A report on Haiti

The five caciquedoms of Hispaniola at the time of the arrival of Christopher Columbus
Engraving of Christopher Columbus landing on Hispaniola, by Theodor de Bry
1510 Taíno pictograph telling a story of missionaries arriving in Hispaniola
Saint-Domingue slave revolt in 1791
General Toussaint Louverture
Battle between Polish troops in French service and the Haitian rebels. The majority of Polish soldiers eventually deserted the French army and fought alongside the Haitians.
Pétion and Dessalines swearing allegiance to each other before God; painting by Guillon-Lethière
Citadelle Laferrière, built 1805–22, is the largest fortress in the Americas, and is considered locally to be the eighth wonder of the world.
Jean-Pierre Boyer, ruler of Haiti 1818–1843
Faustin I, from The Illustrated London News, 16 February 1856
German Captain Thiele of the Charlotte handing over the German Ultimatum on 6 December 1897 during the Lüders Affair
U.S. Marines and guide in search of Haitian Cacos fighters against the U.S. occupation of Haiti, c. 1919
The body of caco leader Charlemagne Péralte on display after his execution by US forces; the image was counterproductive, with the resemblance to the deposition of Jesus gaining Péralte the status of national martyr
"Papa Doc" Duvalier in 1968
Jean-Bertrand Aristide returns to Haiti, following the U.S.-led invasion in 1994 designed to remove the regime installed by the 1991 Haitian coup d'état
The Haitian National Palace, located in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, heavily damaged after the earthquake of 2010. This was originally a two-story structure; the second story completely collapsed.
Topographical map of Haiti
Saint-Marc Arrondissement, Artibonite Department
Köppen climate types of Haiti
Saut-d'Eau waterfall
Haiti's border with the Dominican Republic in 2002, showing the extent of deforestation on the Haitian side (left)
The endangered Hispaniolan solenodon, endemic to the island
Jovenel Moïse was the President of Haiti until he was assassinated on 7 July 2021.
Departments of Haiti
Members of the Haitian National Police Force marching band stand at parade
Historical GDP per capita development
A proportional representation of Haiti exports, 2019
Haiti electricity production by source
Power plant in Port-au-Prince
A market in Cap-Haïtien
Rows of cabbage, Haiti
Labadee, a cruise ship destination
Rail map as of 1925
Toussaint L'Ouverture International Airport
A "Tap tap" bus in Port-Salut
Haiti's population (1800–2021)
People in Port-au-Prince
The Universite Roi Henri Christophe in Limonade
Swearing-in ceremony of Haitian Diaspora GwètòDe
Sans-Souci Palace, National History Park, Haiti
Santa María's anchor on display
Haiti national football team training in Port-au-Prince, 2004

Country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea, to the east of Cuba and Jamaica and south of The Bahamas and the Turks and Caicos Islands.

- Haiti

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Dominican Republic

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Country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.

Country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.

