail and ice pellets.

Supercell

supercell thunderstormsupercell thunderstormsforward flank downdraft
Hailstones can be very large or very small, depending on how strong the updraft is: weaker hailstorms produce smaller hailstones than stronger hailstorms (such as supercells).
They usually produce copious amounts of hail, torrential rainfall, strong winds, and substantial downbursts.

Water

H 2 OHOliquid water
As the droplets rise and the temperature goes below freezing, they become supercooled water and will freeze on contact with condensation nuclei.

Alberta

Alberta, CanadaABAlberta Transportation
To the north of this area and also just downwind of the Rocky Mountains is the Hailstorm Alley region of Alberta, which also experiences an increased incidence of significant hail events.
The region surrounding the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor is notable for having the highest frequency of hail in Canada, which is caused by orographic lifting from the nearby Rocky Mountains, enhancing the updraft/downdraft cycle necessary for the formation of hail.

Hailstorm Alley

To the north of this area and also just downwind of the Rocky Mountains is the Hailstorm Alley region of Alberta, which also experiences an increased incidence of significant hail events.
Hailstorm Alley is a colloquial term referring to an area of south and central Alberta, Canada where hail storms are frequently produced.

Hail spike

three body scatter spike
The three body scatter spike is an example.
A hail spike or three body scatter spike (TBSS) is an artifact on a weather radar display indicative of large hail.

Vertically integrated liquid

Summing reflectivities in the Vertically Integrated Liquid or VIL, gives the liquid water content in the cloud.
The VIL measurement is usually used in determining the size of prospective hail, the potential amount of rain under a thunderstorm, and the potential downdraft strength when combined with the height of the echo tops.

TORRO

Tornado and Storm Research OrganisationTornado and Storm Research Organisation (TORRO)
The UK organisation, TORRO, also scales for both hailstones and hailstorms.
TORRO carries out research on many aspects of severe weather including ball lightning, blizzards & heavy snowfall, coastal impacts, hailstorms, lightning impacts, tornadoes, thunderstorms, weather disasters, and weather & health.

Denver

Denver, ColoradoDenver, COCity and County of Denver
On June 5, 2015, hail up to four feet deep fell on one city block in Denver, Colorado.
In a study looking at hail events in areas with a population of at least 50,000, Denver was found to be ranked 10th most prone to hail storms in the continental United States.

Hail cannon

Updated versions of this approach are available as modern hail cannons.
A hail cannon is a shock wave generator claimed to disrupt the formation of hailstones in the atmosphere.

Megacryometeor

Megacryometeors
Megacryometeors, large rocks of ice that are not associated with thunderstorms, are not officially recognized by the World Meteorological Organization as "hail," which are aggregations of ice associated with thunderstorms, and therefore records of extreme characteristics of megacryometeors are not given as hail records.
A megacryometeor is a very large chunk of ice which, despite sharing many textural, hydro-chemical, and isotopic features detected in large hailstones, is formed under unusual atmospheric conditions which clearly differ from those of the cumulonimbus cloud scenario (i.e. clear-sky conditions).

Cloud seeding

cloud-seedingseededseed clouds
Cloud seeding after World War II was done to eliminate the hail threat, particularly across the Soviet Union – where it was claimed a 70–98% reduction in crop damage from hail storms was achieved by deploying silver iodide in clouds using rockets and artillery shells.
This could have potentially serious consequences for particular hail stone formation.

Severe weather

severesevere weather warningsevere-weather
High winds, hail, excessive precipitation, and wildfires are forms and effects of severe weather, as are thunderstorms, downbursts, tornadoes, waterspouts, tropical cyclones, and extratropical cyclones.

Czech Republic

CzechCZEthe Czech Republic
Severe thunderstorms, producing damaging straight-line winds, hail, and even occasional tornadoes occur, especially during the summer period.

Rain

rainfallrainwaterrainstorm
Hail becomes an increasingly infrequent occurrence when the freezing level within the atmosphere exceeds 11000 ft above ground level.

Ice

water iceicyglacier ice
Unlike other forms of water ice such as graupel, which is made of rime, and ice pellets, which are smaller and translucent, hailstones usually measure between and in diameter.

Rime ice

rimehard rimeSoft rime
Unlike other forms of water ice such as graupel, which is made of rime, and ice pellets, which are smaller and translucent, hailstones usually measure between and in diameter.

Transparency and translucency

translucenttransparenttransparency
Unlike other forms of water ice such as graupel, which is made of rime, and ice pellets, which are smaller and translucent, hailstones usually measure between and in diameter.

METAR

SPECIaviation flight categoryaviation
The METAR reporting code for hail or greater is GR, while smaller hailstones and graupel are coded GS.

Tornado

tornadoestornadicwedge tornado
Hail formation requires environments of strong, upward motion of air with the parent thunderstorm (similar to tornadoes) and lowered heights of the freezing level.