Han dynasty

Eastern Han dynastyHanWestern Han dynastyEastern HanWestern HanHan EmpireHan ChinaHan periodLater HanFormer Han
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD).wikipedia
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Three Kingdoms

Three Kingdoms periodThree Kingdoms eraThe Three Kingdoms
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD).
It started with the end of the Han dynasty and was followed by the Jin dynasty.

Emperor Gaozu of Han

Liu BangEmperor GaozuEmperor Gao
It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang.
Emperor Gaozu of Han (256 BCE – 1 June 195 BCE), born Liu Bang, was the founder and first emperor of the Han dynasty, reigning from 202 – 195 BCE.

Society and culture of the Han dynasty

cultural consolidationdedicated to the worship of deitiesfarmers and soldiers
The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society.
The Han dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE) was a period of Ancient China divided into the Western Han (206 BCE – 9 CE) and Eastern Han (25–220 CE) periods, when the capital cities were located at Chang'an and Luoyang, respectively.

Government of the Han dynasty

governmentHan governmentMinister Coachman
He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class.
The Han dynasty (202 BC – 220 AD) of ancient China was the second imperial dynasty of China, following the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC).

Wang Mang

Emperor of ChinainterruptionTenpō
It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang.
Wang Mang (, c. 45 – 6 October 23 AD), courtesy name Jujun, was a Han dynasty official and consort kin who seized the throne from the Liu family and founded the Xin (or Hsin, meaning "renewed") dynasty, ruling 9–23 AD.

Han Chinese

HanChineseHan people
To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" (Han Zu) and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters".
The Han dynasty is considered to be one of the first great eras in Chinese history, as it made China the major regional power in East Asia and projected much of its influence on its neighbours while rivalling the Roman Empire in population size and geographical reach.

Emperor Wu of Han

Emperor WuHan WudiLiu Che
From the reign of Emperor Wu (r.
Emperor Wu of Han (30 July 157BC – 29 March 87BC), born Liu Che, courtesy name Tong, was the seventh emperor of the Han dynasty of China, ruling from 141–87 BC.

Economy of the Han dynasty

Han-dynasty Chineseage of economic prosperityan early 1st-century BC tomb
The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c.
The Han dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD) of ancient China experienced contrasting periods of economic prosperity and decline.

Military of the Han dynasty

Army of the Han dynastycivil warEastern Han military
To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty.
The military of the Han dynasty was the military apparatus of China from 202 BC to 220 AD, with a brief interregnum by the reign of Wang Mang and his Xin dynasty from 9 AD to 23 AD, followed by two years of civil war before the refounding of the Han.

Science and technology of the Han dynasty

Han dynastyminiature ceramic modelsmost advanced technology
Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer employing an inverted pendulum that could be used to discern the cardinal direction of distant earthquakes.
The Han dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE) of ancient China, divided between the eras of Western Han (206 BCE – 9 CE, when the capital was at Chang'an), Xin dynasty of Wang Mang (r.

Tang dynasty

TangTang ChinaTang Empire
The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD).
Tang territory, acquired through the military campaigns of its early rulers, rivaled that of the Han dynasty.

Rebellion of the Seven States

Rebellion of the Seven PrincesChumajor rebellion
These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States.
The Rebellion of the Seven States or Revolt of the Seven Kingdoms took place in 154 BC against China's Han dynasty by its regional semi-autonomous kings, to resist the emperor's attempt to centralize the government further.

Kings of the Han dynasty

Kingprince of the Han dynastyprince
The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms.
After Liu Bang defeated Xiang Yu and proclaimed himself emperor of the Han dynasty, he followed the practice of Xiang Yu and enfeoffed many generals, noblemen, and imperial relatives as kings, the same title borne by the sovereigns of the Shang and Zhou dynasties and by the rulers of the Warring States.

Emperor of China

emperoremperors of ChinaChinese emperor
The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society.
Under the Han dynasty, Confucianism replaced Legalism as the official political theory and succession theoretically followed agnatic primogeniture.

Xin dynasty

Xindynastic turbulencethe regime
It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang.
It is often considered an interregnum period of the Han dynasty, dividing it into the Western Han and the Eastern Han.

Dong Zhongshu

Tung Chung-shu
141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu.
Dong Zhongshu (179–104 BC) was a Han Dynasty Chinese philosopher, politician, and writer.

Confucianism

ConfucianConfucianistConfucian philosophy
141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu.
During the Han dynasty (206 BCE–220 CE), Confucian approaches edged out the "proto-Taoist" Huang–Lao as the official ideology, while the emperors mixed both with the realist techniques of Legalism.

Ancient Chinese coinage

Chinese coinChinese coinscoins
The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD).
At first the distribution of the coinage was limited to use around the capital city district, but by the beginning of the Han Dynasty, coins were widely used for such things as paying taxes, salaries and fines.

Han–Xiongnu War

Han-Xiongnu Warbattles against the Xiongnucampaigns against the Xiongnu
Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them.
The Han–Xiongnu War, also known as the Sino–Xiongnu War, was a series of military battles fought between the Chinese Han Empire and the Xiongnu confederation from 133 BC to 89 AD.

Southward expansion of the Han dynasty

expansion southwardconquest of those regionsexpanded
Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC.
The Southward expansion of the Han dynasty were a series of Chinese military campaigns and expeditions in what is now modern Southern China and Northern Vietnam.

Silk Road

Silk Routesilk tradesilk
These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty and control into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world.
The Silk Road derives its name from the lucrative trade in silk carried out along its length, beginning in the Han dynasty in China (207 BCE–220 CE).

Qin dynasty

QinQin Empire
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD).
Han Confucians portrayed the legalistic Qin dynasty as a monolithic tyranny, notably citing a purge known as the burning of books and burying of scholars although some modern scholars dispute the veracity of these accounts.

Chinese astronomy

ChineseastronomyChinese astronomers
Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer employing an inverted pendulum that could be used to discern the cardinal direction of distant earthquakes.
Detailed records of astronomical observations began during the Warring States period (fourth century BCE) and flourished from the Han period onward.

Chinese mathematics

Chinese mathematicianmathematicsChinese mathematical
Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer employing an inverted pendulum that could be used to discern the cardinal direction of distant earthquakes.
In the Han Dynasty, the Chinese made substantial progress on finding the nth root of a number and solving linear congruence equations.

History of the Han dynasty

fall of QinHan ChineseHan Empire
168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire.
The Han dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE), founded by the peasant rebel leader Liu Bang (known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu), was the second imperial dynasty of China.