Hakka people

HakkaHakkasHakka ChineseHakka HanHakka TaiwaneseHakka Association of ThailandChinesecultureHakka communitiesHakka culture
The Hakka, sometimes Hakka Han, are Han Chinese people whose ancestral homes are chiefly in the Hakka-speaking provincial areas of Guangdong, Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Sichuan, Hunan, Zhejiang, Hainan and Guizhou.wikipedia
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Fujian

Fujian ProvinceFukienHokkien
The Hakka, sometimes Hakka Han, are Han Chinese people whose ancestral homes are chiefly in the Hakka-speaking provincial areas of Guangdong, Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Sichuan, Hunan, Zhejiang, Hainan and Guizhou. Hakkas from Chaozhou, Hainan and Fujian are also mistaken to be Chaoshanese, Hainanese and Hokkiens.
Hakka Chinese is also spoken, by the Hakka people in Fujian.

Hakka Chinese

HakkaHakka languageHakka dialect
The Hakka, sometimes Hakka Han, are Han Chinese people whose ancestral homes are chiefly in the Hakka-speaking provincial areas of Guangdong, Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Sichuan, Hunan, Zhejiang, Hainan and Guizhou.
Hakka is one of the major groups of varieties of Chinese, spoken natively by the Hakka people throughout southern China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau and throughout the diaspora areas of East Asia, Southeast Asia, and in overseas Chinese communities around the world.

Overseas Chinese

ChineseChinese diasporaChinese immigrants
The Hakka people have had significant influence on the course of modern Chinese and overseas Chinese history; in particular, they have been a source of many government and military leaders -- in 1984, over half of the Standing Committee of the Politburo were ethnically Hakka.
Overseas Chinese who are ethnically Han Chinese, such as Cantonese, Hoochew, Hokkien, Hakka or Teochew refer to themselves as undefined (Tángrén), pronounced tòhng yàn in Cantonese, toung ning in Hoochew, Tn̂g-lâng in Hokkien and tong nyin in Hakka.

Han Chinese

HanChineseHan people
The Hakka, sometimes Hakka Han, are Han Chinese people whose ancestral homes are chiefly in the Hakka-speaking provincial areas of Guangdong, Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Sichuan, Hunan, Zhejiang, Hainan and Guizhou.
Hoklo immigrants from Quanzhou settled in coastal regions, and those from Zhangzhou tended to gather on inland plains, while the Hakka inhabited hilly areas.

Cantonese people

CantoneseCantonese immigrantsCanton
The Hakka people have a distinct identity from the Cantonese people.
The English name "Canton" derived from Portuguese Cantão or Cidade de Cantão, a muddling of dialectical pronunciations of "Guangdong" (e.g., Hakka Kóng-tûng).

Punti–Hakka Clan Wars

Punti-Hakka Clan Warscontinuous low-level conflictfull-scale war
The bloody Punti-Hakka Clan Wars, which eventually killed some 500,000 Hakkas (or quite possibly even more), saw large-scale massacres against the Hakkas by Cantonese forces.
The Punti–Hakka Clan Wars were a conflict between the Hakka and Cantonese people in Guangdong, China between 1855 and 1867.

Fujian tulou

Fujian ''TulouTulouTulao
A representative sample of Fujian Tulou (consisting of 10 buildings or building groups) in Fujian were inscribed in 2008 as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The Fujian tulou are Chinese rural dwellings unique to the Hakka in the mountainous areas in southeastern Fujian, China.

Tulou

Hakka people built several types of tulou and peasant fortified villages in the mountainous rural parts of far western Fujian and adjacent southern Jiangxi and northern Guangdong regions.
A tulou, or "earthen building", is a traditional communal Hakka people residence found in Fujian, in South China, usually of a circular configuration surrounding a central shrine, and part of Hakka architecture.

Lo Hsiang-lin

Xianglin Luo
The study by Lo Hsiang-lin, K'o-chia Yen-chiu Tao-Liu / An Introduction to the Study of the Hakkas (Hsin-Ning & Singapore, 1933) used genealogical sources of family clans from various southern counties.
Lo Hsiang-lin (1906–1978) was one of the most renowned researchers in Hakka language and culture.

Kangxi Emperor

KangxiKangxi eraKangxi period
During the reign of the Kangxi Emperor (1661–1722) in the Qing dynasty, the coastal regions were evacuated by imperial edict for almost a decade, due to the dangers posed by the remnants of the Ming court who had fled to the island of Taiwan.
The financial and other incentives to new settlers particularly drew the Hakka, who would have continuous low-level conflict with the returning Punti people for the next few centuries.

Shenzhen

Shenzhen, ChinaShenzenShenzhen, Guangdong
Worldwide, over 95% of the overseas-descended Hakkas came from this Guangdong region, usually from Meizhou and Heyuan as well as other towns such as Shenzhen, Jieyang, Dongguan and Huizhou.
The Hakka people also have a history in Shenzhen since 300 years ago when they first immigrated.

Heyuan

Heiyuan CityHeyuan CityHeyuan, GD
Worldwide, over 95% of the overseas-descended Hakkas came from this Guangdong region, usually from Meizhou and Heyuan as well as other towns such as Shenzhen, Jieyang, Dongguan and Huizhou.
The majority of the people are Hakka.

