Hand cannon

hand cannonsgonnehand-cannonHandgonneshandgunnershandheld bombardsHand cannon – overviewhand cannoneerhand gonnehand-gun
The hand cannon (Chinese: 手銃), also known as the gonne or handgonne, is the first true firearm and the successor of the fire lance.wikipedia
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Firearm

small armsfirearmssmall-arms
The hand cannon (Chinese: 手銃), also known as the gonne or handgonne, is the first true firearm and the successor of the fire lance. The hand cannon was widely used in China from the 13th century onward and later throughout Europe in the 14th century until at least the 1560s, when it was supplanted by the matchlock arquebus, which is the first firearm to have a trigger.
In the 13th century the Chinese invented the metal-barrelled hand cannon, widely considered the true ancestor of all firearms.

Matchlock

matchlocksDoghead (firearms)gun
Unlike matchlock firearms it requires direct manual external ignition through a touch hole without any form of firing mechanism.
Before this, firearms (like the hand cannon) had to be fired by applying a lit match (or equivalent) to the priming powder in the flash pan by hand; this had to be done carefully, taking most of the soldier's concentration at the moment of firing, or in some cases required a second soldier to fire the weapon while the first held the weapon steady.

Arquebus

arquebusierarquebusiersarquebuses
The hand cannon was widely used in China from the 13th century onward and later throughout Europe in the 14th century until at least the 1560s, when it was supplanted by the matchlock arquebus, which is the first firearm to have a trigger. Improvements in hand cannon and gunpowder technology – corned powder, shot ammunition, and development of the flash pan – led to the invention of the arquebus in late 15th-century Europe.
Although the term arquebus was applied to many different forms of firearms from the 15th to 17th centuries, it originally referred to "a hand-gun with a hook-like projection or lug on its under surface, useful for steadying it against battlements or other objects when firing".

Fire lance

fire lancesfire-lanceprototype firearms
The hand cannon (Chinese: 手銃), also known as the gonne or handgonne, is the first true firearm and the successor of the fire lance.
These are considered to be a proto-gun, the predecessor of the hand cannon, and the ancestor of all firearms.

Heilongjiang hand cannon

earliest survivingthe oldest surviving
The Heilongjiang hand cannon has been dated to no later than 1288, but this dating is based on contextual evidence; the gun bears no inscription or era date.
The Heilongjiang hand cannon or hand-gun is a bronze hand cannon manufactured no later than 1288 and is the world's oldest confirmed surviving firearm.

Gunpowder

black powderpowderblack-powder
Improvements in hand cannon and gunpowder technology – corned powder, shot ammunition, and development of the flash pan – led to the invention of the arquebus in late 15th-century Europe.
In the late 13th century metal fire lances became 'eruptors', proto-cannons firing co-viative projectiles (mixed with the propellant, rather than seated over it with a wad), and by 1287 at the latest, had become true guns, the hand cannon.

Gun barrel

barrelmuzzlebarrels
The hand cannon consists of a barrel, a handle, and sometimes a socket to insert a wooden stock.
The Chinese were also the first to master cast-iron cannon barrels, and used the technology to make the earliest infantry firearms — the hand cannons.

Flash pan

flash in the panpanpriming pan
Later hand cannons have been shown to include a flash pan attached to the barrel and a touch hole drilled through the side wall instead of the top of the barrel.
Flash pans are found on gonnes, matchlocks, wheellocks, snaplocks, snaphances, and flintlocks.

Kobudō

Ko-budōKobudo
The art of firing the hand cannon called Ōzutsu has remained as a Ko-budō martial arts form.

Battle of Ain Jalut

Ain JalutBattle of Ayn Jalut1259 invasion of Syria
The historian Ahmad Y. al-Hassan (2008) argues that several 14th-century Arabic manuscripts, one of which was written by Shams al-Din Muhammad al-Ansari al-Dimashqi (1256–1327), report the use of hand cannons by Mamluk-Egyptian forces against the Mongols at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260.
According to Arabic military treatises of the 13th and 14th centuries, hand cannon were used by the Mamluk side in the Battle of Ain Jalut to frighten the Mongol armies, making this the earliest known battle where hand cannon were used.

Pistol

pistolsrevolvertarget pistol
The first suggestion derives the word from Czech píšťala, a type of hand-cannon used in the Hussite Wars during the 1420s.

Flintlock

Chinese language

ChineseChinese:Regional dialect
The hand cannon (Chinese: 手銃), also known as the gonne or handgonne, is the first true firearm and the successor of the fire lance.

Radical 64

64
The hand cannon (Chinese: 手銃), also known as the gonne or handgonne, is the first true firearm and the successor of the fire lance.

Fire making

Firelightingignitionmaking fire
Unlike matchlock firearms it requires direct manual external ignition through a touch hole without any form of firing mechanism.

Touch hole

spikedspikespiking
Unlike matchlock firearms it requires direct manual external ignition through a touch hole without any form of firing mechanism.

Handgun

handgunspistolpistols
It may also be considered a forerunner of the handgun.

China

People's Republic of ChinaChineseCHN
The hand cannon was widely used in China from the 13th century onward and later throughout Europe in the 14th century until at least the 1560s, when it was supplanted by the matchlock arquebus, which is the first firearm to have a trigger.

Europe

EuropeanEUEuropean continent
The hand cannon was widely used in China from the 13th century onward and later throughout Europe in the 14th century until at least the 1560s, when it was supplanted by the matchlock arquebus, which is the first firearm to have a trigger.

Trigger (firearms)

triggersingle-actiondouble-action
The hand cannon was widely used in China from the 13th century onward and later throughout Europe in the 14th century until at least the 1560s, when it was supplanted by the matchlock arquebus, which is the first firearm to have a trigger.

Yuan dynasty

YuanYuan ChinaYuan Empire
In 1287 Yuan Jurchen troops deployed hand cannons in putting down a rebellion by the Mongol prince Nayan.

Jurchen people

JurchenJurchensJurchen tribes
In 1287 Yuan Jurchen troops deployed hand cannons in putting down a rebellion by the Mongol prince Nayan.

Nayan (Mongol prince)

NayanNai-yanNayan Khan
In 1287 Yuan Jurchen troops deployed hand cannons in putting down a rebellion by the Mongol prince Nayan.

Dazu Rock Carvings

Dazu
The earliest artistic depiction of a hand cannon – a rock sculpture found among the Dazu Rock Carvings – is dated to 1128, earlier than any recorded or precisely dated archaeological samples, so it is possible that the concept of a cannon-like firearm has existed since the 12th century.