St Dominic, the patron saint of astronomers.
The five caciquedoms of Hispaniola
The Spanish Caribbean in 1600
National pantheon in Santo Domingo built from 1714 to 1746
Contemporary map showing the border situation on Hispaniola following the Treaty of Aranjuez (1777)
Hispaniola
Jean-Pierre Boyer, the ruler of Haiti
Juan Pablo Duarte, founding father of the Dominican Republic.
Original flag of the Dominican Republic (up to 1849).
Battle of Las Carreras (April 21, 1849)
Pedro Santana is sworn in as governor-general of the new Spanish province
Battle of Monte Cristi (1864)
President Alejandro Woss y Gil taking office in 1903
Ramón Cáceres
The United States Marine Corps landing on Dominican soil in 1916
Marines of the 4th regiment with a captured rebel "spray gun" at Santiago
The flag of the United States waving over Ozama Fortress during the U.S. occupation of the Dominican Republic, c. 1922
Dominican Republic president elect Horacio Vasquez meeting with United States officials.
Rafael Trujillo imposed a dictatorship of 31 years in the country (1930–1961)
Destruction of Santo Domingo after the 1930 hurricane
Explosion in Paseo Los Próceres during the Betancourt assassination attempt, June 24, 1960
Juan Bosch, the first democratically elected president after the regime of Rafael Trujillo
A Marine heavy machine gunner monitors activity from a street barricade in Santo Domingo
Joaquín Balaguer, was puppet president during the Trujillo dictatorship (1960-1962), and constitutional president of the country for 22 years (1966-1978 and 1986-1996)
Leonel Fernández was president from 1996–2000 & 2004–2012.
Danilo Medina was president from 2012–2020.
2020 Dominican Republic municipal elections protests in Plaza de La Bandera, Santo Domingo.
Luis Abinader, the current president of the Dominican Republic since 2020.
Topographical map of Dominican Republic
Constanza valley
Mangroves in Los Haitises National Park
There are numerous waterfalls across Dominican Republic. In the image the Salto del Limón
Köppen climate types of the Dominican Republic
The National Palace in Santo Domingo
Dominican President Luis Abinader
Dominican soldiers training in Santo Domingo
Provinces of the Dominican Republic
Santo Domingo, Distrito Nacional.
A proportional representation of Dominican Republic exports, 2019
Historical GDP per capita development in the Dominican Republic and Haiti
View of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic capital city.
Cabeza de Toro beach, Punta Cana
Teleférico de Santo Domingo
27 de febrero avenue in Santo Domingo.
A pair of 9000 series are tested on the Santo Domingo Metro.
The Dominican Republic's population (1961–2003)
Population pyramid in 2020
Dominican Republic people in the town of Moca
The Gothic Cathedral of Santa María la Menor, Santo Domingo, is the oldest cathedral in the Americas, built between 1514 and 1541
Family of Japanese descent in Constanza's neighbourhood of Colonia Japonesa
A satellite image of the border between the denuded landscape of Haiti (left) and the Dominican Republic (right), highlighting the deforestation on the Haitian side
Dominicans and Haitians lined up to attend medical providers from the U.S. Army Reserve
Haitian workers being transported in Punta Cana, the Dominican Republic.
Dominican Day Parade in New York City, 2014
Kids taking classes
Campesino cibaeño, 1941 (Museo de Arte Moderno, Santo Domingo)
Church and Convent, Colonial Santo Domingo.
Chicharrón mixto, common dish in the country derived from Andalusia in southern Spain.
Tostones, a fried plantain dish
Merengue and Bachata are both music genres native to Dominican Republic, popular and traditional in Latin America. In the image two icons of these genres Juan Luis Guerra and Romeo Santos
Dominican native, fashion designer and perfume maker Oscar de la Renta
Bayahibe Rose
Dominican native and Major League Baseball player David Ortiz
President Alejandro Woss y Gil taking office in 1903
Joaquín Balaguer, was puppet president during the Trujillo dictatorship (1960-1962), and constitutional president of the country for 22 years (1966-1978 and 1986-1996)
Dominican native and Major League Baseball player Albert Pujols

It occupies the eastern five-eighths of the island, which it shares with Haiti, making Hispaniola one of only two Caribbean islands, along with Saint Martin, that is shared by two sovereign states.

Chiefdoms of Hispaniola

Hispaniola

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Island in the Caribbean that is part of the Greater Antilles.

Island in the Caribbean that is part of the Greater Antilles.

