Half-track

halftrackhalf-trackshalf trackhalftracksCitroën P17German half-trackhalf trackedhalf-track vehicleshalf-tracked armored carriershalf-tracked vehicle
A half-track is a civilian or military vehicle with regular wheels at the front for steering and continuous tracks at the back to propel the vehicle and carry most of the load.wikipedia
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Tank steering systems

complex steering mechanismscontrolled differentialMerritt-Brown triple differential
The main advantage of half-tracks over wheeled vehicles is that the tracks reduced the pressure on any given area of the ground by spreading the vehicle's weight over a larger area, which gives it greater mobility over soft terrain like mud and snow, while they do not require the complex steering mechanisms of fully tracked vehicles, relying instead on their front wheels to direct the vehicle, augmented in some cases by track braking controlled by the steering wheel.
The half-tracks avoid this by combining steerable wheels and fixed-speed tracks.

Adolphe Kégresse

Adolphe Kegresse
The French engineer Adolphe Kégresse converted a number of cars from the personal car pool of the Tsar of Russia to half-tracks in 1911.
Adolphe Kégresse (1879, Héricourt, Haute-Saône - 1943) was a French military engineer who invented the half-track and dual clutch transmission.

Kégresse track

KégresseKegresse trackBelt track
His system was named after him: the Kégresse track, which used a flexible belt rather than interlocking metal segments.
It can be fitted to a conventional car or truck to turn it into a half-track, suitable for use over rough or soft ground.

Linn tractor

Linn Tractors
Stability issues, together with a dispute between Linn and Lombard, led Linn to create the Linn Manufacturing Company, builder of the Linn tractor, for building and putting onto the market his own improved civilian halftrack-style machines.
The Linn tractor is a heavy duty civilian half-track or crawler tractor invented by Holman Harry Linn.

Artillery tractor

prime movergun tractorartillery tractors
Its tractors replaced horses and were widely used by the Allies as artillery tractors and for hauling supplies.
It may be wheeled, tracked, or half-tracked.

Snowmobile

snowmobilingsnowmobilessnow mobile
Also of note are the "snowmobile" attachments for automobiles built by the White Motor Company, Snowbird and others, for converting Fords to halftrack configuration, which could use skis instead of wheels for steering.
These used a flexible belt rather than interlocking metal segments and could be fitted to a conventional car or truck to turn it into a half-track, suitable for use over soft ground, including snow.

M2 half-track car

M2 Half Track CarM2M2 half-track
The White Motor Company, which had designed armored cars for the United States Army and United States Marines, continued after the First World War to develop armored cars and added tracks for the M2 Half Track Car and M3 Half-track. Half-tracks were used extensively in World War II, especially by the Germans with their armored Demag-designed Sd.Kfz. 250s and Hanomag-designed Sd.Kfz. 251s; and by the Americans with their M2s and M3s.
The M2 half-track car is an armored half-track produced by the United States during World War II.

M3 half-track

M3 HalftrackM3M3A1 Half-track
The White Motor Company, which had designed armored cars for the United States Army and United States Marines, continued after the First World War to develop armored cars and added tracks for the M2 Half Track Car and M3 Half-track. Half-tracks were used extensively in World War II, especially by the Germans with their armored Demag-designed Sd.Kfz. 250s and Hanomag-designed Sd.Kfz. 251s; and by the Americans with their M2s and M3s.
The M3 half-track was an American armored personnel carrier half-track widely used by the Allies during World War II and in the Cold War.

Sd.Kfz. 250

250Sd.Kfz. 250/10Sd.Kfz. 250/11
Half-tracks were used extensively in World War II, especially by the Germans with their armored Demag-designed Sd.Kfz. 250s and Hanomag-designed Sd.Kfz. 251s; and by the Americans with their M2s and M3s.
250' (German: Sonderkraftfahrzeug'' 250; 'special motor vehicle') was a light armoured halftrack, very similar in appearance to the larger Hanomag-designed Sd.Kfz. 251, and built by the DEMAG firm, for use by Nazi Germany in World War II.

Sd.Kfz. 251

halftracksOT-810Armored Personnel Carriers
Half-tracks were used extensively in World War II, especially by the Germans with their armored Demag-designed Sd.Kfz. 250s and Hanomag-designed Sd.Kfz. 251s; and by the Americans with their M2s and M3s.
251' (Sonderkraftfahrzeug 251'') half-track was a World War II German armored fighting vehicle designed by the Hanomag company, based on its earlier, unarmored Sd.Kfz. 11 vehicle.

Maultier

Sd.Kfz. 3
Maultier half-tracks used to transport supplies to forward units were essentially civilian trucks which had had their rear axles replaced by Panzer I or Panzer II running gear.
3''' (en: "Mule") is the name given to series of half-track trucks used by Germans during World War II.

