Harm reduction

harm minimisationharm-reductionharm minimizationharms reductionreduce harmreducing harmwet shelterAlcohol Harm Reductionharm reduction techniquesharm reductive
Harm reduction, or harm minimization, is a range of public health policies designed to lessen the negative social and/or physical consequences associated with various human behaviors, both legal and illegal.wikipedia
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Supervised injection site

safe injection sitesupervised injection sitessafe injection sites
Supervised injection sites are legally sanctioned, medically supervised facilities designed to address public nuisance associated with drug use and provide a hygienic and stress-free environment for drug consumers.
They are part of a harm reduction approach towards drug problems.

Needle exchange programme

needle exchangeneedle exchange programneedle exchange programs
Needle and syringe programme (NSP) and Opioid Substitution Therapy (OST) outlets in some settings offer basic primary health care.
It is based on the philosophy of harm reduction that attempts to reduce the risk factors for diseases such as HIV/AIDS and hepatitis.

Managed alcohol program

managed alcohol
Toronto's Seaton House became the first homeless shelter in Canada to operate a "wet shelter" on a "managed alcohol" principle in which clients are served a glass of wine once an hour unless staff determine that they are too inebriated to continue.
The program involves providing a regular dose of alcohol to individuals with alcohol addiction, typically at a shelter-based harm reduction centre.

Safe sex

safer sexunprotected sexunsafe sex
Many schools now provide safer sex education to teen and pre-teen students, who may engage in sexual activity.
Safe sex is regarded as a harm reduction strategy aimed at reducing the risk of STI transmission.

Prostitution in New Zealand

New ZealandprostitutionContagious Diseases Act 1869
Since 1999 some countries have legalized prostitution, such as Germany (2002) and New Zealand (2003).
This was based on the harm reduction model of New South Wales (1996).

Insite

safe injection sitefirst legal safe injection siteInsite safe injection site
As did the two existing facilities outside Europe, with Sydney's Medically Supervised Injecting Center (MSIC) established in May 2001 as a trial and Vancouver's Insite, opened in September 2003.
Insite also serves as a resource for those seeking to use a harm reduction approach for people who inject drugs around the world.

Erowid

Erowid CenterEcstasyDataEcstasyData.org
The website Erowid.org collects and publishes information and first-hand experience reports about all kinds of drugs to educate (potential) drug users.
Although its primary focus is on the website, Erowid Center also provides research and data for other harm reduction, health, and educational organizations.

Supply reduction

reduction of drug supplysupply
In the case of recreational drug use, harm reduction is put forward as a useful perspective alongside the more conventional approaches of demand and supply reduction.
Other approaches are demand reduction and harm reduction.

Hepatitis C

Chepatitis-CHCV
Syringe-sharing can lead to infections such as HIV or hepatitis C, which can spread from user to user through the reuse of syringes contaminated with infected blood.
, no approved vaccine protects against contracting hepatitis C. A combination of harm reduction strategies, such as the provision of new needles and syringes and treatment of substance use, decreases the risk of hepatitis C in intravenous drug users by about 75%.

Seaton House

Toronto's Seaton House became the first homeless shelter in Canada to operate a "wet shelter" on a "managed alcohol" principle in which clients are served a glass of wine once an hour unless staff determine that they are too inebriated to continue.
Since 1997, the shelter has operated the Seaton House Annex Harm Reduction Program, a "wet shelter" operated in conjunction with staff from St. Michael's Hospital on the harm reduction principle.

Vancouver

Vancouver, British ColumbiaVancouver, BCVancouver, Canada
As did the two existing facilities outside Europe, with Sydney's Medically Supervised Injecting Center (MSIC) established in May 2001 as a trial and Vancouver's Insite, opened in September 2003.
The NPA fractured over the issue of drug policy in 2002, facilitating a landslide victory for the Coalition of Progressive Electors (COPE) on a harm reduction platform.

Drug rehabilitation

rehabrehabilitationdrug rehab
While its usage is "associated with self-reported reductions in injecting risk behaviour such as syringe sharing, and in public drug use" and "with increased uptake of detoxification and treatment services."
Methadone and buprenorphine are maintenance therapies intended to reduce cravings for opiates, thereby reducing illegal drug use, and the risks associated with it, such as disease, arrest, incarceration, and death, in line with the philosophy of harm reduction.

Drug injection

intravenous drugintravenous drug useinjecting drug user
Many street-level harm-reduction strategies have succeeded in reducing HIV transmission in injecting drug users and sex-workers.
Harm reduction is a public health approach that serves as an alternative to abstinence-only guidance.