Chiefdoms of Hispaniola
Early map of Hispaniola and Puerto Rico, c. 1639
Fortaleza Ozama
French map of Hispaniola by Nicolas de Fer
Ile de la Tortue (Tortuga island) made Hispaniola a center of pirate activity in the 17th century.
Saint-Domingue slave revolt in 1791
Topographic map
Köppen climate types of the Caribbean region
Satellite image depicting the border between Haiti (left) and the Dominican Republic (right)
Dominican Republic people
Historical GDP per capita development in the Dominican Republic and Haiti
Geologic map of Hispaniola. Mzb are Mesozoic amphibolites and associated metasedimentary rocks, Ki are Cretaceous plutons, Kv are Cretaceous volcanic rocks, uK are Upper Cretaceous marine strata, Ku are Cretaceous sedimentary and volcanic rocks, K are Cretaceous marine strata, IT are Eocene and/or Paleocene marine strata, uT are Post-Eocene marine strata, T are Tertiary marine strata, V are volcanic rocks, and Q are Quaternary alluvium. The black triangles indicate the Late Eocene Hatillo Thrust fault.
Santo Domingo in South Metro
Santiago de los Caballeros in Cibao North
Port-au-Prince in Ouest Metro
Cap Haitien in Nord
Salto de Jalda in Hato Mayor, Dominican Republic, the tallest waterfall in the Caribbean
Les Cayes, Sud, Haiti
Frosted alpine forest in Constanza, Dominican Republic
Tropical rainforest climate in Samana, Dominican Republic
Semi-arid climate in Pedernales, Dominican Republic
Desert sand dunes of Baní, Dominican Republic
Cordillera Central in the Dominican Republic has the highest elevation of the Caribbean
Dominican war against Haiti.

The 76192 km2 island is divided into two separate nations: the Spanish-speaking Dominican Republic (48,445 km2, 18,705 sq mi) to the east and the French / Haitian Creole-speaking Haiti (27,750 km2, 10,710 sq mi) to the west.

Port-au-Prince

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3D computer-generated view, 2010
Map of Hispaniola and Puerto Rico, circa 1639.
Colonial mansion in Port-au-Prince, 18th century
Central Market, Port-au-Prince, 1907
Port-au-Prince, 1920
The Presidential Palace (National Palace) on 13 January 2010, the day after the 2010 earthquake, showing the extensive damage to the edifice.
Heavily damaged areas of the city
City and bay views from the terrace of the Hotel Montana in Pétion-Ville
Aerial view of the city
Artisan in Port-au-Prince.
Hotel Oloffson

Port-au-Prince (Pòtoprens, ) is the capital and most populous city of Haiti.

Collage of the Haitian Revolution

Haitian Revolution

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Collage of the Haitian Revolution
Haiti at the beginning of the Haitian revolution in 1791.
Jean-Baptiste Belley, as depicted by Anne-Louis Girodet de Roussy-Trioson.
Slave rebellion of 1791
General Toussaint Louverture.
Battle at "Snake Gully" in 1802
France's Leclerc Expedition to Haiti in 1804
Battle of Vertières in 1803
Dessalines valiantly proclaiming Haitian independence.
An 1806 engraving of Jean-Jacques Dessalines. It depicts the general, sword raised in one arm, while the other holds a severed head of a white woman.
Saint-Domingue slave revolt in 1791

The Haitian Revolution (révolution haïtienne ; revolisyon ayisyen) was a successful insurrection by self-liberated slaves against French colonial rule in Saint-Domingue, now the sovereign state of Haiti.

French Colony of Saint-Domingue

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French map of Saint-Domingue French colony in Hispanola island, by Nicolas de Fer
A Saint Dominican servant boy and his mother
Drawing of a slave sale aboard the Marie Séraphique in the waters off Cap‑Français, 1773
Jean-Baptiste Belley, an affranchi who became a rich planter, elected member of the Estates General for Saint-Domingue, and later Deputy of the French National Convention
A Saint Dominican girl with her nanny
Slaves cutting a sugar cane field. A black commander speaks with a plantation steward.
A rich Creole planter and his wife
A picture showing the distance between Saint Domingue & France.
A Saint Dominican Creole woman smelling a flower.
A Creole plantation.
A Saint Dominican Creole general.
Creoles in elegant dress
Slaves having a stick fight. A white engagé (indentured servant) is on the left.
Maroons preparing to ambush a convoy
The Saint-Domingue slave revolt in 1791
Creole rebel leader, Jean-Baptiste Chavannes
Toussaint L'Ouverture with Sonthonax
Republican abolitionist and Jacobin Léger-Félicité Sonthonax
Haitian Revolutionary flag (1803)
The Vicomte de Rochambeau in Saint-Domingue
The Battle of Palm Tree Hill
Atrocities committed by the French expeditionary forces under the Vicomte de Rochambeau
The assassination of Emperor Jean-Jacques Dessalines, 	17 October 1806
A Democratic publication of Republicans dancing the "San Domingo" war dance for freed slaves, 1872.