Continuous track

trackedcaterpillar tracktracked vehicle
A half-track is a civilian or military vehicle with regular wheels at the front for steering and continuous tracks at the back to propel the vehicle and carry most of the load.
This dispute resulted in Linn departing Maine and relocating to Morris, New York, to build an improved, contour following flexible lag tread or crawler with independent suspension of halftrack type, gasoline and later diesel powered.

NSU Motorenwerke

NSUNSU Motorenwerke AGNSU Sportmax
Built by NSU Motorenwerke AG Neckarsulm and Stoewer Werke Stettin, a total of 8,345 vehicles were produced between 1940 and 1944.
During World War II NSU produced the Kettenkrad, the NSU HK101, a half-tracked motorcycle with the engine of the Opel Olympia.

Sd.Kfz. 9

18t German half-tracksSd.Kfz. 9 ''Famo
A common feature of virtually all German World War II half-tracks was the so-called Schachtellaufwerk overlapped/interleaved roadwheel arrangement with a "slack track" system possessing no return rollers under the return run of track, used from the small Kettenkrad to the nine-tonne capacity Sd.Kfz. 9 vehicle, and most famously used on Henschel's Tiger I and MAN's Panther main battle tanks.
9''' (also known as "Famo" ) was a German half-track that saw widespread use in World War II, and the heaviest half-track vehicle of any type built in quantity in Nazi Germany during the war years.

Sd.Kfz. 10

Sd.Kfz. 10/1
10 (Sonderkraftfahrzeug – special motorized vehicle''') was a German half-track that saw widespread use in World War II.

Sd.Kfz. 7

Sd.Kfz. 7/1launch control vehicle
7''' was a half-track military vehicle used by the German Wehrmacht Heer, Luftwaffe and Waffen-SS during the Second World War.

Schwerer Wehrmachtschlepper

Schwere WehrmachtschlepperSchwerer Wehrmachtsschlepperits likely replacement
A replacement half-track design introduced later in World War II, the 1943-introduced Schwerer Wehrmachtschlepper, was meant to replace the 3-tonne and 5-tonne capacity models - only some 825 examples were built before the war's end.
The Schwerer Wehrmachtschlepper (Heavy Military Tractor), or sWS, was a German World War II half-track vehicle used in various roles between 1943 and 1945.

Sd.Kfz. 11

Sd. Kfz. 11/1
11 (Sonderkraftfahrzeug - special motorized vehicle''') was a German half-track that saw widespread use in World War II.

White Motor Company

WhiteWhite Motor CorporationWhite Motor
In America, 43,000 halftracks were produced by three primary manufacturers, the largest being the White Motor Company, the original designer, with a total of 15,414 accepted by the War Department.
White also built the later M2, M3, M13, and M16 half-tracks.

Sd.Kfz. 8

Sd.Kfz.6,7,8
The Sonderkraftfahrzeug 8 ("special motorized vehicle 8") was a German half-track that saw widespread use in World War II.

Sd.Kfz. 6

6' (Sonderkraftfahrzeug'' 6) was a half-track military vehicle used by the German Wehrmacht during the Second World War.

Anti-aircraft warfare

anti-aircraftanti-aircraft gunair defense
Half-tracks were widely used as mortar carriers, self-propelled anti-aircraft guns, self-propelled anti-tank guns, armored fighting vehicles and in other tasks.
Their needs could cogently be met with smaller-calibre ordnance beyond using the usual singly-mounted M2 .50 caliber machine gun atop a tank's turret, as four of the ground-used "heavy barrel" (M2HB) guns were mounted together on the American Maxson firm's M45 Quadmount weapon (as a direct answer to the Flakvierling), which were often mounted on the back of a half-track to form the Half Track, M16 GMC, Anti-Aircraft.

Autocar Company

AutocarThe Autocar CompanyAutocar Truck 1925
The other manufacturers, Autocar and Diamond T, built 12,168 and 12,421, respectively.
During World War II, Autocar supplied 50,000 units to the military, including specialty vehicles such as half-tracks; during its entire prewar history, the company had only built 70,000 units.

Anti-tank warfare

anti-tankanti-tank weaponanti-armor
Half-tracks were widely used as mortar carriers, self-propelled anti-aircraft guns, self-propelled anti-tank guns, armored fighting vehicles and in other tasks.
Because tanks were usually accompanied by infantry mounted on trucks or half-tracked vehicles that lacked overhead armor, field artillery that fired a mix of ground and air-burst ammunition was likely to inflict heavy casualties on the infantry as well.

Panther tank

PantherPanthersPanzer V
A common feature of virtually all German World War II half-tracks was the so-called Schachtellaufwerk overlapped/interleaved roadwheel arrangement with a "slack track" system possessing no return rollers under the return run of track, used from the small Kettenkrad to the nine-tonne capacity Sd.Kfz. 9 vehicle, and most famously used on Henschel's Tiger I and MAN's Panther main battle tanks.
Interleaved wheels had long been standard on all German half-tracks.