Hand-held camera

handheldhandheld camerahand-heldhand-held cinematographyhand-held camera workhand-holdinghandheld camerashand heldhand held camerahand-held cameras
Hand-held camera or hand-held shooting is a filmmaking and video production technique in which a camera is held in the camera operator's hands as opposed to being mounted on a tripod or other base.wikipedia
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Shaky camera

shaky camshaky-camfree camera
Purposeful use of this technique is called shaky camera and can be heightened by the camera operator during filming, or artificially simulated in post-production.
It is a hand-held camera, or given the appearance of being hand-held, and in many cases shots are limited to what one photographer could have accomplished with one camera.

Napoléon (1927 film)

NapoléonNapoleon1927
In January 1925, Abel Gance began shooting Napoléon using a wide variety of innovative techniques, including strapping a camera to a man's chest, a snow sled, a horse's saddle, a pendulum swing, and wrapping a large sponge around a hand-held camera so that it could be punched by actors during a fight scene.
Many innovative techniques were used to make the film, including fast cutting, extensive close-ups, a wide variety of hand-held camera shots, location shooting, point of view shots, multiple-camera setups, multiple exposure, superimposition, underwater camera, kaleidoscopic images, film tinting, split screen and mosaic shots, multi-screen projection, and other visual effects.

Steadicam

steadycamSteadi-Cam Operatorsteadicam operator
The Steadicam, which is not considered to be a "hand-held" camera, uses a stabilizing mount to make smoother shots.
2) The camera operator could simply hold the camera. This manual grip allows speed and flexibility, but even the most skilled operator cannot entirely prevent shaking. Hand-held camera footage has traditionally been considered suitable mostly for documentaries, news, reportage, live action, unrehearsable footage, or the evocation of authentic immediacy or cinéma vérité during dramatic sequences.

Direct Cinema

observational documentary
For some context on this film, relationship of documentary sound and image, and Brault's cinema, see Direct Cinema.
Direct Cinema was made possible, in part, by the advent of light, portable cameras, which allowed the hand-held camera and more intimacy in the filmmaking.

Michel Brault

A hand-held camera was used in 1958 on the documentary film Les Raquetteurs, shot on 35 mm by Michel Brault. This trend, led by Michel Brault, was followed by Raoul Coutard's work in the French New Wave and the cinéma vérité, "fly-on-the-wall" documentary film aesthetic.
Brault was a pioneer of the hand-held camera aesthetic.

Camera angle

camera anglesanglesviewpoint
The film was first shown in 1911 and it included hand-held camera shots as well as innovative camera angles and special film effects.
Some POV shots use hand-held cameras to create the illusion that the viewer is seeing through the subject's eyes.

Raoul Coutard

This trend, led by Michel Brault, was followed by Raoul Coutard's work in the French New Wave and the cinéma vérité, "fly-on-the-wall" documentary film aesthetic.
The black-and-white films, which were mostly shot on lower budgets, make use of hand-held camera work and natural lighting, which lends them an unpolished, documentary quality, crucial to Godard's style, second nature to Coutard.

Stan Brakhage

Brakhageby Brakhage: an AnthologyEyes
Stan Brakhage
Over the course of five decades, Brakhage created a large and diverse body of work, exploring a variety of formats, approaches and techniques that included handheld camerawork, painting directly onto celluloid, fast cutting, in-camera editing, scratching on film, collage film and the use of multiple exposures.

Morris Engel

Morris Engel
Engel was a pioneer in the use of hand-held cameras and nonprofessional actors in his films, using cameras that he helped design, and his naturalistic films influenced future prominent independent and French New Wave filmmakers.

Christopher Nolan

Chris NolanChristopherChristopher Edward Nolan
Christopher Nolan
Aesthetically, the director favours deep, evocative shadows, documentary-style lighting, hand-held camera work, natural settings, and real filming locations over studio work.

Filmmaking

filmmakerfilm productionproduction
Hand-held camera or hand-held shooting is a filmmaking and video production technique in which a camera is held in the camera operator's hands as opposed to being mounted on a tripod or other base.

Video production

video producerproductionproducer
Hand-held camera or hand-held shooting is a filmmaking and video production technique in which a camera is held in the camera operator's hands as opposed to being mounted on a tripod or other base.

Tripod (photography)

tripodtripodsbaseplate
Hand-held camera or hand-held shooting is a filmmaking and video production technique in which a camera is held in the camera operator's hands as opposed to being mounted on a tripod or other base.

Newsreel

newsreelscinema newsreelcinema newsreels
Newsreel camera operators frequently gathered images using a hand-held camera.

Video camera

video camerasVideocamera
Virtually all modern video cameras are small enough for hand-held use, but many professional video cameras are designed specifically for hand-held use such as for electronic news-gathering (ENG), and electronic field production (EFP).

Professional video camera

cameracamerastelevision camera
Virtually all modern video cameras are small enough for hand-held use, but many professional video cameras are designed specifically for hand-held use such as for electronic news-gathering (ENG), and electronic field production (EFP).

Electronic news-gathering

electronic news gatheringENGsatellite news gathering
Virtually all modern video cameras are small enough for hand-held use, but many professional video cameras are designed specifically for hand-held use such as for electronic news-gathering (ENG), and electronic field production (EFP).

Electronic field production

EFPfield producerfield transmission
Virtually all modern video cameras are small enough for hand-held use, but many professional video cameras are designed specifically for hand-held use such as for electronic news-gathering (ENG), and electronic field production (EFP).

Image stabilization

optical image stabilizationOISdigital image stabilization
To prevent shaky shots, a number of image stabilization technologies have been used on hand-held cameras including optical, digital and mechanical methods.

Silent film

silentsilent erasilent films
The first silent film era movie cameras that could be carried by the cameraman were bulky and not very practical to simultaneously support, aim, and crank by hand, yet they were sometimes used in that way by pioneering filmmakers.

Movie camera

motion picture cameracamerafilm cameras
The first silent film era movie cameras that could be carried by the cameraman were bulky and not very practical to simultaneously support, aim, and crank by hand, yet they were sometimes used in that way by pioneering filmmakers.

Auguste and Louis Lumière

Lumière brothersLumièreLouis Lumière
In the 1890s, brothers Auguste and Louis Lumière developed the fairly compact Cinematograph which could be mounted on a tripod or carried by the cameraman, and it also served as the film projector.

Cinematograph

cinématographecinematographekinematograph
In the 1890s, brothers Auguste and Louis Lumière developed the fairly compact Cinematograph which could be mounted on a tripod or carried by the cameraman, and it also served as the film projector.

Wright brothers

Orville WrightWilbur WrightOrville and Wilbur Wright
In 1908 with a hand-held Lumière camera, Wilbur Wright was filmed flying his aircraft on the outskirts of Paris.

Thomas Edison

EdisonThomas Alva EdisonThomas A. Edison
Thomas Edison developed a portable film camera in 1896.