Saint-Domingue was a West Indian French colony from 1659 to 1804 on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola, the island on which the countries of the Dominican Republic and Haiti are presently located.

List of communes of Haiti

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The commune is the third-level divisions of Haiti.

The heavily damaged National Palace of Haiti after the earthquake

2010 Haiti earthquake

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The heavily damaged National Palace of Haiti after the earthquake
USGS intensity map
Map showing regional tectonic setting of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone
Tiny dots of white against the plant-covered landscape (red in this image) are possible landslides, a common occurrence in mountainous terrain after large earthquakes. The Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone runs along the two linear valleys at the top of the image
History of the main shock and aftershocks with magnitudes larger than 4.0, data from USGS
Damaged buildings in Port-au-Prince
Damaged buildings in Jacmel
Large portions of the National Palace collapsed
Léogâne, close to the earthquake epicenter
Assistance camp set up by the Brazilian Army.
Urban Search and Rescue specialists work at the Hôtel Montana
The Haitian government began a programme to move homeless people out of Port-au-Prince on a ferry to Port Jeremie and in hired buses to temporary camps
One of the first parachute air drops after the quake, 18 January
A Haitian boy receives treatment at a MINUSTAH logistics base
Israeli and U.S. medical personnel coordinate relief efforts.
Heavy-lift helicopters ferry water from the offshore flotilla, 15 January
Having lost their homes, many Haitians moved to live in precarious camps
Haitian survivors were transferred to rescue ships for medical aid
MINUSTAH troops meet a U.S. relief flight on 16 January
UN forces took to patrolling the streets of Port-au-Prince
A USAF pararescueman searching through demolished buildings in Port-au-Prince for survivors
Helicopters transfer injured earthquake victims to hospital ship USNS Comfort off the coast of Haiti
While international efforts received significant media coverage, much of the local rescue effort was conducted by Haitians
A woman is rescued alive from rubble several days after the initial quake
A Haitian child is treated aboard a hospital ship
Landing ships move supplies onshore from the rescue fleet
Haitians await the opening of a supply depot, 16 January
Planes loaded with aid supplies crowd the tarmac at Port-au-Prince airport, waiting to be unloaded, 18 January
The UN Development Programme employed hundreds of Haitians to clear roads and to make fuel pellets in a cash-for-work scheme
South Korea's National Rescue Services team
A US mobile air traffic control tower is moved to Haiti by an Antonov An-124 Ruslan
Remnants of the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Assumption after its collapse. In 2020, the building is still in ruins.

A catastrophic magnitude 7.0 Mw earthquake struck Haiti at 16:53 local time (21:53 UTC) on Tuesday, 12 January 2010.

Cuba

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Island country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.

Island country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.