Heroin

diamorphinediacetylmorphinesmack
Needle-exchange programmes reduce the likelihood of users of heroin and other drugs sharing the syringes and using them more than once.
Some Australian cities (such as Sydney) have instituted legal diamorphine supervised injecting centers, in line with other wider harm minimization programs.

Recreational drug use

recreational drugdrug userecreational drugs
In the case of recreational drug use, harm reduction is put forward as a useful perspective alongside the more conventional approaches of demand and supply reduction. Harm reduction policies are used to manage behaviors such as recreational drug use and sexual activity in numerous settings that range from services through to geographical regions.

Drug Policy Alliance

Drug Policy FoundationDPA
Some people like Ethan Nadelmann of the Drug Policy Alliance have suggested that organized marijuana legalization would encourage safe use and reveal the factual adverse effects from exposure to this herb's individual chemicals.
The stated priorities of the organization are the decriminalization of responsible drug use, the promotion of harm reduction and treatment in response to drug misuse, and the facilitation of open dialog about drugs between youth, parents, and educators.

Heroin-assisted treatment

heroin maintenanceHeroin Assisted Treatmentdiamorphine maintenance
In Switzerland, heroin assisted treatment is an established programme of the national health system.
Critics, such as the Drug Free America Foundation, have criticized heroin-assisted treatment along with other harm reduction strategies for allegedly creating the perception that certain behaviors can be partaken safely, such as illicit drug use, claiming that this may lead to an increase in that behavior by people who would otherwise be deterred.

Electronic cigarette

e-cigarettese-cigarettevaping
In recent years, the growing use of electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation, whose long-term safety remains uncertain, has sparked an ongoing controversy among medical and public health between those who seek to restrict and discourage all use until more is known and those who see them as a useful approach for harm reduction, whose risks are most unlikely to equal those of smoking tobacco.
The term harm reduction implies any reduction in relative harm from a prior level, even a small reduction such as reducing smoking by one or two cigarettes per day.

Ethan Nadelmann

Ethan A. Nadelmann
Some people like Ethan Nadelmann of the Drug Policy Alliance have suggested that organized marijuana legalization would encourage safe use and reveal the factual adverse effects from exposure to this herb's individual chemicals.
As the Executive Director of the Drug Policy Alliance, Nadelmann takes a public health - rather than a criminal justice - approach to the War on Drugs advocating for the application of harm reduction principles.

Cannabis use disorder

Cannabis dependencemarijuana abusemarijuana addiction
Specific harms associated with cannabis include increased accident-rate while driving under intoxication, dependence, psychosis, detrimental psychosocial outcomes for adolescent users and respiratory disease.
Despite its psychoactive effects, the slower onset of action and longer duration of action of nabilone make it less likely to be abused than cannabis itself, which makes nabilone a promising harm reduction strategy for the treatment of cannabis use disorder.

Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies

MAPSM.A.P.S.
The Zendo Project conducted by the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies uses principles from psychedelic therapy to provide safe places and emotional support for people having difficult experiences on psychedelic drugs at select festivals such as Burning Man, Boom Festival, and Lightning in a Bottle without medical or law enforcement intervention.
MAPS offers educational resources that actively promote psychedelic harm reduction.

Icarus Project

The Icarus Project
With the growing concern about psychiatric medication adverse effects and long-term dependency, peer-run mental health groups Freedom Center and The Icarus Project published the Harm Reduction Guide to Coming Off Psychiatric Drugs.
He also noted the group and its members were inspired by a range of social trends and schools of thought including anarchism, permaculture/sustainable ecology, LGBTQ rights, harm reduction, global justice movement, the Beat Generation, counterculture, and punk rock.

Illicit drug use in Australia

illicit drug useAustralian drug userdrug addicted
During the 1980s, it was one of the first countries to enact the policy of "harm minimisation", which consists of three pillars: "demand reduction", "supply reduction" and "harm reduction".

Prostitution in the Netherlands

prostitutionNetherlandsa law on sex companies
The Dutch prostitution policy, which is one of the most liberal in the world, has gone back and forth on the issue several times.
The reasoning behind this gedoogbeleid (policy of tolerance) was harm reduction, and the belief that the enforcement of the anti-prostitution laws would be counterproductive, and that the best way to protect the women was to tolerate prostitution.

Freedom Center (mental health organization)

Freedom CenterFreedom Center Western Massachusetts
With the growing concern about psychiatric medication adverse effects and long-term dependency, peer-run mental health groups Freedom Center and The Icarus Project published the Harm Reduction Guide to Coming Off Psychiatric Drugs.