Ngái people

Ngáiknown as Ngai peopleNgai
The Hakka have emigrated to many regions worldwide, notably Taiwan, Suriname, India, Bangladesh, Vietnam (known as Ngai people), Thailand, Singapore, Brunei, Malaysia, Indonesia, Timor-Leste and Burma.
The Ngái (Người Ngái) are a Hakka people in Vietnam and other nearby countries of Indochina, who originally come from southern China.

Guangdong

Guangdong ProvinceCantonKwangtung
The Hakka, sometimes Hakka Han, are Han Chinese people whose ancestral homes are chiefly in the Hakka-speaking provincial areas of Guangdong, Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Sichuan, Hunan, Zhejiang, Hainan and Guizhou.
Two other major groups are the Teochew people in Chaoshan and the Hakka people in Huizhou, Meizhou, Heyuan, Shaoguan and Zhanjiang.

Chaozhou

TeochewChaozhou CityChiuchow
Hakkas from Chaozhou, Hainan and Fujian are also mistaken to be Chaoshanese, Hainanese and Hokkiens.
The three peaks of Jinshan, Mingshan, and Dushan are collectively known as the Sanshan Guowang or Lords of the Three Mountains and are venerated in temples, particularly by the Hakka people worldwide.

Yong tau foo

yen ta foHakka stuffed tofungiong teu fu
A popular dish known as Yong Tau Foo is a Hakka Chinese food consisting primarily of tofu that has been filled with either a ground meat mixture or fish paste (surimi).
It is commonly found in parts of China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand, and in cities where there are large Hakka, Teochew and Hokkien populations.

Meinong District

MeinongMeinong, Kaohsiung
Taiwan's Hakka population concentrates in Hsinchu and Hsinchu County, Miaoli County, and around Zhongli District in Taoyuan City, and Meinong District in Kaohsiung, and in Pingtung County, with smaller presences in Hualien County and Taitung County.
Meinong District (WG: Meinung, Hakka: 瀰濃 Mî-nùng, ) is a Hakka district in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Hsinchu County

HsinchuCountyXīnzhú
Taiwan's Hakka population concentrates in Hsinchu and Hsinchu County, Miaoli County, and around Zhongli District in Taoyuan City, and Meinong District in Kaohsiung, and in Pingtung County, with smaller presences in Hualien County and Taitung County.
The population of the county is mainly Hakka; there is a Taiwanese aboriginal minority in the southeastern part of the county.

Zhongli District

ZhongliZhongli CityChungli
Taiwan's Hakka population concentrates in Hsinchu and Hsinchu County, Miaoli County, and around Zhongli District in Taoyuan City, and Meinong District in Kaohsiung, and in Pingtung County, with smaller presences in Hualien County and Taitung County.
Ethnically, it is considered a kind of capital city for the Hakka Taiwanese, who live in great numbers here and in surrounding areas; a lot of the elderly could speak Hakka in addition to Mandarin and Taiwanese Hokkien.

Taiwanese people

Taiwanesepeople of TaiwanTaiwan
Hakka people comprise about 15 to 20% of the population of Taiwan and form the second-largest ethnic group on the island.
The category of Han Chinese consists of the three main groups: Hoklo, Hakka, and mainland Chinese.

Sha Tau Kok

Sha Tau Kok ChuenSha Tau Kok DistrictShataukok
As the strong Punti lineages dominated most of the north western New Territories, Hakka communities began to organise local alliances of lineage communities such as the Sha Tau Kok Alliance of Ten or Shap Yeuk as Patrick Hase writes.
Most of its residents are from Hakka farming or Hoklo (Hokkien) fishing backgrounds.

Varieties of Chinese

ChineseSiniticChinese varieties
They did not distinguish what Chinese variety the population spoke.

Jiangxi

Jiangxi ProvinceKiangsiJiangsi
The Hakka, sometimes Hakka Han, are Han Chinese people whose ancestral homes are chiefly in the Hakka-speaking provincial areas of Guangdong, Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Sichuan, Hunan, Zhejiang, Hainan and Guizhou.
99.73% of that is Han Chinese, predominantly Gan and Hakka.

Languages of Taiwan

TaiwaneseTaiwanese languages18
In Taiwan, the Ministry of Education named "Taiwanese Hakka Chinese" as one of the languages of Taiwan.
(Before 1945, Japanese was the official language and taught in schools.) Since then, Mandarin has been established as a lingua franca among the various groups in Taiwan: the majority Taiwanese-speaking Hoklo (Hokkien), the Hakka who have their own spoken language, the aboriginals who speak aboriginal languages; as well as Mainland Chinese immigrated in 1949 whose native tongue may be any Chinese variant.

Pingtung County

PingtungPing-TungPingtung County, Taiwan
Taiwan's Hakka population concentrates in Hsinchu and Hsinchu County, Miaoli County, and around Zhongli District in Taoyuan City, and Meinong District in Kaohsiung, and in Pingtung County, with smaller presences in Hualien County and Taitung County.
In 1664, the Hakka settlers arrived from mainland China and farmed under a homesteading system introduced by Zheng Jing.