Monument of Hatuey, an early Taíno chief of Cuba
Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar, conquistador of Cuba
A map of Cuba, circa 1680
Map of Cuba by Cornelius Wytfliet in 1597 (National Library of Sweden)
A painting of the British capture of Havana in 1762
Slaves in Cuba unloading ice from Maine, c. 1832
Carlos Manuel de Céspedes is known as Father of the Homeland in Cuba, having declared the nation's independence from Spain in 1868.
Calixto García, a general of Cuban separatist rebels (right) with U.S. Brigadier General William Ludlow (Cuba, 1898)
Cuban victims of Spanish reconcentration policies
Raising the Cuban flag on the Governor General's Palace at noon on 20 May 1902
The Pentarchy of 1933. Fulgencio Batista, who controlled the armed forces, appears at far right
Slum (bohio) dwellings in Havana, Cuba in 1954, just outside Havana baseball stadium. In the background is advertising for a nearby casino.
Che Guevara and Fidel Castro, photographed by Alberto Korda in 1961
Since 1959, Cuba has regarded the U.S. presence in Guantánamo Bay as illegal.
Fidel Castro and members of the East German Politburo in 1972
Raúl Castro and U.S. President Barack Obama at their joint press conference in Havana, Cuba, 21 March 2016
The headquarters of the Communist Party
Propaganda sign in front of the United States Interests Section in Havana
Raúl Castro with Mongolian President Elbegdorj during the Moscow Victory Day Parade, 9 May 2015
A Lada Riva police car in Holguín
Provinces of Cuba
Ladies in White demonstration in Havana (April 2012)
Cuban dissidents Antonio Rodiles, Antúnez and Orlando Gutierrez-Boronat in 2017
Historical GDP per capita development
A proportional representation of Cuba, 2019
Cigar production in Santiago de Cuba
Cubans are now permitted to own small businesses in certain sectors.
Tobacco fields in Viñales
Varadero beach
Topographic map of Cuba
Köppen climate classification of Cuba
The Cuban trogon is the island's national bird. Its white, red and blue feathers match those of the Cuban flag.
Mixed heritage is common in Cuba, shown in this 1919 photograph of the Barrientos family, headed by a former Spanish soldier and an indigenous woman from Baracoa, Cuba.
North Hudson, New Jersey, is home to a large Cuban American population.
Havana Cathedral
University of Havana, founded in 1728
Life expectancy development in Cuba
Users of a public WiFi hotspot in Havana, Cuba
A local musical house, Casa de la Trova in Santiago de Cuba
A traditional meal of ropa vieja (shredded flank steak in a tomato sauce base), black beans, yellow rice, plantains and fried yuca with beer
Cuban-style tamales

Cuba is located at the east of the Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico), south of both the American state of Florida and the Bahamas, west of Hispaniola (Haiti/Dominican Republic), and north of both Jamaica and the Cayman Islands.

Caribbean

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Region of the Americas that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.

Region of the Americas that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.

