A report on Haplogroup M (mtDNA)

Hypothesized map of human migration based on mitochondrial DNA

Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.

- Haplogroup M (mtDNA)
Hypothesized map of human migration based on mitochondrial DNA

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Overall

Suggested routes of the initial settlement of Europe based on mtDNA haplogroups M and N, Metspalu et al. 2004. A major population split near the Persian Gulf would explain the ubiquity of Haplogroup N and the absence of Haplogroup M in West Eurasia

Haplogroup N (mtDNA)

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Human mitochondrial DNA clade.

Human mitochondrial DNA clade.

Suggested routes of the initial settlement of Europe based on mtDNA haplogroups M and N, Metspalu et al. 2004. A major population split near the Persian Gulf would explain the ubiquity of Haplogroup N and the absence of Haplogroup M in West Eurasia
Dispersal route of Haplogroup N and its subgroups

Like its sibling macrohaplogroup M, macrohaplogroup N is a descendant of the haplogroup L3.

Contemporary human mtDNA haplogroup distribution, based on analysis of 2,054 individuals from 26 populations. (a) Pie charts on the map. (b) Counts of haplogroups in table format. For populations details, see 1000 Genomes Project.

Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup

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Haplogroup defined by differences in human mitochondrial DNA.

Haplogroup defined by differences in human mitochondrial DNA.

Contemporary human mtDNA haplogroup distribution, based on analysis of 2,054 individuals from 26 populations. (a) Pie charts on the map. (b) Counts of haplogroups in table format. For populations details, see 1000 Genomes Project.
mtDNA haplogroup tree and distribution map. The numbers are haplogroup labels, reported according to the http://www.phylotree.org/ nomenclature, and give the location of one of the mutations leading to the derived haplotype. (Only a single branch defining marker, preferably from the coding region, is shown.) The main geographic features of haplogroup distribution are highlighted with colour.
Dispersal route of human mtDNA haplogroups
Estimated world map of human migrations based on mtDNA haplogroups.

M

Frequency distribution of mtDNA haplogroup C in Eurasia

Haplogroup C (mtDNA)

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Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.

Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.

Frequency distribution of mtDNA haplogroup C in Eurasia
Approximate geographical distribution of the C1 sub-clades.

It is a descendant of the haplogroup M.

Ancient dispersal of haplogroup L3, its descendant M and N lineages, and other mtDNA clades. Numbers represent thousand years before present.

Haplogroup L3 (mtDNA)

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Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.

Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.

Ancient dispersal of haplogroup L3, its descendant M and N lineages, and other mtDNA clades. Numbers represent thousand years before present.
Projected spatial distribution of haplogroup L3 in Africa and the Arabian peninsula.
L3 subclade distribution: L3b, L3d, L3e, L3f, L3h, L3i, L3x and L3w.

L3 is subdivided into several clades, two of which spawned the macrohaplogroups M and N that are today carried by most people outside Africa.

Haplogroup D (mtDNA)

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Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.

Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.

It is a descendant haplogroup of haplogroup M, thought to have arisen somewhere in Asia, between roughly 60,000 and 35,000 years ago (in the Late Pleistocene, before the Last Glacial Maximum and the settlement of the Americas).

Haplogroup G (mtDNA)

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Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.

Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup.

Haplogroup G is a descendant of haplogroup M.

Ainu at a traditional marriage ceremony in Hokkaido.

Ainu people

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The Ainu are the indigenous people of the lands surrounding the Sea of Okhotsk, including Hokkaido Island, Northeast Honshu Island, Sakhalin Island, the Kuril Islands, the Kamchatka Peninsula and Khabarovsk Krai, before the arrival of the Yamato Japanese and Russians.

The Ainu are the indigenous people of the lands surrounding the Sea of Okhotsk, including Hokkaido Island, Northeast Honshu Island, Sakhalin Island, the Kuril Islands, the Kamchatka Peninsula and Khabarovsk Krai, before the arrival of the Yamato Japanese and Russians.

