Hanjian

traitortreasontraitorsbetrayalbetrayed the SongChineseChinese collaboratorsChinese war criminalHan traitorhon-gan
Not to be confused with Han jian 汗簡, the paleographic dictionary by Guo Zhongshu (d. 977)wikipedia
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Wang Jingwei

Wang Ching-weiWang ZhaomingWang
The most infamous hanjian government in mainland China is Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China, often called the Wang Jingwei regime aptly named after its president Wang Jingwei.
Although he is still regarded as an important contributor in the Xinhai Revolution, his collaboration with Imperial Japan is a subject of academic debate, and the typical narratives often regard him as a traitor in the War of Resistance.

Second Sino-Japanese War

Sino-Japanese WarJapanese invasion of ChinaJapanese invasion
During the Second Sino-Japanese War, the National Revolutionary Army was defeated in various battles by the Imperial Japanese Army.
Japan sought various Chinese collaborators and helped them establish governments friendly to Japan.

Race traitor

race traitorsblood-traitorWhite Race traitors
In Chinese culture, a hanjian is a pejorative term for a race traitor to the Han Chinese state and, to a lesser extent, Han ethnicity.

Taiwanese Imperial Japan Serviceman

Ethnic Taiwanese Imperial Japan Servicemanserved in the Japanese Imperial ArmyTaiwanese serving in the Imperial Japanese Army
Taiwanese soldiers who fought in the Japanese military against Chinese forces and the Allies are also considered to be hanjian.
After Japan's defeat and handover of Taiwan, many veterans who survived the war were persecuted by the Kuomintang (Nationalist) government because the Nationalists saw them as Hanjian (race traitors) for serving in the Japanese military.

Tan Kah Kee

Chen JiagengTan Kah Kee Prize
After the Sook Ching or ethnic cleansing by mass murder of Chinese opposed to the Japanese occupation of Singapore and Malaya in February–March 1942, Tan Kah Kee, a prominent Chinese industrialist and philanthropist in Southeast Asia, proposed to the provisional Republic of China government to treat all Chinese who attempted to negotiate with the Japanese as hanjians.
He strongly rejected proposals to attempt to negotiate with the Japanese and regarded such attempts as characteristic of a hanjian (a Chinese term for race traitor).

Zhou Fohai

He was then sent to Nanjing in Jiangsu Province where he stood trial for treason due to his wartime roles.

Yoshiko Kawashima

Kawashima YoshikoEastern JewelJin Bihui
Charged with treason as a hanjian in 20 October 1947, she was executed by a bullet shot into the back of her head on 25 March 1948, and her body was later put on public display.

Quisling

Han Chinese

HanChineseHan people
In Chinese culture, a hanjian is a pejorative term for a race traitor to the Han Chinese state and, to a lesser extent, Han ethnicity.

Chinese characters

ChineseChinese characterChinese:
As a Chinese term, it is a digraph of the Chinese characters for "Han" and "traitor".

National Revolutionary Army

Chinese Nationalist ArmyNationalist ArmyNRA
During the Second Sino-Japanese War, the National Revolutionary Army was defeated in various battles by the Imperial Japanese Army.

Chiang Kai-shek

Chiang Kai ShekJiang JieshiChiang Kaishek
Chiang Kai-shek explained that hanjian espionage helped the Japanese and ordered CC Clique commander Chen Lifu to arrest the hanjians.

CC Clique

Central Club Clique
Chiang Kai-shek explained that hanjian espionage helped the Japanese and ordered CC Clique commander Chen Lifu to arrest the hanjians.

Chen Lifu

Chen Li-fu
Chiang Kai-shek explained that hanjian espionage helped the Japanese and ordered CC Clique commander Chen Lifu to arrest the hanjians.

Shanghai

Shanghai, ChinaSHAShanghai Municipality
4,000 were arrested in Shanghai and 2,000 in Nanjing.

Nanjing

NankingNanjing, ChinaJinling
4,000 were arrested in Shanghai and 2,000 in Nanjing.

Allies of World War II

AlliedAlliesAllied forces
Taiwanese soldiers who fought in the Japanese military against Chinese forces and the Allies are also considered to be hanjian.

Republic of China (1912–1949)

Republic of ChinaChinaChinese
The Republic of China issued an important law in 1937:"The centerpiece of anti hanjian laws, “Regulations on Handling Hanjian Cases (chuli hanjian anjian tiaoli),” promulgated in August 1937, identified collaborators based on their wartime conduct and stipulated punishments regardless of their age, gender, or ethnicity. Popular anti-hanjian discourse, however, paid particular attention to “female collaborators” and deployed a highly gendered vocabulary to attack hanjian suspects of both sexes. Complementing the legal purge of collaborators, such literature brought extreme pressure on individuals targeted as hanjian and influenced how political crimes should be exposed and transposed onto other aspects of social life."

Nationalist government

Nationalist ChinagovernmentNational Government of the Republic of China
Several Taiwanese were prosecuted by the Nationalist government as hanjian, despite a Judicial Yuan interpretation issued in January 1946 that advised against such action.

Judicial Yuan

Constitutional CourtCouncil of Grand JusticesPresident of the Judicial Yuan
Several Taiwanese were prosecuted by the Nationalist government as hanjian, despite a Judicial Yuan interpretation issued in January 1946 that advised against such action.

Sook Ching

Sook Ching massacreSook Ching Operationpurge of the Chinese population
After the Sook Ching or ethnic cleansing by mass murder of Chinese opposed to the Japanese occupation of Singapore and Malaya in February–March 1942, Tan Kah Kee, a prominent Chinese industrialist and philanthropist in Southeast Asia, proposed to the provisional Republic of China government to treat all Chinese who attempted to negotiate with the Japanese as hanjians.