Map of Caribbean region, including dependencies
Map of the Caribbean
A Cuban PT-76 tank crew performing routine security duties in Angola during the Cuban intervention into the country
Tropical monsoon climate in San Andrés island, Caribbean, Colombia.
Köppen climate map of the islands of the Caribbean.
A field in Pinar del Rio planted with Cuban tobacco
Puerto Rico's south shore, from the mountains of Jayuya
Grand Anse beach, St. George's, Grenada
A church cemetery perched in the mountains of Guadeloupe
A view of Nevis island from the southeastern peninsula of Saint Kitts
Spanish Caribbean Islands in the American Viceroyalties 1600
Political evolution of Central America and the Caribbean from 1700 to present
The mostly Spanish-controlled Caribbean in the 16th century
Cayo de Agua, Los Roques Archipelago, Venezuela
Palancar Beach in Cozumel Island, Mexico
Guanaja Island, Bay Islands, Honduras
A linen market in Dominica in the 1770s
Agostino Brunias. Free Women of Color with Their Children and Servants in a Landscape Brooklyn Museum
Asian Indians in the late nineteenth century singing and dancing in Trinidad and Tobago
Street scene, Matanzas, Cuba
Carnival in Trinidad and Tobago
Havana Cathedral (Catholic) in Cuba completed in 1777
Holy Trinity Cathedral, an Anglican Christian cathedral in Trinidad and Tobago
Temple in the Sea, a Hindu mandir in Trinidad and Tobago
Muhammad Ali Jinnah Memorial Masjid, a Muslim masjid in Trinidad and Tobago
A Jewish synagogue in Suriname
A Haitian Vodou alter
Flag of the Caribbean Common Market and Community (CARICOM)
Doubles, one of the national dishes of Trinidad and Tobago
Arroz con gandules, one of the national dishes of Puerto Rico
thumb|Counter-attack by Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces supported by T-34 tanks near Playa Giron during the Bay of Pigs Invasion, 19 April 1961.
thumb|A Marine heavy machine gunner monitors a position along the international neutral corridor in Santo Domingo, 1965.
thumb|A Soviet-made BTR-60 armored personnel carrier seized by US forces during Operation Urgent Fury (1983)
thumb|US Army Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk, Bell AH-1 Cobra and Bell OH-58 Kiowa helicopters on deck of the US Navy aircraft carrier USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN-69) off Haiti, 1994.
Epiphytes (bromeliads, climbing palms) in the rainforest of Dominica.
A green and black poison frog, Dendrobates auratus
Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Guadeloupe.
Costus speciosus, a marsh plant, Guadeloupe.
An Atlantic ghost crab (Ocypode quadrata) in Martinique.
Crescentia cujete, or calabash fruit, Martinique.
Thalassoma bifasciatum (bluehead wrasse fish), over Bispira brunnea (social feather duster worms).
Two Stenopus hispidus (banded cleaner shrimp) on a Xestospongia muta (giant barrel sponge).
A pair of Cyphoma signatum (fingerprint cowry), off coastal Haiti.
The Martinique amazon, Amazona martinicana, is an extinct species of parrot in the family Psittacidae.
Anastrepha suspensa, a Caribbean fruit fly.
Hemidactylus mabouia, a tropical gecko, in Dominica Edited by: Taniya Brooks.
Precolombian languages of the Antilles.Ciboney Taíno, Classic Taíno, and Iñeri were Arawakan, Karina and Yao were Cariban. Macorix, Ciguayo and Guanahatabey are unclassified.
The Battle of the Saintes between British and French fleets in 1782, by Nicholas Pocock
The mostly Spanish-controlled Caribbean in the 18th century

Haiti was the first Caribbean nation to gain independence from European powers (see Haitian Revolution).

Jamaica

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Island country situated in the Caribbean Sea.

Island country situated in the Caribbean Sea.

Henry Morgan was a famous Caribbean pirate, privateer, plantation owner and slaveholder; he had first come to the West Indies as an indentured servant, like most of the early English colonists.
A plantation set alight during the Baptist War of 1831–32
Harbour Street, Kingston, c. 1820
Marcus Garvey, father of the Back to Africa Movement and Jamaica's first National Hero
Michael Manley, Prime Minister 1972–1980 and 1989–1992
Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of Jamaica
Inside the Jamaican Parliament
Jamaican soldiers training to fire the L1A1 Self-Loading Rifle in 2002
Topographic map of Jamaica
Köppen climate classification of Jamaica.
Jamaica's national bird, a red-billed streamertail
Jamaican boa
Jamaican parrotfish
Jamaica's population, 1800–2019
Montego Bay, Jamaica's second-largest city
Northern suburbs of Kingston, Jamaica's capital and largest city
Mandeville Church (est. 1816), an Anglican church in Manchester Parish. Christianity is the largest religion in Jamaica.
A historic Ashura celebration in Jamaica, which is known locally as Hussay or Hosay
Bob Marley, one of the most famous reggae artists from Jamaica
Jamaican curry goat with rice and peas
Jamaica motto on a building at Papine High School in Kingston, Jamaica
Usain Bolt is one of the most prominent sprinters in the world.
A beach in Negril with a hotel and restaurant
James Bond Beach in Oracabessa
A proportional representation of Jamaica exports, 2019
Real GDP per capita development since 1820
Halfway Tree Transport Centre, Kingston
A US Airways aircraft landing at Montego Bay (2013)
Norman Manley International Airport
Jamaica electricity production by source
Jamaica renewable electricity production by source

Jamaica lies about 145 km south of Cuba, and 191 km west of Hispaniola (the island containing the countries of Haiti and the Dominican Republic); the British Overseas Territory of the Cayman Islands lies some 215 km to the north-west.