Ainu at a traditional marriage ceremony in Hokkaido.
Ainu at a traditional marriage ceremony in Hokkaido.
Hokkaido Ainu clan leader.
Ainu leader
Historical homeland and distribution of the Ainu people.
1843 illustration of Ainu
Photograph of Tatsujiro Kuzuno, a famous Ainu individual.
Sakhalin Ainu in 1904
A picture of Imekanu, right, with her niece Yukie Chiri, famous Ainu Japanese transcriber and translator of Ainu epic tales. (1922)
Three Ainu from Hokkaidō in traditional dress
Ainu man performing a traditional dance
An Ainu from Shiraoi, Hokkaido, c. 1930
"Ainu men" Department of Anthropology, Japanese exposition, 1904 World's Fair.
Map of pre-1945 distribution of Ainu languages and dialects
Woman playing a tonkori
Ainu ceremonial dress, British Museum
Ainu woman with mouth tattoos and live bear.
Bear hunting, 19th century
Ainu people, c. 1840
An Ainu woman from Hokkaido, c. 1930
Ainu house in Hokkaido
Ainu traditional house. Ainu: "cise".
A traditional Ainu marriage ceremony
Chishima Ainu working
Painting of the Ainu iyomante, bear spirit sending ceremony in Hokkaido (1875)
Ainu traditional ceremony, c. 1930
National Ainu Museum interior
Ainu cultural promotion centre and museum, in Sapporo (Sapporo Pirka Kotan)
The Oki Dub Ainu Band, led by the Ainu Japanese musician Oki, in Germany in 2007
Ainu people in front of a traditional building in Shiraoi, Hokkaido.
Karafuto (Sakhalin) Ainu family behind their house in 1912.
Historical extent of the Ainu
Ainu houses (from Popular Science Monthly Volume 33, 1888).
Plan of an Ainu house.
The family would gather around the fireplace.
Interior of the house of Ainu - Saru River basin.

Based on analysis of one sample of 51 modern Ainu, their mtDNA lineages consist mainly of haplogroup Y [11⁄51 = 21.6% according to Tanaka et al. 2004, or 10⁄51 = 19.6% according to Adachi et al. 2009, who have cited Tajima et al. 2004], haplogroup D [9⁄51 = 17.6%, particularly D4 (xD1)], haplogroup M7a (8⁄51 = 15.7%), and haplogroup G1 (8⁄51 = 15.7%).

The Berber ethnic flag

Berbers

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Ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, specifically Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya, and to a lesser extent Mauritania, northern Mali, and northern Niger.

Ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, specifically Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya, and to a lesser extent Mauritania, northern Mali, and northern Niger.

The Berber ethnic flag
The Berber ethnic flag
Hoggar painting, Tassili n'Ajjer
An Egyptian statuette representing a Libyan Libu Berber from the reign of RamesesII (19th Dynasty) in 1279–1213 BCE. (Louvre Museum, Paris)
A faience tile from the throne of Pharaoh Ramesses III depicting a tattooed ancient Libyan chief c. undefined 1184 to 1153 BC
Ancient Libyan delegation at Persepolis
Heracles wrestling with the Libyan giant Antaeus
Berber Kingdoms in Numidia, c. 220 BC (green: Masaesyli under Syphax; gold: Massyli under Gala, father of Masinissa; further east: city-state of Carthage).
Masinissa (c. 240), King of Numidia, Berber and Roman script
A map of Numidia
Mauretanian cavalry under Lusius Quietus fighting in the Dacian wars, from the Column of Trajan
Fernández de Lugo presenting the captured Guanche kings of Tenerife to Ferdinand and Isabella, 1497
Tlemcen, Patio of the Zianids
Berber architecture as seen in the Grande Poste d'Alger building in Algiers
A statue of Dihya, a seventh-century female Berber religious and military leader
The Almohad Empire, a Berber empire that lasted from 1121 to 1269
Castillian ambassadors meeting Almohad caliph Abu Hafs Umar al-Murtada, contemporary depiction from the Cantigas de Santa Maria
Old fortress at Calatrava la Vieja. The site was used during the Muslim period from about 785 until the fall of the Caliphate of Cordova.
An old Amazigh room in Morocco
Origin and conquests of the Fatimids
The Almoravid realm at its greatest extent, c. 1120
Berber village in the High Atlas mountains of Morocco
Abd el-Krim featured in the magazine Time in 1925
Sanhaja Berber women in the 1970s
Berber village in the Atlas mountains
Areas in North Africa where Berber languages are spoken
Zinedine Zidane, born to Berber parents from Algeria (Kabyle; Berbers in France)
The mausoleum of Madghacen
Traditional Berber penannular brooch, a custom dating from the pre-Abrahamic era.
Arius
Saint Augustine
Tertullian
Tariq ibn Ziyad, Berber Muslim and Umayyad general who led the conquest of Visigothic Hispania in 711
Over a period of thirty years (1325–1354), Moroccan Berber traveller Ibn Battuta visited most of the known Islamic world as well as many non-Muslim lands.
The most common traditional music instruments
The fantasia festival, 19th-century illustration
Remains of Germa, a capital of the Garamantes (first millennium BC)
Numidian tomb of Medracen (c. 200-150 BC)
Numidian mausoleum of Dougga, example of a "tower tomb" (2nd century BC)
The Kutubiyya Mosque in Marrakesh, built by the Almohads in the 12th century
The ksar of Aït Benhaddou in Morocco
Ksar Ouled Soltane, an example of a multi-level ghorfa in southern Tunisia
The Fadhloun Mosque in Djerba (Tunisia), an example of a traditional "fortified mosque"
The central mosque in Ghardaïa, an example of local architecture in the M'zab region (Algeria)
Berber henna decoration
Detail of a traditional Berber carpet
Algerian Berber calendar
Ancient Tifinagh scripts in Algeria
Jewelry from Kabylia region, Algeria
Customized tajine
Couscous
Turkey tajine
Demonstration of Kabyles in Paris, April 2016

Human fossils excavated at the Ifri n'Amr ou Moussa site in Morocco have been radiocarbon dated to the Early Neolithic period, c. 5,000 BC. Ancient DNA analysis of these specimens indicates that they carried paternal haplotypes related to the E1b1b1b1a (E-M81) subclade and the maternal haplogroups U6a and M1, all of which are frequent among present-day communities in the Maghreb.

Haplogroup Map of the World

Haplogroup

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Group of alleles in an organism that are inherited together from a single parent, and a haplogroup is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor with a single-nucleotide polymorphism mutation.

Group of alleles in an organism that are inherited together from a single parent, and a haplogroup is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor with a single-nucleotide polymorphism mutation.

Haplogroup Map of the World
All of these molecules are part of the ancestral haplogroup, but at some point in the past a mutation occurred in the ancestral molecule, mutation A, which produced a new lineage; this is haplogroup A and is defined by mutation A. At some more recent point in the past, a new mutation, mutation B, happened in a person carrying haplogroup A; mutation B defined haplogroup B. Haplogroup B is a subgroup, or subclade of haplogroup A; both haplogroups A and B are subclades of the ancestral haplogroup.
Human migrations and mitochondrial haplogroups
Map of human haplotype migration, according to mitochondrial DNA, with key (coloured) indicating periods in numbered thousands of years before the present.
Y-DNA haplogroups map of the world

M,

Iberomaurusian

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Backed bladelet lithic industry found near the coasts of Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia.

Backed bladelet lithic industry found near the coasts of Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia.

The ancient Taforalt individuals carried the mtDNA Haplogroup N subclades like U6 and M which points to population continuity in the region dating from the Iberomaurusian period.